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Scott Bell, Ilaria Kolobova, Liam Crapper, Carl Ernst
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a rare X-linked disorder caused by mutations in HPRT1, an important enzyme in the purine salvage pathway. Symptoms of LNS include dystonia, gout, intellectual disability, and self-mutilation. Despite having been characterized over 50 years ago, it remains unclear precisely how deficits in hypoxanthine and guanine recycling can lead to such a profound neurological phenotype. Several studies have proposed different hypotheses regarding the etiology of this disease, and several treatments have been tried in patients, though none have led to a satisfactory explanation of the disease...
November 2016: Molecular Syndromology
João Miguel Freire, Inês Rego de Figueiredo, Javier Valle, Ana Salomé Veiga, David Andreu, Francisco J Enguita, Miguel A R B Castanho
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder caused by a single gene mutation, a reciprocal translocation that originates the Bcr-Abl gene with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. As a monogenic disease, it is an optimum target for RNA silencing therapy. We developed a siRNA-based therapeutic approach in which the siRNA is delivered by pepM or pepR, two cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) derived from the dengue virus capsid protein. These peptides have a dual role: siRNA delivery into cells and direct action as bioportides, i...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Yanli Li, Huifang Lu, Yizhen Ji, Sufang Wu, Yongbin Yang
The selection of suitable reference genes is crucial for proper interpretation of RT-qPCR data. To date, a systematic screening for reference genes in placental tissues from intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is missing. Eighteen candidate reference genes were investigated to determine their applicability by descriptive statistics and published algorithms. HPRT1, YWHAZ and PUM1 were found to be the most stable genes and could be used for normalization in gene expression study of placentas from ICP...
December 2016: Placenta
Taniya Mitra, Ivana Bilic, Michael Hess, Dieter Liebhart
Evaluation of reference genes for expression studies in chickens and turkeys is very much limited and unavailable for various infectious models. In this study, eight candidate reference genes HMBS, HPRT1, TBP, VIM, TFRC, RPLP0, RPL13 and RPS7 were evaluated by five different algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper©, delta CT, RefFinder) to assess their stability. In order to analyze a broad variation of tissues, spleen, liver, caecum and caecal tonsil of different aged specific pathogen free (SPF) layer chickens and commercial turkeys, uninfected or infected with the extracellular pathogen Histomonas meleagridis, were included...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Research
Shimpei Baba, Takashi Saito, Yasukazu Yamada, Eri Takeshita, Noriko Nomura, Kenichiro Yamada, Nobuaki Wakamatsu, Masayuki Sasaki
Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), encoded by the HPRT1. To date, nearly all types of mutations have been reported in the whole gene; however, duplication mutations are rare. We here report the case of a 9-month-old boy with LND. He showed developmental delay, athetosis, and dystonic posture from early infancy, but no self-injurious behaviors. Hyperuricemia was detected, and his HPRT enzyme activity in erythrocytes was completely deficient...
October 18, 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
Anna Vavřínová, Michal Behuliak, Josef Zicha
OBJECTIVE: Catecholaminergic system plays an important role in blood pressure regulation and hypertension development. The available information concerning mRNA expression of catecholaminergic system genes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are often contradictory. This might be due to various reference genes used as internal controls. We therefore searched for suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia of SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, which would enable reliable comparison of mRNA expression of genes of catecholaminergic system between these strains...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Anna Vavřínová, Michal Behuliak, Josef Zicha
OBJECTIVE: Catecholaminergic system plays an important role in blood pressure regulation and hypertension development. The available information concerning mRNA expression of catecholaminergic system genes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are often contradictory. This might be due to various reference genes used as internal controls. We therefore searched for suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia of SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, which would enable reliable comparison of mRNA expression of genes of catecholaminergic system between these strains...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Bruno Paiva Dos Santos, Luciana Fraga da Costa Diesel, Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles, Nance Beyer Nardi, Melissa Camassola
This study was designed to (i) identify stable reference genes for the analysis of gene expression during in vitro differentiation of rat adipose stromal cells (rASCs), (ii) recommend stable genes for individual treatment conditions, and (iii) validate these genes by comparison with normalization results from stable and unstable reference genes. On the basis of a literature review, eight genes were selected: Actb, B2m, Hprt1, Ppia, Rplp0, Rpl13a, Rpl5, and Ywhaz. Genes were ranked according to their stability under different culture conditions as assessed using GenNorm, NormFinder, and RefFinder algorithms...
