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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095297/dual-estrogenic-regulation-of-the-nuclear-progestin-receptor-and-spermatogonial-renewal-during-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-spermatogenesis
#1
François Chauvigné, Janmejay Parhi, Judith Ollé, Joan Cerdà
Studies in teleosts suggest that progestins have crucial functions during early spermatogenesis. However, the role of the different progestin receptors in these mechanisms is poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the expression pattern and hormonal regulation of the classical nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr) in the gilthead seabream at three different stages of spermatogenesis: the resting (postspawning) phase, onset of spermatogenesis, and spermiation. Immunolocalization experiments using a seabream specific Pgr antibody revealed that the receptor was expressed in Sertoli and Leydig cells, and also in a subset of spermatogonia type A, throughout spermatogenesis...
January 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064076/drospirenone-reduces-inflammatory-cytokines-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-vegf-and-nerve-growth-factor-ngf-expression-in-human-endometriotic-stromal-cells
#2
Tomoko Makabe, Kaori Koga, Mariko Miyashita, Arisa Takeuchi, Fusako Sue, Ayumi Taguchi, Yoko Urata, Gentaro Izumi, Masashi Takamura, Miyuki Harada, Tetsuya Hirata, Yasushi Hirota, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Tomoyuki Fujii, Yutaka Osuga
Drospirenone has been used as a progestin in oral contraceptives with ethinyl estradiol (DRSP/EE) and is expected to regulate endometriosis, however, the direct effects of drospirenone on endometriosis have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-neurogenic effects of drospirenone on endometriotic stromal cells (ESC). ESC isolated from endometriotic tissues were obtained from patients during laparoscopic surgery for ovarian endometriosis. ESC were exposed to IL-1β and cultured in the absence or presence of drospirenone...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062551/new-stimulation-regimens-endogenous-and-exogenous-progesterone-use-to-block-the-lh-surge-during-ovarian-stimulation-for-ivf
#3
REVIEW
Nathalie Massin
BACKGROUND: The advent of embryo and oocyte vitrification today gives reproductive specialists an opportunity to consider new strategies for improving the practice and results of IVF attempts. As the freezing of entire cohorts does not compromise, and may even improve, the results of IVF attempts, it is possible to break away from the standard sequence of stimulation-retrieval-transfer. The constraints associated with ovarian stimulation in relation to the potential harmful effects of the hormonal environment on endometrial receptivity can be avoided...
January 5, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050959/fertility-preservation-in-endometrial-cancer-is-it-safe-review-of-the-literature
#4
REVIEW
Márcia Mendonça Carneiro, Rívia Mara Lamaita, Márcia Cristina França Ferreira, Agnaldo Lopes Silva-Filho
Almost 5% of women with endometrial cancer are under age 40, and they often have well-differentiated endometrioid estrogen-dependent tumors. Cancer survival rates have improved over the last decades so strategies to avoid or reduce the reproductive damage caused by oncologic treatment are needed. We reviewed the published literature to find evidence to answer the following questions: How should we manage women in reproductive age with endometrial cancer? How safe is fertility preservation in endometrial cancer? Can pregnancy influence endometrial cancer recurrence? What are the fertility sparing options available? Progestins may be prescribed after careful evaluation and counseling...
December 1, 2016: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043194/differential-regulation-of-intestinal-efflux-transporters-by-pregnancy-in-mice
#5
Jamie E Moscovitz, Gabriel Yarmush, Guadalupe Herrera-Garcia, Grace L Guo, Lauren M Aleksunes
1. In the intestines, the nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) and pregnane X receptor (Pxr) regulate the transcription of metabolizing enzymes and transporters that dictate the absorption of nutrients and xenobiotics. 2. Here, we sought to determine whether Fxr and Pxr signaling pathways are disrupted in response to high-circulating concentrations of steroid hormones late in pregnancy leading to altered transporter expression. To test this, ileum were collected from virgin and pregnant C57BL/6 mice on gestation days 14, 17 and 19...
January 3, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041990/estimating-systemic-exposure-to-levonorgestrel-from-an-oral-contraceptive
#6
Cale N Basaraba, Carolyn L Westhoff, Malcolm C Pike, Renu Nandakumar, Serge Cremers
OBJECTIVE: The gold standard for measuring oral contraceptive (OC) pharmacokinetics is the 24-h steady-state area-under-the-curve (AUC). We conducted this study to assess whether limited sampling at steady state or measurements following use of one or two OCs could provide an adequate proxy in epidemiological studies for the progestin 24-h steady-state AUC of a particular OC. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a 13-sample, 24-h pharmacokinetic study on both day 1 and day 21 of the first cycle of a monophasic OC containing 30 μg ethinyl estradiol and 150 μg levonorgestrel (LNG) in 17 normal-weight healthy white women, and a single-dose 9-sample study of the same OC after a one-month washout...
