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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431432/contrast-sensitivity-and-lateral-inhibition-are-enhanced-with-macular-carotenoid-supplementation
#1
James M Stringham, Kevin J O'Brien, Nicole T Stringham
Purpose: Once deposited in the retina, the so-called macular carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and mesozeaxanthin (MZ) have been shown to enhance visual performance. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether increasing macular pigment optical density (MPOD) could enhance lateral inhibitory processes, and thereby improve contrast sensitivity (CS). Methods: A total of 59 young (18-25 years), healthy individuals participated in this 1-year, double-masked, placebo-controlled study...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430872/optimal-screening-schedules-for-disease-progression-with-application-to-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
Ionut Bebu, John M Lachin
Clinical management of chronic diseases requires periodic evaluations. Subjects transition between various levels of severity of a disease over time, one of which may trigger an intervention that requires treatment. For example, in diabetic retinopathy, patients with type 1 diabetes are evaluated yearly for either the onset of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or clinically significant macular edema (CSME) that would require immediate treatment to preserve vision. Herein, we investigate methods for the selection of personalized cost-effective screening schedules and compare them with a fixed visit schedule (e...
April 20, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430331/factors-influencing-intravitreal-bevacizumab-and-triamcinolone-treatment-in-patients-with-diabetic-macular-edema
#3
Tai K Kim, Hye Y Shin, Su Y Kim, Young C Lee, Mee Y Lee
PURPOSE: To evaluate factors associated with response to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) in diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: Ninety-one eyes of 88 patients diagnosed with DME were enrolled in this retrospective chart review. Group 1 included eyes that showed good response to IVB. Group 2 included eyes that did not respond to IVB but responded to IVTA. Group 3 included eyes that responded to neither. Clinical factors, HbA1c, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings including patterns of macular edema were compared among the 3 groups...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430321/comments-to-visual-and-anatomic-outcomes-after-conversion-to-aflibercept-in-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-12-month-results
#4
Dan Călugăru, Mihai Călugăru
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430181/supervised-learning-and-dimension-reduction-techniques-for-quantification-of-retinal-fluid-in-optical-coherence-tomography-images
#5
A Breger, M Ehler, H Bogunovic, S M Waldstein, A-M Philip, U Schmidt-Erfurth, B S Gerendas
PurposeThe purpose of the present study is to develop fast automated quantification of retinal fluid in optical coherence tomography (OCT) image sets.MethodsWe developed an image analysis pipeline tailored towards OCT images that consists of five steps for binary retinal fluid segmentation. The method is based on feature extraction, pre-segmention, dimension reduction procedures, and supervised learning tools.ResultsFluid identification using our pipeline was tested on two separate patient groups: one associated to neovascular age-related macular degeneration, the other showing diabetic macular edema...
April 21, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429669/what-can-pharmacological-models-of-retinal-degeneration-tell-us
#6
M H Reisenhofer, J Balmer, V Enzmann
Animal models with pharmacologically induced retinal degeneration including sodium iodate (NaIO3) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) have been extensively used in ophthalmic research to investigate retinal degeneration. NaIO3 induces degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) followed by photoreceptor (PRC) cell death, mimicking features of age-related macular degeneration. In contrast, MNU leads to rapid destruction of the PRCs only, enabling the use of the MNU model to investigate degeneration induced in retinitis pigmentosa...
March 31, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429427/the-assessment-of-optical-coherence-tomographic-parameters-in-subjects-with-a-positive-family-history-of-glaucoma
#7
Omer Karti, Bora Yuksel, Umut Duygu Uzunel, Eyyup Karahan, Mehmet Ozgur Zengin, Tuncay Kusbeci
PURPOSE: The aim was to compare the optical coherence tomographic (OCT) parameters of subjects with and without a family history of glaucoma to determine whether positive family history has an impact on retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cell complex analyses. METHODS: Forty eyes of 40 normal subjects with a proven positive family history (first-degree relatives) for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) (study group) and age-matched 40 eyes of 40 control subjects without a family history for glaucoma (control group) were enrolled...