December 15, 2016: Gene
Anton G Henssen, Eileen Jiang, Jiali Zhuang, Luca Pinello, Nicholas D Socci, Richard Koche, Mithat Gonen, Camila M Villasante, Scott A Armstrong, Daniel E Bauer, Zhiping Weng, Alex Kentsis
BACKGROUND: Numerous human genes encode potentially active DNA transposases or recombinases, but our understanding of their functions remains limited due to shortage of methods to profile their activities on endogenous genomic substrates. RESULTS: To enable functional analysis of human transposase-derived genes, we combined forward chemical genetic hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1) screening with massively parallel paired-end DNA sequencing and structural variant genome assembly and analysis...
2016: BMC Genomics
Xiaodong Su, Xinglei Yao, Zhao Sun, Qin Han, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Recently, it has been suggested that cellular senescence is associated with stem cell exhaustion, which reduces the regenerative potential of tissues and contributes to aging and age-related diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) attract a large amount of attention in stem cell research and regeneration medicine because they possess multiple advantages and senescent MSCs could be one of the most useful stem cell models in aging studies. It is important to quantitatively evaluate senescence markers to both identify and study the mechanisms involved in MSC senescence...
September 15, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Carina Cohen, Mariana Ferreira Leal, Paulo Santoro Belangero, Eduardo Antônio Figueiredo, Marília Cardoso Smith, Carlos Vicente Andreoli, Alberto de Castro Pochini, Moises Cohen, Benno Ejnisman, Flávio Faloppa
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated mRNA expression levels of genes that encode TGF-β1; the TGF-β1 receptor; the collagen-modifying enzymes LOX, PLOD1, and PLOD2; and the extracellular matrix proteins COMP, FN1, TNC and TNXB in synovial/capsule specimens from patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Possible associations between the measured mRNA levels and clinical parameters were also investigated. METHODS: We obtained glenohumeral joint synovium/capsule specimens from 9 patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis who had not shown improvement in symptoms after 5 months of physiotherapy...
July 2016: Clinics
E Stur, R S Reis, L P Agostini, A M A Silva-Conforti, I D Louro
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), an enzyme encoded by the HPRT1 gene. The classic disease phenotype described by Lesch and Nyhan in 1964 includes hyperuricemia, mental retardation, severe motor deficiency, and recurring self-mutilation. Here, we report the case of a family with 4 affected males and several female obligate carriers. In 1989, Fujimori et al. reported on a patient diagnosed with LNS who had an HPRT variant thereafter codenamed HPRTYale...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Khue Vu Nguyen, William L Nyhan
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a rare X-linked inherited neurogenetic disorder of purine metabolism in which the enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt) is defective. The authors report a novel mutation which led to HGprt-related neurological dysfunction (HND) in two brothers from the same family with a missense mutation in exon 6 of the coding region of the HPRT1 gene: c.437T>C, p.L146S. Molecular diagnosis discloses the genetic heterogeneity of the HPRT1 gene responsible for HGprt deficiency...
August 2, 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
Malgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka, Katarzyna Hotowy, Elzbieta Czapinska, Magdalena Podkowik, Jacek Bania, Andrzej Gamian, Iwona Bednarz-Misa
Careful selection of housekeeping genes (HKG) is prerequisite to yield sound qPCR results. HKG expression varies in response to hypoxia but the effect of manipulations of serum availability, a common experimental procedure, remains unknown. Also, no data on HKG expression stability across colon adenocarcinoma lines that would aid selection of normalizers suitable for studies involving several lines are available. Thus, we evaluated the effect of serum availability on the expression of commonly used HKG (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, GUSB, HPRT1, IPO8, MRPL19, PGK1, PPIA, RPLP0, RPS23, SDHA, TBP, UBC, and YWHAZ) in seven colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (Caco-2, DLD-1, HCT116, HT29, Lovo, SW480, and SW620)...
