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Hamstring injury prevention

Wesam Saleh A Al Attar, Najeebullah Soomro, Peter J Sinclair, Evangelos Pappas, Ross H Sanders
BACKGROUND: Hamstring injuries are among the most common non-contact injuries in sports. The Nordic hamstring (NH) exercise has been shown to decrease risk by increasing eccentric hamstring strength. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of the injury prevention programs that included the NH exercise on reducing hamstring injury rates while factoring in athlete workload. METHODS: Two researchers independently searched for eligible studies using the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via OvidSP, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) via OvidSP, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and AusSportMed, from inception to December 2015...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
Tom Porter, Alison Rushton
BACKGROUND: Injury prevention measures might reduce the impact of injury on footballers and football clubs. Increasing research has evaluated the use of exercise for injury prevention. However, research has focused on adolescent females. No high-quality systematic reviews have evaluated the efficacy of all forms of exercise on preventing injury in adult male football. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of exercise in preventing injury in adult male football...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Pascal Edouard, Pedro Branco, Juan-Manuel Alonso
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and characteristics of muscle injuries and hamstring muscle injuries occurred during the international athletics championships from 2007 to 2015. PATIENTS AND METHODS: National medical teams and local organizing committee physicians have collected every day all newly occurred injury whenever international championship from 2007 to 2015. Only the muscle injuries and hamstring muscle injuries, whatever gravity (cramp, contracture, rupture, avulsion), were analysed...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Pascal Edouard, Pierrick Arnal, Philippe Gimenez, Pierre Samozino, Pedro Jimenez-Reyes, Matt Brughelli, Jurdan Mendiguchia, Jean-Benoit Morin
OBJECTIVE: The hamstring muscles are the most injured muscles in athletes practicing sprints. However, they seem greatly contributing to the production of horizontal force, a key element in the sprint acceleration performance. The aim of our study was to experimentally analyse the link between the production of horizontal force and strength of the hamstrings at maximum sprints on a treadmill and in fatigue conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen male subjects accustomed to sprint participated in the experiment consisting in 12 6-seconds sprints separated by 44seconds of recovery on an instrumented treadmill sprint for measuring the horizontal force, coupled with the simultaneous recording of the EMG activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus biceps femoris and gluteus muscles...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Pascal Edouard, Jean-Michel Serra, Pierre Hertert, Emmanuelle Cugy, Nicolas Morel, Martine Prevost, Frédéric Depiesse
OBJECTIVE: The epidemiology of injuries is the first step in the sports injuries prevention. In this context, the IAAF and EA have implemented a prospective injury follow-up during their international athletics championships since 2007, and the FFA initiated since the French championships in 2014. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and characteristics of injuries during the French Elite championships. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the period of the outdoor and indoor French Elite championships, all newly occurring injuries were recorded by the local medical team...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Pascal Edouard, Emmanuelle Cugy, Romain Dolin, Nicolas Morel, Kathrin Steffen
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of injuries in athletics is important, with consequences at short and long terms in sport, health, social and professional levels. It is therefore important to define strategies to reduce the incidence and severity of injuries in athletics. The objective of this study was to determine whether an injury prevention program (IPP) can reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries related to the practice of athletics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The IPP has been developed, based on current scientific knowledge, targeting exercises on the most common injuries in athletics (hamstring muscle injury, Achilles and patellar tendinopathy, low back pain, ankle sprain) and selecting exercises known to treat and/or prevent these injuries (care stability, hamstrings and leg eccentric muscle strengthening, pelvis balance and stabilizing work)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Pascal Edouard, Pierre Samozino, Romain Slotala, Jurdan Mendiguchia, Jean-Benoit Morin
Hamstring muscle injury is the main injury related to athletics, but also other sports including acceleration and sprints, with important consequences (time loss of sport and re-injury risk). In a prevention approach, a better knowledge of risk factors and mechanisms of these lesions seem relevant, and it can pass through a better understanding of the biomechanical and muscular determinants of performance in sprint and acceleration. The ability to produce a horizontal force on the ground [i.e. orienting the total push backward (or ground force reaction forward)], and to do so despite the increase in running speed, is an important determinant of sprint performance...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Matthew N Bourne, Steven J Duhig, Ryan G Timmins, Morgan D Williams, David A Opar, Aiman Al Najjar, Graham K Kerr, Anthony J Shield
BACKGROUND: The architectural and morphological adaptations of the hamstrings in response to training with different exercises have not been explored. PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in biceps femoris long head (BFLH) fascicle length and hamstring muscle size following 10-weeks of Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) or hip extension (HE) training. METHODS: 30 recreationally active male athletes (age, 22.0±3.6 years; height, 180.4±7 cm; weight, 80...
September 22, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Danielle M DeBruyne, Marina M Dewhurst, Katelyn M Fischer, Michael S Wojtanowski, Chris Dural
: Clinical Scenario: Increasing the length of the muscle-tendon unit may prevent musculotendinous injury. Various methods have been proposed to increase muscle-tendon flexibility, including self-mobilization using foam rollers or roller-massagers, although the effectiveness of these devices is uncertain. This review was conducted to determine if the use of foam rollers or roller-massagers to improve hamstrings flexibility is supported by moderate- to high-quality evidence. CLINICAL QUESTION: Are foam rollers or roller-massagers effective for increasing hamstrings flexibility in asymptomatic, physically active adults? ...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Luis Suarez-Arrones, Gil Rodas, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Per Tesch, Richard Linnehan, Richard Kreider, Valter Di Salvo
The present study examined site-specific hamstring muscles use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elite soccer players during strength training. Thirty-six players were randomized into four groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg-curl, Russian belt or the hip-extension conic-pulley exercise. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-MRI were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length...
