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S van Gastelen, M H P W Visker, J E Edwards, E C Antunes-Fernandes, K A Hettinga, S J J Alferink, W H Hendriks, H Bovenhuis, H Smidt, J Dijkstra
Complex interactions between rumen microbiota, cow genetics, and diet composition may exist. Therefore, the effect of linseed oil, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (DGAT1), and the interaction between linseed oil and DGAT1 on CH4 and H2 emission, energy and N metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen bacterial and archaeal composition was investigated. Twenty-four lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (i.e., 12 with DGAT1 KK genotype and 12 with DGAT1 AA genotype) were fed 2 diets in a crossover design: a control diet and a linseed oil diet (LSO) with a difference of 22 g/kg of dry matter (DM) in fat content between the 2 diets...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Huma Aslam Bhatti, Yildiz Tehseen, Kiran Maryam, Maliha Uroos, Bina S Siddiqui, Abdul Hameed, Jamshed Iqbal
Recent efforts to develop cure for chronic diabetic complications have led to the discovery of potent inhibitors against aldose reductase (AKR1B1, EC whose role in diabetes is well-evident. In the present work, two new natural products were isolated from the ariel part of Ocimum basilicum; 7-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methyl-8-β-O-d-glucoside-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and E-4-(6'-hydroxyhex-3'-en-1-yl)phenyl propionate (2) and confirmed their structures with different spectroscopic techniques including NMR spectroscopy etc...
September 5, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
Gabriel Capson-Tojo, Diane Ruiz, Maxime Rouez, Marion Crest, Jean-Philippe Steyer, Nicolas Bernet, Jean-Philippe Delgenès, Renaud Escudié
The objective of this study was to test three different alternatives to mitigate the destabilizing effect of accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids during food waste anaerobic digestion. The three options tested (low temperature, co-digestion with paper waste and trace elements addition) were compared using consecutive batch reactors. Although methane was produced efficiently (∼500ml CH4gVS(-1); 16l CH4lreactor(-1)), the concentrations of propionic acid increased gradually (up to 21.6gl(-1)). This caused lag phases in the methane production and eventually led to acidification at high substrate loads...
August 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Joonyeob Lee, Seung Gu Shin, Gyuseong Han, Taewoan Koo, Seokhwan Hwang
In this study, four different mesophilic and thermophilic full-scale anaerobic digesters treating food wastewater (FWW) were monitored for 1-2years in order to investigate: 1) microbial communities underpinning anaerobic digestion of FWW, 2) significant factors shaping microbial community structures, and 3) potential microbial indicators of process instability. Twenty-seven bacterial genera were identified as abundant bacteria underpinning the anaerobic digestion of FWW. Methanosaeta harundinacea, M. concilii, Methanoculleus bourgensis, M...
September 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Linda Nguyen, Anna L Scandinaro, Rae R Matsumoto
The over-the-counter antitussive dextromethorphan (DM) may have rapid antidepressant actions based on its overlapping pharmacology with ketamine, which has shown fast antidepressant effects but whose widespread use remains limited by problematic side effects. We have previously shown that DM produces antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) that are mediated in part through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic (AMPA) and sigma-1 receptors, two protein targets associated with a faster onset of antidepressant efficacy...
September 12, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Tereza Pavlova, Veronika Vidova, Julie Bienertova-Vasku, Petr Janku, Martina Almasi, Jana Klanova, Zdenek Spacil
While over 10% of the human metabolome is directly associated with the gut microbial metabolism, specific metabolites are largely uncharacterized. Therefore, methods for the identification and quantification of microbiota-associated metabolites in biological fluids such as urine or plasma are necessary in order to elucidate the molecular basis of host-microbiota interaction. In this study, we focused on the tryptophan metabolism, employing quantitative assays by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry, specifically selected reaction monitoring (SRM)...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Péter Monostori, Glynis Klinke, Sylvia Richter, Ákos Baráth, Ralph Fingerhut, Matthias R Baumgartner, Stefan Kölker, Georg F Hoffmann, Gwendolyn Gramer, Jürgen G Okun
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased propionylcarnitine levels in newborn screening are indicative for a group of potentially severe disorders including propionic acidemia (PA), methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders (MMACBL). This alteration is relatively non-specific, resulting in the necessity of confirmation and differential diagnosis in subsequent tests. Thus, we aimed to develop a multiplex approach for concurrent determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid from the same dried blood spot (DBS) as in primary screening (second-tier test)...
