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Robert Krysiak, Małgorzata Gilowska, Bogusław Okopień
BACKGROUND: In unselected reproductive-aged women, use of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptive pills has been linked with an increased risk of vascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral contraception on cardiometabolic risk factors in a population of women with hyperandrogenism. METHODS: The study included 16 untreated women with elevated testosterone levels and 15 matched healthy women who were then treated with oral contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol (30μg) and drospirenone (3mg)...
September 15, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Naomi K Tepper, Monica V Dragoman, Mary E Gaffield, Kathryn M Curtis
BACKGROUND: Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs), containing estrogen and progestin, are associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE), compared with non-use. Few studies have examined whether non-oral formulations (including the combined hormonal patch, combined vaginal ring, and combined injectable contraceptives) increase the risk of thrombosis compared with combined oral contraceptives (COCs). OBJECTIVES: To examine the risk of VTE and ATE among women using non-oral CHCs compared to women using COCs...
October 19, 2016: Contraception
Katherine E Tierney, Lingyun Ji, Shannon S Dralla, Eunjeong Yoo, Annie Yessaian, Huyen Q Pham, Lynda Roman, Richard Sposto, Paulette Mhawech-Fauceglia, Yvonne G Lin
: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP)-78, the key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, is associated with endometrial cancer (EC) development and progression. However, its role in the continuum from complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH) to EC is unknown and the focus of this study. METHODS: 252 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded endometrial biopsies from patients with CAH diagnosed between 2003 and 2011 were evaluated for GRP78 expression by immunohistochemistry...
October 19, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Amber A Bokhari, Laura R Lee, Dewayne Raboteau, Jane Turbov, Isabel V Rodriguez, J Wesley Pike, Chad A Hamilton, G Larry Maxwell, Gustavo C Rodriguez, Viqar Syed
Here, we evaluated the expression of CYP24A1, a protein that inactivates vitamin D in tissues. CYP24A1 expression was increased in advanced-stage endometrial tumors compared to normal tissues. Similarly, endometrial cancer cells expressed higher levels of CYP24A1 than immortalized endometrial epithelial cells. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to examine CYP24A1 mRNA and protein levels in endometrial cancer cells after 8, 24, 72, and 120 h of exposure to progesterone, progestin derivatives and calcitriol, either alone or in combination...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Ashleigh M Byrne, Ana M Ruiz-Lopez, Sarah L Roche, Jennifer N Moloney, Alice C Wyse-Jackson, Thomas G Cotter
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is one of the most common retinal degenerative conditions affecting people worldwide, and is currently incurable. It is characterized by the progressive loss of photoreceptors, in which the death of rod cells leads to the secondary death of cone cells; the cause of eventual blindness. As rod cells die, retinal-oxygen metabolism becomes perturbed, leading to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thus oxidative stress; a key factor in the secondary death of cones. In this study, norgestrel, an FDA-approved synthetic analog of progesterone, was found to be a powerful neuroprotective antioxidant, preventing light-induced ROS in photoreceptor cells, and subsequent cell death...
October 4, 2016: Redox Biology
Christine K Wagner, Princy Quadros-Mennella
Steroid hormones activate nuclear receptors which, as transcription factors, can regulate critical aspects of neural development. Many regions of the rat forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain express progestin receptors (PR) during perinatal life, suggesting that progesterone may play an important role in the development of the brain. An immunohistochemical approach using two antibodies with differential recognition of ligand-bound PR was used to examine whether fetuses are exposed to maternal progesterone during pregnancy and whether progesterone from maternal circulation can bind to PR within the fetal brain...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
S F Lax
Endometritis is nowadays rare in developed countries and typically shows a subclinical or mild course; therefore, there are probably more cases of endometritis than diagnosed but they lack clinical relevance. In the fertile period of life it can be the reason for vaginal bleeding and infertility. The most common causes for non-specific endometritis are residual placental tissue after abortion or childbirth, intrauterine interventions, lesions within the uterine cavity, such as endometrial polyps, endometrial hyperplasia and neoplasms, intrauterine devices (IUD) and cervical stenosis...
October 13, 2016: Der Pathologe
Ronni Hayon
Transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals experience significant health disparities. They are more likely to use drugs and alcohol, smoke, be diagnosed with HIV infection or other sexually transmitted infections, and experience depression or attempt suicide. Many also experience discrimination within the health care system. Office-level strategies to create a safe and affirming space for gender-expansive patients include posting of a nondiscrimination statement, use of intake forms that ask about current gender identity and birth-assigned sex, provision of gender-neutral restrooms, and staff training in use of appropriate language...
