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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815389/spine-bone-mineral-density-increases-after-6%C3%A2-months-of-exclusive-lactation-even-in-women-who-keep-breastfeeding
#1
Sandra Cooke-Hubley, Beth J Kirby, James E Valcour, Gerald Mugford, Jonathan D Adachi, Christopher S Kovacs
This pilot study enrolled 31 women who had breastfed exclusively for 6 months. Lumbar and thoracic BMD increased 4 and 5%, respectively. Femoral neck and total body BMD did not change. Return of menses and progestin-only pill use were two potential signals that predicted a greater increase in BMD. PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: The skeleton is resorbed during lactation to provide much of the calcium content of milk. After lactation ceases, these deficits in skeletal mineral content are largely restored, such that lactation has a neutral or protective effect against the long-term risk of low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, and fragility fractures...
August 16, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803147/ovarian-hormones-sleep-and-cognition-across-the-adult-female-lifespan-an-integrated-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Nicole J Gervais, Jessica A Mong, Agnès Lacreuse
Loss of ovarian function in women is associated with sleep disturbances and cognitive decline, which suggest a key role for estrogens and/or progestins in modulating these symptoms. The effects of ovarian hormones on sleep and cognitive processes have been studied in separate research fields that seldom intersect. However, sleep has a considerable impact on cognitive function. Given the tight connections between sleep and cognition, ovarian hormones may influence selective aspects of cognition indirectly, via the modulation of sleep...
August 9, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802241/the-9-d-cidr-pg-protocol-ii-characterization-of-endocrine-parameters-ovarian-dynamics-and-pregnancy-rates-to-fixed-time-ai-following-use-of-long-term-cidr-based-estrus-synchronization-among-mature-beef-cows
#3
J M Thomas, J W C Locke, B E Bishop, J M Abel, M R Ellersieck, S E Poock, M F Smith, D J Patterson
An experiment was designed to evaluate endocrine parameters, ovarian dynamics, and pregnancy rates to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) following the 9-d CIDR-PG protocol in comparison to the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol. While both are long-term protocols using CIDR treatment for presynchronization, the 9-d CIDR-PG protocol differs from the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol in that prostaglandin F2α (PG) is administered at CIDR insertion and removal to facilitate a decreased length of progestin treatment and potentially enhance response to the presynchronization treatment...
August 3, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802234/paqr3-overexpression-suppresses-the-aggressive-phenotype-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells-via-inhibition-of-erk-signaling
#4
Ge Bai, Jianhu Chu, Mayinur Eli, Yongxing Bao, Hao Wen
Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member 3 (PAQR3) has exhibited anticancer activity in multiple malignancies. However, its expression and function in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still elusive. In this work, we examined the expression of PAQR3 in 40 surgically resected ESCC specimens and their adjacent normal tissues. The expression of PAQR3 in ESCC cell lines was measured after treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR). The effects of overexpression of PAQR3 on cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion, and tumorigenesis were investigated...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801053/cervical-mucus-and-contraception-what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t
#5
REVIEW
Leo Han, Rebecca Taub, Jeffrey T Jensen
The properties of cervical mucus vary in response to both natural and artificial hormonal changes. During ovulatory cycles, cervical mucus becomes increasingly fluid and favorable to sperm penetration as estradiol levels increase. Following ovulation, as estradiol levels decrease and progesterone increases, the mucus increases in viscosity and becomes impenetrable to sperm. Cervical mucus thickening also occurs in response to synthetic progestins administered by various routes, and this is commonly believed to represent the essential contraceptive mechanism of progestin-only methods that do not block ovulation...