December 29, 2016: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025764/a-prospective-study-of-reproductive-factors-and-exogenous-hormone-use-in-relation-to-ovarian-cancer-risk-among-black-women
#7
Traci N Bethea, Julie R Palmer, Lucile L Adams-Campbell, Lynn Rosenberg
PURPOSE: Extensive data in White women have linked oral contraceptive use, tubal ligation, and parity to reduced risk of ovarian cancer; results on postmenopausal female hormone use are mixed. Few studies, all of which are case-control studies, have been undertaken among Black women. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess associations of reproductive factors and exogenous hormones with ovarian cancer among Black women. METHODS: During follow-up from 1995 to 2013 in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study, 115 incident cases of ovarian cancer were identified...
December 27, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024920/hepatic-adenomas-in-adolescents-and-young-women-with-endometriosis-treated-with-norethindrone-acetate
#8
P C Brady, S A Missmer, M R Laufer
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis-ectopic implantation of endometrial-like tissue-affects 10% of female adolescents and adults. First-line treatment includes progesterone-only (such as norethindrone acetate, NET-A) or combined estrogen/progestin oral contraceptive pills. Estrogen-containing contraceptives confer increased risk of hepatic adenomas, while the association with NET-A is very rarely reported. CASE: Three adolescents with Stage I-II endometriosis managed with NET-A (up to 15 mg/day for 28-78 months) were diagnosed with hepatic adenomas at ages 17-22 years...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007532/role-of-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-gper-gpr30-in-maintenance-of-meiotic-arrest-in-fish-oocytes
#9
REVIEW
Peter Thomas
An essential role for GPER (formerly known as GPR30) in regulating mammalian reproduction has not been identified to date, although it has shown to be involved in the regulation a broad range of other estrogen-dependent functions. In contrast, an important reproductive role for GPER in the maintenance of oocyte meiotic arrest has been identified in teleost fishes, which is briefly reviewed here. Recent studies have clearly shown that ovarian follicle production of estradiol-17β (E2) maintains meiotic arrest in several teleost species through activation of GPER coupled to a stimulatory G protein (Gs) on oocyte plasma membranes resulting in stimulation of cAMP production and maintenance of elevated cAMP levels...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006838/menopausal-hormone-therapy-and-the-risk-of-esophageal-and-gastric-cancer
#10
Nele Brusselaers, John Maret-Ouda, Peter Konings, Hashem B El-Serag, Jesper Lagergren
A protective effect of female sex hormones has been suggested to explain the male predominance in esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma, but evidence is lacking. We aimed to test whether menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) decreases the risk of these tumors. For comparison, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was also assessed. This population-based matched cohort study included all women who had ever used systemic MHT in Sweden in 2005-2012. A comparison cohort of non-users of MHT was matched to the MHT-users regarding age, parity, thrombotic events, hysterectomy, diabetes, obesity, smoking-related diseases and alcohol-related diseases...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002850/medical-management-of-endometriosis-in-patients-with-chronic-pelvic-pain
#11
Mohamed A Bedaiwy, Catherine Allaire, Paul Yong, Sukinah Alfaraj
Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain in women of reproductive age. Traditional medical therapies are hormonal in nature, including estrogen-progestin contraceptives, progestins, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. Other hormonal options are androgens and aromatase inhibitors, with research also suggesting a possible role for GnRH antagonists and selective progesterone receptor modulators. Other than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, further work is required for nonhormonal therapies such as antiangiogenic and immune-modulating drugs...
December 21, 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999118/effect-of-pretreatment-with-oral-contraceptives-and-progestins-on-ivf-outcomes-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
Daimin Wei, Yuhua Shi, Jing Li, Ze Wang, Lin Zhang, Yun Sun, Hong Zhou, Yuping Xu, Chunxiang Wu, Ling Liu, Qiongfang Wu, Lili Zhuang, Yanzhi Du, Weiping Li, Heping Zhang, Richard S Legro, Zi-Jiang Chen
STUDY QUESTION: Do oral contraceptives (OCs) and progestins impact live birth rate of IVF when used for cycle scheduling in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: OCs used for scheduling IVF cycle were associated with lowered rates of pregnancy and live birth after fresh embryo transfer, whereas progestins used for this purpose yield higher rates of pregnancy and live birth than OCs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Due to oligo-menorrhea in PCOS, OCs and progestin are extensively used to schedule the start of an IVF cycle in women with PCOS...