December 2016: Cytotechnology
X N Wang, Q W Yang, Z W Du, T Yu, Y G Qin, Y Song, M Xu, J C Wang
This study aimed to evaluate 12 genes (18S, GAPDH, B2M, ACTB, ALAS1, GUSB, HPRT1, PBGD, PPIA, PUM1, RPL29, and TBP) for their reliability and stability as reference sequences for real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) isolated from patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH). BMSCs were isolated from 20 ANFH patients divided into four groups according to etiology, and four donors with femoral neck fractures. Total RNA was isolated from BMSCs and reverse transcribed into complementary DNA, which served as a template for RT-qPCR...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Lenka Petru, Katerina Pavelcova, Ivan Sebesta, Blanka Stiburkova
Hyperuricemia depends on the balance of endogenous production and renal excretion of uric acid. Transporters for urate are located in the proximal tubule where uric acid is secreted and extensively reabsorbed: secretion is principally ensured by the highly variable ABCG2 gene. Enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) plays a central role in purine metabolism and its deficiency is an X-linked inherited metabolic disorder associated with clinical manifestations of purine overproduction. Here we report the case of a middle-aged man with severe chronic tophaceous gout with a poor response to allopurinol and requiring repeated surgical intervention...
September 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Henrique Sulzbach Sulzbach DE Oliveira, Vanderlei Biolchi, Helouise Richardt Richardt Medeiros, Daiane Bizerra Gandor Bizerra Gandor Jantsch, Luciana Knabben Knabben DE Oliveira Becker Delving, Roberto Reckziegel, Márcia Inês Goettert, Ilma Simoni Brum, Adriane Pozzobon
Helicobacter pylori infects ~50% of the world population, causing chronic gastritis and other forms of cellular damage. The present study assessed the influence of H. pylori on the mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor-κB1 (NFKB1), p38α and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in human gastric mucosa in a southern Brazilian population. Human gastric tissue was collected by upper endoscopy and H. pylori diagnosis was performed using a rapid urease test and histological analysis. Total RNA was extracted and purified for subsequent cDNA synthesis and analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
June 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Florenza Lüder Ripoli, Annika Mohr, Susanne Conradine Hammer, Saskia Willenbrock, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein, Silvia Hennecke, Hugo Murua Escobar, Ingo Nolte
Mammary neoplasms are the tumors most affecting female dogs and women. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are an invaluable source of archived biological material. Fresh frozen (FF) tissue is considered ideal for gene expression analysis. However, strategies based on FFPE material offer several advantages. Branched-DNA assays permit a reliable and fast workflow when analyzing gene expression. The aim of this study was to assess the comparability of the branched-DNA assay when analyzing certain gene expression patterns between FF and FFPE samples in canine mammary tumors...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Luciana Fraga da Costa Diesel, Bruno Paiva dos Santos, Bruno Corrêa Bellagamba, Angelo Syrillo Pretto Neto, Pedro Bins Ely, Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles, Nance Beyer Nardi, Melissa Camassola
Quantitative real-time PCR can detect variations in gene expression. The identification of the stable reference genes (RGs) is necessary to evaluate the expression of specific genes of interest under various conditions in many cell types, including human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs). In this study, we used the algorithms BestKeeper, NormFinder, geNorm, and RefFinder to investigate the stability of 15 potential RGs (B2M, eEF1A1, GAPDH, H2AFZ, HMBS, HPRT1, PGK1, PPIA, RPL5, SDHA, TBP, TKT, TRFC, TUBB, and UBC) in hASCs during control, adipo-, chondro-, and osteogenic differentiation for 28 days...
2015: Journal of Stem Cells
Zheng Min, Ma Junwu
Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritis caused by hyperuricaemia, which is affected by both genetic factors and environmental factors. Early researches show that a few of rare monogenic mutations, such as PRPS1 and HPRT1 mutations, lead to abnormal purine anabolism and then cause hyperuricaemia and gout. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of susceptibility loci and/or candidate genes associated with hyperuricemia and gout. Loss-of-function mutations in SLC2A9, SLC22A11, and SLC22A12 cause hereditary hypouricaemia, while their overexpression may increase the reabsorption of uric acid...
April 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
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