August 8, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783542/menopausal-hormone-therapy-and-cancer-risk-an-overestimated-risk
#6
Johanna Simin, Rulla Tamimi, Jesper Lagergren, Hans-Olov Adami, Nele Brusselaers
AIM: We aimed to assess the overall cancer risk among contemporary menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) users in Sweden and the risk for different cancer types. METHODS: A nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study including all 290,186 women aged ≥ 40 years having used systemic MHT during the study period (July 2005 and December 2012), compared with the Swedish female background population. MHT ever-use (all MHT, oestrogen-only MHT [E-MHT] and oestrogen plus progestin MHT [EP-MHT]) was based on the nationwide Prescribed Drug Registry...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777967/optimal-routes-of-administration-vehicles-and-timing-of-progesterone-treatment-for-inhibition-of-delivery-during-pregnancy
#7
Dajun Fang, Mario Moreno, Robert E Garfield, Ruben Kuon, Huimin Xia
OBJECTIVES: Progestins, notably progesterone (P4) and 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, are presently used to treat pregnant women at risk of preterm birth. The aim of this study was to assess the optimal treatment options for progesterone (P4) to delay delivery using a sensitive bioassay for progesterone. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant rats, known to be highly sensitive to progestins, were treated with P4, including Prochieve(®) (also known as Crinone(®)), in various vehicles from day 13 of gestation and in late gestation, days 19 to 22, and delivery times noted...
June 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759864/characterization-of-the-phase-i-and-phase-ii-metabolic-profile-of-tolvaptan-by-in-vitro-studies-and-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-profiling-relevance-to-doping-control-analysis
#8
Monica Mazzarino, Valeria Buccilli, Xavier de la Torre, Ilaria Fiacco, Amelia Palermo, Daniele Ughi, Francesco Botrè
Phase I and phase II biochemical reactions involved in the biotransformation pathways of tolvaptan were characterized by LC-MS-based techniques and in vitro models to identify the most appropriate marker(s) of intake. The effects of physiological and non-physiological factors on the metabolic profile of tolvaptan were also evaluated. In vitro approaches were based on the use of pooled human liver microsomes and recombinant isoforms of cytochrome P450 and uridine diphospho glucuronosyl-transferase. Sample preparation included liquid/liquid extraction at neutral pH with tert-butyl methyl-ether...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758016/norgestimate-inhibits-staphylococcal-biofilm-formation-and-resensitizes-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-to-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics
#9
Yutaka Yoshii, Ken-Ichi Okuda, Satomi Yamada, Mari Nagakura, Shinya Sugimoto, Tetsuo Nagano, Takayoshi Okabe, Hirotatsu Kojima, Takeo Iwamoto, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Yoshimitsu Mizunoe
Formation of bacterial biofilms on medical devices can cause severe or fatal infectious diseases. In particular, biofilm-associated infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are difficult to eradicate because the biofilm is strongly resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response. There is no effective treatment for biofilm-associated infectionss, except for surgical removal of contaminated medical devices followed by antibiotic therapy. Here we show that norgestimate, an acetylated progestin, effectively inhibits biofilm formation by staphylococcal strains, including methicillin-resistant S...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755579/estradiol-cypionate-aided-treatment-for-experimentally-induced-ascending-placentitis-in-mares
#10
Bruna R Curcio, Igor F Canisso, Fernanda M Pazinato, Luciana A Borba, Lorena S Feijó, Vitoria Muller, Ilusca S Finger, Ramiro E Toribio, Carlos E W Nogueira
The overall goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of various therapeutic combinations of estradiol cypionate (ECP, a long-acting estrogen) and altrenogest (ALT, a long-acting progestin) in addition to basic treatment for placentitis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS) and flunixin meglumine (FM). Specific outcomes measured in this experiment were (i) time from induction of bacterial placentitis to delivery, and foal parameters (high-risk, survival, and birth weight); and (ii) serum steroid concentrations (progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 17β-estradiol, and cortisol) in response to treatment...