December 19, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988268/unscheduled-vaginal-bleeding-with-progestin-only-contraceptive-use
#13
REVIEW
Rachel E Zigler, Colleen McNicholas
Nearly 20% of women using contraception are using progestin-only contraception, including progestin-only pills, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, subdermal etonogestrel implants, and levonorgestrel intrauterine devices. This number will continue to grow with the increased provision of long-acting reversible contraception. Although overall satisfaction among women using progestin-only contraception is high, dissatisfaction and discontinuation may be associated with unscheduled bleeding and spotting. The exact etiology of irregular bleeding associated with progestin-containing contraceptives is not completely understood, yet several mechanisms have been suggested...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977304/pharmacodynamics-of-combined-estrogen-progestin-oral-contraceptives-effects-on-metabolism
#14
Carlo Bastianelli, Manuela Farris, Elena Rosato, Ivo Brosens, Giuseppe Benagiano
The risk-benefit profile of any pharmacologic agent must be evaluated against risks connected with the events to be avoided. This is especially true in the case of hormonal contraception, not intended to combat a disease. Over the six decades during which their use has progressively expanded, the risk-benefit profile of combined oral contraceptives (COC) has substantially changed, with new combinations, dosages and mode of administration appearing on the market. Area covered: In a series of articles, recent information on the complex issue of COC risks and benefits will be reviewed in the hope of providing an updated picture...
December 15, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957780/an-uhplc-ms-ms-quantitative-method-for-trace-analysis-of-potential-endocrine-disrupting-steroid-hormones-in-estuarine-sediments
#15
Vanisree Mulabagal, Caleb Wilson, Joel S Hayworth
RATIONALE: Estuaries are dynamic ecosystems, providing vital habitat for unique organisms of great ecological and commercial importance. The influx of natural and synthetic steroid hormones into estuaries poses risks to these organisms and to broader ecosystem health. However, detecting these trace level pollutants in estuarine water and sediment requires improved analytical techniques. METHODS: We describe an optimized UHPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of four classes of steroid hormones (estrogens, glucocorticoids, androgens and progestins) in sediment samples collected from an Alabama estuary...
December 13, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936531/endocrinology-update-hirsutism
#16
Joel J Heidelbaugh
Hirsutism is defined as excessive terminal hair growth, such as coarse sexual or secondary hair, that typically appears in a male growth pattern in androgen-dependent areas of the female body. It can occur in men and women. Common etiologies include polycystic ovary syndrome, idiopathic hyperandrogenemia, idiopathic hirsutism, adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, androgen-secreting tumors, iatrogenic hirsutism, acromegaly, Cushing syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, and hypo- or hyperthyroidism. Diagnostic guidelines are predominantly aimed at premenopausal women but an appropriate evaluation for underlying endocrinopathies in postmenopausal women and men may be required...
December 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932442/contraceptive-sales-in-the-setting-of-the-zika-virus-epidemic
#17
Luis Bahamondes, Moazzam Ali, Ilza Monteiro, Arlete Fernandes
STUDY QUESTION: Has there been any influence of the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak on the sales of contraceptive methods in Brazil? SUMMARY ANSWER: Contraceptive sales in the 24 months of evaluation showed little variation and no significant change has been observed since the ZIKV outbreak. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Transmission of ZIKV is primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; however, sexual transmission has also been described. The association of several birth defects and the ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been established, and it was estimated in Bahia, Brazil that the infection rate could range from 10% to 80%...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924667/contraceptive-practices-in-women-with-sickle-cell-disease
#18
Natália S Carvalho, Josefina Pellegrini Braga, Márcia Barbieri, Maria R Torloni, Maria S Figueiredo, Cristina A F Guazzelli
This was a cross-sectional study of sexually active women with sickle-cell disease (SCD) managed at São Paulo Federal University during a one-year period. A total of 54 women were included. Mean age was 32.0 (11.2, standard deviation) years and almost 95% were black or of mixed racial ancestry. Almost 80% reported a history of multiple blood transfusions, 50% had kidney disease and 17% had a history of thrombosis. Over 80% of them had used some form of contraception, mostly combined hormonal contraceptive (52%) or progestin-only contraceptives (46%)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916205/efficacy-and-safety-of-transdermal-testosterone-in-postmenopausal-women-with-hypoactive-sexual-desire-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Chiara Achilli, Jyotsna Pundir, Parimalam Ramanathan, Luca Sabatini, Haitham Hamoda, Nick Panay
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and summarize the existing evidence related to the efficacy and safety of transdermal T in postmenopausal women for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). DESIGN: Systematic reviews and meta-analysis. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Seven randomized controlled trials enrolled 3,035 participants; 1,350 women were randomized to treatment with T patch, and 1,379 women were randomized to placebo...
December 1, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911853/recurrence-of-cervical-cancer-and-its-resistance-to-progestin-therapy-in-a-mouse-model
#20
Fabiola F Mehta, Seunghan Baik, Sang-Hyuk Chung
Studies using K14E6/K14E7 transgenic mice expressing E6 and E7 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) have demonstrated that estrogen (E2) is required for the genesis and growth of cervical cancer. Our prior study using the same mouse model has showed that progestin drug medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) promotes regression of primary cervical cancer. In the present study, we use the same transgenic mouse model to determine whether the cancer recurs after MPA therapy. Cervical cancer recurred even if MPA treatment was continued...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
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