2016: PloS One
Mitchell C M van Doormaal, Nick van der Horst, Frank J G Backx, Dirk-Wouter Smits, Bionka M A Huisstede
BACKGROUND: In soccer, although hamstring flexibility is thought to play a major role in preventing hamstring injuries, the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries remains unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: This study included 450 male first-class amateur soccer players (mean age, 24...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Melinda M Franettovich Smith, Jason Bonacci, M Dilani Mendis, Craig Christie, Andrew Rotstein, Julie A Hides
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if size and activation of the gluteal muscles is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in elite AFL players. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Twenty-six elite male footballers from a professional Australian Football League (AFL) club participated in the study. At the beginning of the season bilateral gluteus medius (GMED) and gluteus maximus (GMAX) muscle volume was measured from magnetic resonance images and electromyographic recordings of the same muscles were obtained during running...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Olcay Guler, Mahir Mahırogulları, Serhat Mutlu, Mehmet H Cercı, Ali Seker, Selami Cakmak
INTRODUCTION: When treating anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, the position of the ACL graft plays a key role in regaining postoperative knee function and physiologic kinematics. In this study, we aimed to compare graft angle, graft position in tibial tunnel, and tibial and femoral tunnel positions in patients operated with anteromedial (AM) and transtibial (TT) methods to those of contralateral healthy knees. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with ipsilateral hamstring tendon autograft were included...
November 2016: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Matthew N Bourne, Morgan D Williams, David A Opar, Aiman Al Najjar, Graham K Kerr, Anthony J Shield
OBJECTIVE: To determine which strength training exercises selectively activate the biceps femoris long head (BFLongHead) muscle. METHODS: We recruited 24 recreationally active men for this two-part observational study. Part 1: We explored the amplitudes and the ratios of lateral (BF) to medial hamstring (MH) normalised electromyography (nEMG) during the concentric and eccentric phases of 10 common strength training exercises. Part 2: We used functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the spatial patterns of hamstring activation during two exercises which (1) most selectively and (2) least selectively activated the BF in part 1...
May 13, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
S O'Connor, N McCaffrey, E F Whyte, K A Moran
Despite the popularity of collegiate Gaelic football in Ireland and the recent expansion into the United Kingdom and United States, no previous study has examined injury incidence. A prospective epidemiological study was implemented to establish injury incidence in 217 (19.3 ± 1.9 years) male collegiate Gaelic footballers from two collegiate institutions in one season. An injury was defined as any injury sustained during training or competition resulting in time lost from play or athlete reported restricted performance...
July 19, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Ian B Shadle, Paul A Cacolice
Hamstring strains are a common sport-related injury, which may limit athletic performance for an extended period of time. These injuries are common in the soccer setting.1 As such, it is important to determine an appropriate prevention program to minimize the risk of such an injury for these athletes. Hamstring strains occur when external loads exceed the strength of the tissue. Development of eccentric muscle control has been shown to be an effective and inexpensive intervention to improve strength. Eccentric hamstring training then, may provide an effective and practical hamstring strain prevention strategy...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Kristian J Hill, Kendall P Robinson, Jennifer W Cuchna, Matthew C Hoch
Injuries to the posterior thigh are common in athletics. Hamstring injuries result in significant time lost from participation and impair health-related quality of life. Previous research has determined that hamstring injuries are related to poor hamstring flexibility. Therefore, increasing hamstring flexibility through clinical stretching interventions may be an effective means to prevent hamstring injuries. It is evident that hamstring stretching, whether using a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) or static method, can increase hamstring flexibility...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Cindy Y Lin, Liang-Ching Tsai, Joel Press, Yupeng Ren, Sun G Chung, Li-Qun Zhang
CONTEXT: Gluteal-muscle strength has been identified as an important component of injury prevention and rehabilitation in several common knee injuries. However, many conventionally prescribed gluteal-strengthening exercises are not performed during dynamic weight-bearing activities, which is when most injuries occur. OBJECTIVES: To compare lower-limb muscle-activation patterns between conventional gluteal-strengthening exercises and off-axis elliptical exercises with motorized foot-plate perturbations designed to activate gluteal muscles during dynamic exercise...
May 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Derek N Pamukoff, Sarah E Bill, Eric D Ryan, J Troy Blackburn
CONTEXT: Hamstring musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) is associated with lower-extremity injury risk (ie, hamstring strain, anterior cruciate ligament injury) and is commonly assessed using the damped oscillatory technique. However, despite a preponderance of studies that measure MTS reliably in laboratory settings, there are no valid clinical measurement tools. A valid clinical measurement technique is needed to assess MTS and permit identification of individuals at heightened risk of injury and track rehabilitation progress...
May 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Dana M Ghareeb, Alice J McLaine, Janet R Wojcik, Joni M Boyd
One of the most common warm-up programs utilized to prevent injury in soccer, FIFA11+, integrates aerobic, strength, and balance. The purpose of this study was to compare FIFA11+ to a new warm-up program (NWP) on balance and isokinetic strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings at 60, 180, and 300 degrees per second in male high school soccer players. Participants at one school (n=17) performed the NWP before practice for six weeks during one soccer season while participants at another school (n =17) performed FIFA11+...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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