March 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750087/risk-prediction-of-developing-venous-thrombosis-in-combined-oral-contraceptive-users
#11
Aaron McDaid, Emmanuelle Logette, Valérie Buchillier, Maude Muriset, Pierre Suchon, Thierry Daniel Pache, Goranka Tanackovic, Zoltán Kutalik, Joëlle Michaud
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complex multifactorial disease influenced by genetic and environmental risk factors. An example for the latter is the regular use of combined oral contraceptives (CC), which increases the risk to develop VTE by 3 to 7 fold, depending on estrogen dosage and the type of progestin present in the pill. One out of 1'000 women using CC develops thrombosis, often with life-long consequences; a risk assessment is therefore necessary prior to such treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747625/the-regulation-of-hh-gli1-signaling-cascade-involves-gsk3%C3%AE-mediated-mechanism-in-estrogen-derived-endometrial-hyperplasia
#12
Jyoti Bala Kaushal, Pushplata Sankhwar, Suparna Kumari, Pooja Popli, Vinay Shukla, Mohd Kamil Hussain, Kanchan Hajela, Anila Dwivedi
The present study was undertaken to explore the functional involvement of Hh signaling and its regulatory mechanism in endometrial hyperplasia. Differential expression of Hh signaling molecules i.e., Ihh, Shh, Gli1 or Gsk3β was observed in endometrial hyperplasial (EH) cells as compared to normal endometrial cells. Estradiol induced the expression of Hh signaling molecules and attenuated the expression of Gsk3β whereas anti-estrogen (K1) or progestin (MPA) suppressed these effects in EH cells. Cyclopamine treatment or Gli1 siRNA knockdown suppressed the growth of EH cells and reduced the expression of proliferative markers...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746373/zika-virus-preferentially-replicates-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-after-vaginal-inoculation-of-rhesus-macaques
#13
Timothy Carroll, Ming Lo, Marion Lanteri, Joseph Dutra, Katie Zarbock, Paola Silveira, Tracy Rourke, Zhong-Min Ma, Linda Fritts, Shelby O'Connor, Michael Busch, Christopher J Miller
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause severe defects in an infected fetus. ZIKV is also transmitted by sexual contact, although the relative importance of sexual transmission is unclear. To better understand the role of sexual transmission in ZIKV pathogenesis, a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of vaginal transmission was developed. ZIKV was readily transmitted to mature cycling female rhesus macaque (RM) by vaginal inoculation with 104-106 plaque-forming units (PFU). However, there was variability in susceptibility between the individual RM with 1->8 vaginal inoculations required to establish infection...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744156/cholesterol-biosynthesis-inhibitor-ro-48-8071-reduces-progesterone-receptor-expression-and-inhibits-progestin-dependent-stem-cell-like-cell-growth-in-hormone-dependent-human-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Yayun Liang, Sandy Goyette, Salman M Hyder
Clinical trials and studies have shown that postmenopausal women undergoing combination hormone replacement therapy containing estrogen and progestin have an increased risk of breast cancer compared with women taking estrogen or placebo alone. Using animal models, we have previously shown that synthetic progestins, including medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), which is widely used clinically, accelerate breast cancer tumor growth and promote metastasis. Furthermore, we have found that MPA elevates CD44 protein expression and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, two markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs), and increases mammosphere formation, another hallmark of stem cells, in hormone-dependent T47-D human breast cancer cells...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732568/effects-of-oral-contraceptives-on-metabolic-profile-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-meta-analysis-comparing-products-containing-cyproterone-acetate-with-third-generation-progestins
#15
REVIEW
Mina Amiri, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Fatemeh Nahidi, Ali Kabir, Fereidoun Azizi, Enrico Carmina
BACKGROUND: Although oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most common treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), their effects and safety on the metabolic profiles of these patients are relatively unknown. In this meta-analysis the effects of the different durations (from 3months to 1year) of OC treatment using cyproterone acetate (CA) or third generation progestins on metabolic profile of patients with PCOS were assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases (2001-2015) were searched to identify clinical trials investigating the effects of OC containing CA or third generation progestins on metabolic profiles of women with PCOS...