April 20, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428970/changes-in-anterior-segment-parameters-following-pars-plana-vitrectomy-measured-by-ultrasound-biomicroscopy-ubm
#8
Zahra Ghomi, Fariba Ghassemi
Despite being a posterior segment ocular surgery, pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) may also affect anterior segment parameters. We aimed to investigate anterior segment alterations following PPV using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) to visualize the structural anatomy of the eye. In this study, we enrolled phakic patients undergoing PPV (as the sole procedure). The anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens anterior-posterior (AP) diameter, anterior chamber angle, ciliary body dimensions, and integrity of the ciliary zonules and posterior capsule were assessed using UBM before and at least 3 months after PPV...
2017: Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428893/characteristics-and-racial-variations-of-polypoidal-choroidal-vasculopathy-in-tertiary-centers-in-the-united-states-and-united-kingdom
#9
Tarek Alasil, Nelida Munoz, Pearse A Keane, Adnan Tufail, Patrick A Coady, Eduardo Novais, Talisa E de Carlo, Caroline R Baumal, Nadia K Waheed, Jay S Duker, Ron A Adelman
PURPOSE: To evaluate the characteristics and racial variations amongst patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in the United States and the United Kingdom. METHODS: Fundus photos and indocyanine green angiography images were evaluated in a multicenter retrospective study to establish the diagnosis of PCV. Visual acuity (VA) was recorded in ETDRS letter count. RESULTS: Eighty eyes of 71 PCV patients (average age of 69.4 ± 10...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428049/stem-cells-for-retinal-disease-a-perspective-on-the-promise-and-perils
#10
Rajesh C Rao, Vaidehi S Dedania, Mark W Johnson
PURPOSE: To summarize key concepts, and early safety and efficacy signals from clinical trials for stem/progenitor cell-based interventions for retinal disease. DESIGN: Interpretive essay. METHODS: Review and synthesis of selected recent reports of stem/progenitor cell-based approaches for retinal disease, with interpretation and perspective. RESULTS: Stem/progenitor cell-based interventions represent a novel class of potential therapies for retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, inherited retinal dystrophies, and others...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427081/choroidal-thickness-and-microperimetry-sensitivity-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#11
Geoffrey K Broadhead, Thomas Hong, Peter McCluskey, John R Grigg, Timothy E Schlub, Andrew A Chang
PURPOSE: To assess choroidal thickness (CT) and its relationship to retinal sensitivity in mild/moderate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Seventy-two eyes of 51 participants with mild/moderate AMD and 36 eyes of 18 age-matched normal participants were prospectively recruited to undergo enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) imaging and microperimetry (MP) functional assessment. OCT-measured CT and retinal thickness (RT) were matched with MP sensitivity at 13 retinal loci, and correlations were analysed...
April 21, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427075/diabetic-macular-edema-emerging-strategies-and-treatment-algorithms
#12
Elad Moisseiev, Anat Loewenstein
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most common cause of vision loss in diabetic patients, and its management is often a long process requiring frequent monitoring and therapeutic interventions. During the past several decades, numerous treatments have been developed for the treatment of DME. Although many of them have been found to be effective and safe, there is relatively little comparative data, and no established guidelines for the optimal treatment approach exist. In this chapter, the evolution of DME therapies is reviewed, and the current common practice patterns are discussed...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427074/enzymatic-vitreolysis-for-vitreomacular-traction-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#13
Stanislao Rizzo, Daniela Bacherini
Vitreomacular traction (VMT) is one of many possible factors involved in the etiology of diabetic macular edema (DME). Pharmacologic vitreoretinal separation is a potential alternative to vitrectomy for VMT in diabetic retinopathy. Small case series have been published on the use of enzymatic vitreolysis in tractional DME, and demonstrate that the enzymatic release of the posterior vitreous cortex is more likely following the injection of plasmin enzyme. Further prospective and randomized clinical trials are necessary to evaluate the clinical relevance of ocriplasmin for vitreomacular traction in diabetic retinopathy, and additional studies are needed to determine more accurately which patients might benefit most from this treatment and how often and at what concentration ocriplasmin should be administered...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427073/surgical-management-and-techniques
#14
Marco Codenotti, Lorenzo Iuliano, Gisella Maestranzi