October 2016: FP Essentials
Hamed Khalili, Martin Neovius, Anders Ekbom, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Johan Askling, Andrew T Chan, Ola Olen
OBJECTIVES: Oral contraceptive (OC) use has been consistently linked to increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Nonetheless, a specific role of OC in the natural history of ulcerative colitis (UC) is unknown. METHODS: We identified 6,104 incident female UC cases aged 16-51 years at diagnosis from the Swedish National Patient Register starting in January of 2003. Information on current OC use was obtained from the Prescribed Drug Register starting in July of 2005...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Chengjian Mao, Mara Livezey, Ji Eun Kim, David J Shapiro
Outgrowth of metastases expressing ERα mutations Y537S and D538G is common after endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive breast cancer. The effect of replacing wild type ERα in breast cancer cells with these mutations was unclear. We used the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system and homology directed repair to isolate and characterize 14 T47D cell lines in which ERαY537S or ERαD538G replace one or both wild-type ERα genes. In 2-dimensional, and in quantitative anchorage-independent 3-dimensional cell culture, ERαY537S and ERαD538G cells exhibited estrogen-independent growth...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anne Ørbo, Marit Arnes, Lena Myreng Lyså, Christer Borgfeldt, Bjørn Straume
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Renate Louw-du Toit, Meghan S Perkins, Jacky L Snoep, Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Donita Africander
Progestins used in contraception and hormone replacement therapy are synthetic compounds designed to mimic the actions of the natural hormone progesterone and are classed into four consecutive generations. The biological actions of progestins are primarily determined by their interactions with steroid receptors, and factors such as metabolism, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and the regulation of endogenous steroid hormone biosynthesis are often overlooked. Although some studies have investigated the effects of select progestins on a few steroidogenic enzymes, studies comparing the effects of progestins from different generations are lacking...
2016: PloS One
N Larivée, S Suissa, M Eberg, L Joseph, M J Eisenberg, H A Abenhaim, K B Filion
OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of arterial thromboembolism (ATE) of drospirenone-containing COCs to that of levonorgestrel-containing COCs. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), which contains clinical records for >11 million patients. POPULATION: Women aged 16-45 years prescribed a drospirenone- or levonorgestrel-containing COC between May 2002 and June 2012...
October 5, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Rémi Baroso, Pauline Sellier, Federica Defendi, Delphine Charignon, Arije Ghannam, Mohammed Habib, Christian Drouet, Bertrand Favier
BACKGROUND: Angioedema without wheals (AE) is a symptom characterised by localised episodes of oedema presumably caused by kinin release from kininogen cleavage. It can result from a hereditary deficiency in C1 Inhibitor (C1Inh), but it can present with normal level of C1Inh. These forms are typically difficult to diagnose although enhanced kinin production is suspected or demonstrated in some cases. OBJECTIVES: We wanted to investigate bradykinin overproduction in all AE condition with normal C1Inh, excluding cases with enhanced kinin catabolism, and to propose this parameter as a disease biomarker...
2016: PloS One
Charlotte Wessel Skovlund, Lina Steinrud Mørch, Lars Vedel Kessing, Øjvind Lidegaard
Importance: Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. Objective: To investigate whether the use of hormonal contraception is positively associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide prospective cohort study combined data from the National Prescription Register and the Psychiatric Central Research Register in Denmark...
September 28, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Joana Feiteiro, Melissa Mariana, Ignacio Verde, Elisa Cairrão
Mifepristone (RU 486) is a compound that is structurally related to steroid hormones, which is derived from the estrane progestins. This compound strongly binds the progesterone and glucocorticoid receptor and, to a lesser extent, the androgen receptor. This compound has its effects through different signaling pathways, related to genomic and nongenomic effects. The genomic effect involves the activation or blockage of nuclear or intracellular receptor, that in this case the progesterone, glucocorticoid, and androgen receptors...
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Regine Sitruk-Ware
The safety of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) has been documented by years of follow-up, and the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) possibly related to their use is rare in the young population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and risks of contraceptive steroids is generally positive, in particular when compared with pregnancy's risks. Epidemiological studies led to different results showing either no difference in VTE risk between CHCs (active surveillance prospective studies) or an increase in risk (observational or database studies)...
September 24, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Anne R Davis, Heva J Saadatmand, Alison Pack
OBJECTIVE: Effective contraception enables women with epilepsy (WWE) to plan their pregnancies and improve outcomes for themselves and their children. Although popular among all women, complex drug interactions limit the efficacy and safety of oral contraceptives (OCs) for WWE. We sought to explore the safety, acceptability, and pharmacokinetic impact of a progestin-containing intrauterine device (IUD) in WWE. METHODS: We enrolled 20 women with well-controlled epilepsy and a stable antiepileptic drug (AED) regimen and who were initiating a progestin-containing IUD (levonorgestrel 52 mg) in a prospective, observational study...
September 28, 2016: Epilepsia
Mignon van den Elzen, M F C L Go, A C Knulst, M A Blankestijn, H van Os-Medendorp, H G Otten
Non-hereditary angioedema (AE) with normal C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) can be presumably bradykinin- or mast cell-mediated, or of unknown cause. In this systematic review, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus to provide an overview of the efficacy of different treatment options for the abovementioned subtypes of refractory non-hereditary AE with or without wheals and with normal C1INH. After study selection and risk of bias assessment, 61 articles were included for data extraction and analysis. Therapies were described for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced AE (ACEi-AE), for idiopathic AE, and for AE with wheals...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Justin D Arnold, Eleanor P Sarkodie, Megan E Coleman, Deborah A Goldstein
INTRODUCTION: One of the most serious known adverse effects of feminizing cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT) is venous thromboembolism (VTE); however, no study has assessed the incidence of VTE from the hormone therapies used in the United States because previous publications on this topic have originated in Europe. CSHT in the United States typically includes estradiol with the antiandrogen spironolactone, whereas in Europe estradiol is prescribed with the progestin cyproterone acetate...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
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