August 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732067/thromboembolic-adverse-event-study-of-combined-estrogen-progestin-preparations-using-japanese-adverse-drug-event-report-database
#16
Shiori Hasegawa, Toshinobu Matsui, Yuuki Hane, Junko Abe, Haruna Hatahira, Yumi Motooka, Sayaka Sasaoka, Akiho Fukuda, Misa Naganuma, Kouseki Hirade, Yukiko Takahashi, Yasutomi Kinosada, Mitsuhiro Nakamura
Combined estrogen-progestin preparations (CEPs) are associated with thromboembolic (TE) side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of TE using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database. Adverse events recorded from April 2004 to November 2014 in the JADER database were obtained from the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) website (www.pmda.go.jp). We calculated the reporting odds ratios (RORs) of suspected CEPs, analyzed the time-to-onset profile, and assessed the hazard type using Weibull shape parameter (WSP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729436/regulation-of-adrenal-and-ovarian-steroidogenesis-by-mir-132
#17
Zhigang Hu, Wen-Jun Shen, Fredric B Kraemer, Salman Azhar
miR-132 is hormonally regulated in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal gland, ovary and testis. Here, we examined the potential role of miR-132 in the control of steroidogenesis. Transfection of Y1 adrenal cells with miR-132 increased mRNAs of 3β-HSD and 20α-HSD enzymes, which catalyze the sequential conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone to biologically inactive 20α-OHP. Overexpression of miR-132 reduced MeCP2 and StAR protein expression, basal progestin (progesterone and 20α-OHP) production, but enhanced their production in response to cAMP stimulation...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729413/breast-cancer-suppression-by-progesterone-receptors-is-mediated-by-their-modulation-of-estrogen-receptors-and-rna-polymerase-iii
#18
Jessica Finlay-Schultz, Austin E Gillen, Heather M Brechbuhl, Joshua J Ivie, Shawna B Matthews, Britta M Jacobsen, David L Bentley, Peter Kabos, Carol A Sartorius
Greater than 50% of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers co-express the progesterone receptor (PR), which can directly and globally modify ER action to attenuate tumor growth. However, whether this attenuation is mediated only through PR-ER interaction remains unknown. To address this question, we assessed tumor growth in ER/PR-positive PDX models of breast cancer where both natural and synthetic progestins were found to antagonize the mitogenic effects of estrogens. Probing the genome-wide mechanisms by which this occurs, we documented that chronic progestin treatment blunted ER-mediated gene expression up to 2-fold at the level of mRNA transcripts...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728451/esc-expert-statement-on-the-effects-on-mood-of-the-natural-cycle-and-progestin-only-contraceptives
#19
G S Merki-Feld, D Apter, G Bartfai, G Grandi, K Haldre, M Lech, R Lertxundi, I Lete, P Lobo Abascal, S Raine, F Roumen, D Serfaty, L P Shulman, S Skouby, J Bitzer
Hormonal fluctuations during the natural cycle, as well as progestins used for hormonal contraception, can exert effects on mood especially in vulnerable women. Negative effects of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraception on mood are rare.
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721821/current-perspectives-for-the-use-of-gonane-progesteronergic-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-central-hypoventilation-syndromes
#20
Camille Loiseau, Florence Cayetanot, Fanny Joubert, Anne-Sophie Perrin-Terrin, Philippe Cardot, Marie-Noëlle Fiamma, Alain Frugiere, Christian Straus, Laurence Bodineau
BACKGROUND: Central alveolar hypoventilation syndromes (CHS) encompass neurorespiratory diseases resulting from congenital or acquired neurological disorders. Hypercapnia, acidosis, and hypoxemia resulting from CHS negatively affect physiological functions and can be life-threatening. To date, the absence of pharmacological treatment implies that the patients must receive assisted ventilation throughout their lives. OBJECTIVE: To highlight the relevance of determining conditions in which using gonane synthetic progestins could be of potential clinical interest for the treatment of CHS...
July 19, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
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