Technical advancements have substantially extended the indications for surgery in diabetic retinopathy (DR) during the last 40 years, from the traditional indications including non-clearing vitreous hemorrhage, traction retinal detachment (RD), and traction-rhegmatogenous RD, to epiretinal membrane (ERM), vitreomacular traction, diffuse macular edema, neovascular glaucoma, and anterior hyaloid fibrovascular proliferation. The goals of vitreoretinal surgery in DR are multiple: clearing media opacities, release of traction (anteroposterior and/or tangential), segmentation and/or removal of traction bands, peeling of ERMs, hemostasis, laser photocoagulation, and tamponade of retinal breaks with gas or silicone oil...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427072/anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-injections-the-new-standard-of-care-in-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#15
Xintong Li, Marco A Zarbin, Neelakshi Bhagat
For decades, panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) has been the standard of care for the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The relatively recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) formulations for intravitreal injection has provided a fresh perspective on PDR treatment, especially in eyes with concurrent diabetic macular edema (DME). The anti-VEGF agent ranibizumab has demonstrated a potentially protective effect on eyes with DME in terms of progression to PDR in the RIDE/RISE trials, as has aflibercept in the VIVID/VISTA trials...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427071/is-laser-still-important-in-diabetic-macular-edema-as-primary-or-deferral-therapy
#16
Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Francesco Bandello
Laser treatment was used in the past to reduce the visual loss due to diabetic macular edema. The recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) has completely revolutionized the management of diabetic retinopathy, with a significant improvement in the overall prognosis. Nevertheless, macular laser can still be applied in selected cases characterized by retinal thickness ≤400 microns, high visual acuity, extrafoveal location, and contraindications to the intravitreal approach with anti-VEGF and steroids...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427070/practical-lessons-from-protocol-t-for-the-management-of-diabetic-macular-edema
#17
Lekha Mukkamala, Neelakshi Bhagat, Marco Zarbin
PURPOSE: To review the results of Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network Protocol T, as applied to clinical practice. METHODS: Review of major publications reporting the results of Protocol T, a randomized single-masked (in year-1 only), multicenter clinical trial comparing aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab as treatment option for center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME). The main outcome measures were change in visual acuity (VA), central subfield thickness (CST) on optical coherence tomography, cost effectiveness, burden of care, and safety...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427069/practical-lessons-from-protocol-i-for-the-management-of-diabetic-macular-edema
#18
Lekha Mukkamala, Neelakshi Bhagat, Marco A Zarbin
Protocol I, a multicenter randomized clinical trial, compared the visual outcomes of patients treated with 0.5 mg intravitreal ranibizumab with either prompt or deferred (by 24 weeks laser), 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone with prompt laser, or sham injection with prompt laser for the treatment of center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME). A total of 854 adult patients with type I or II diabetes and any level of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative retinopathy with adequate panretinal photocoagulation, with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 78 to 24 ETDRS letters (Snellen equivalent of 20/32 to 20/320) and visual loss attributed to macular edema, or retinal thickening with central subfield thickness of at least 250 µm by OCT were enrolled...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427068/intravitreal-steroids-in-diabetic-macular-edema
#19
Rosangela Lattanzio, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Francesco Bandello
Over the past decade, great strides have been made in the management of diabetic macular edema (DME). Therapeutic alternatives now include focal/grid laser photocoagulation, vitreo-retinal surgery, and intraocular injection of anti-angiogenic and steroid molecules. Intravitreal administration of steroids represents a fundamental alternative for recalcitrant and naive eyes with DME, especially in those cases when anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are contraindicated or a treatment regimen with fewer intravitreal injections is required...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427067/intravitreal-aflibercept-in-diabetic-macular-edema-long-term-outcomes
#20
Ugo Introini, Giuseppe Casalino
For decades, macular laser photocoagulation has been the standard of care in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). With the relatively recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, DME treatment has entered a new era. VEGF is a well-known pro-angiogenic and pro-permeability factor involved in the pathogenesis of DME. VEGF blockade has proven remarkably effective at reducing DME and improving visual acuity (VA) in eyes with center involved DME causing VA loss in several randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
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