2017: PloS One
Feifan Wu, Xianfeng Guo, Jiachun Zhang, Min Zhang, Zihao Ou, Yongzheng Peng
Phascolarctobacterium can produce short-chain fatty acids, including acetate and propionate, and can be associated with the metabolic state and mood of the host. The present study investigated the colonization characteristics of Phascolarctobacterium faecium in healthy individuals <1-80 years old in Southern China. A total of 150 fresh fecal samples were collected, and bacterial DNA was isolated from these samples for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Phascolarctobacterium faecium demonstrated a high colonization rate and abundant colonization in the human gastrointestinal tract...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Tamsin Lyons, Tommy Boland, Sean Storey, Evelyn Doyle
Diet has been shown to have a significant impact on microbial community composition in the rumen and could potentially be used to manipulate rumen microbiome structure to achieve specific outcomes. There is some evidence that a window may exist in early life, while the microbiome is being established, where manipulation through diet could lead to long-lasting results. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation in early life will have an effect on rumen microbial composition that will persist even once supplementation is ceased...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chutima Matayatsuk Phechkrajang, Surin Yooyong
Calcium propionate has been widely used as a preservative in bakery and in bread. It is sometimes not carefully used, or a high concentration is added to preserve products. High consumption of calcium propionate can lead to several health problems. This study aims to develop a fast and simple semiquantitative method based on color complex formation for the determination of calcium propionate in a bread sample. A red-brown complex was obtained from the reaction of ferric ammonium sulfate and propionate anion...
April 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Davit Jishkariani, Jennifer D Lee, Hongseok Yun, Taejong Paik, James M Kikkawa, Cherie R Kagan, Bertrand Donnio, Christopher B Murray
The collective magnetic properties of nanoparticle (NP) solid films are greatly affected by inter-particle dipole-dipole interactions and therefore the proximity of the neighboring particles. In this study, a series of dendritic ligands (generations 0 to 3, G0-G3) have been designed and used to cover the surface of magnetic NPs to control the spacings between the NP components in single lattices. The dendrons of different generations introduced here were based on the 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (Bis-MPA) scaffold and equipped with an appropriate surface binding group at one end and several fatty acid segments at the other extremity...
September 14, 2017: Nanoscale
Atsuko Ueki, Kazushi Goto, Yoshimi Ohtaki, Nobuo Kaku, Katsuji Ueki
A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain (SH021T) was isolated from a methanogenic reactor. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, motile, straight or slightly curved rods. The optimum temperature for growth was 35 °C, and the optimum pH was 6.1-7.7. The strain was asaccharolytic and utilized amino acids as growth substrates. The strain produced acetate and propionate from l-alanine and l-serine, and propionate and butyrate from l-threonine. Branched-chain amino acids (l-isoleucine, l-leucine and l-valine) were utilized weakly, and isovalerate or isobutyrate was produced...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
A T Piñeiro-Vázquez, G Jiménez-Ferrer, J A Alayon-Gamboa, A J Chay-Canul, A J Ayala-Burgos, C F Aguilar-Pérez, J C Ku-Vera
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of quebracho tannins extract (QTE) on feed intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and methane (CH4) emissions in cattle fed low-quality Pennisetum purpureum grass. Five heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) with an average live weight (LW) of 295 ± 19 kg were allotted to five treatments (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% QTE/kg DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Intake, digestibility, and total methane emissions (L/day) were recorded for periods of 23 h when cattle were housed in open-circuit respiration chambers...
September 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Stella-Amrei Kunde, Nils Rademacher, Hanna Zieger, Sarah A Shoichet
Synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptors are essential mediators of neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Shisa9/cysteine-knot AMPAR modulating protein 44 (CKAMP44) is a transmembrane protein recently found to be present in AMPA receptor-associated protein complexes. Here, we show that the cytosolic tail of Shisa9/CKAMP44 interacts with multiple scaffold proteins that are important for regulating synaptic plasticity in central neurons. We focussed on the interaction with the scaffold protein PICK1, which facilitates the formation of a tripartite complex with the protein kinase C (PKC) and thereby regulates phosphorylation of Shisa9/CKAMP44 C-terminal residues...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Lei Zhang, Qiqi Li, Chaoqiong Chen, Xin Li, Muhang Li, Jingjiang Hu, Xihui Shen
A Gram-reaction-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped and non-motile bacterial strain, designated TEYR-7T, was isolated from the leaves of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum collected from the Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi Province, northwest China. Growth of strain TEYR-7T occurred at 15-37 °C (optimum, 28-30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0-1 %). Propionate and acetate were produced from glucose fermentation. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain TEYR-7T was a member of the phylum Actinobacteria, exhibiting the highest sequence similarity to Propioniciclava tarda DSM 22130T (94...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Aruna Lingappa Hugar, Amarvani P Kanjikar, Ramesh L Londonkar
Objective To investigate potential reproductive effects of Pterocarpus marsupium methanolic extract on testosterone propionate induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) in female albino rats. Methodology PCOS was induced in female albino rats by daily injecting testosterone propionate for 15 days intraperitoneally. Animals are divided into five groups with six rats per group. Group 1: Control group received olive oil, Group 2: Testosterone propionate+natural recovery, Group 3: Testosterone propionate + a dose of clomiphene citrate (standard), Group 4 and 5: Testosterone propionate + low dose (200mg/kg) and high dose (400mg/kg) b...
September 12, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Shinyoung Park, Muhammad Yasin, Jiyeong Jeong, Minseok Cha, Hyunsoo Kang, Nulee Jang, In-Geol Choi, In Seop Chang
The acetate-assisted cultivation of Eubacterium limosum KIST612 was found to provide a way for enhancing cell mass, the carbon monoxide (CO) consumption rate, and butyrate production using CO as an electron and energy source. Cell growth (146%), μmax (121%), and CO consumption rates (151%) increased significantly upon the addition of 30mM acetate to microbial cultures. The main product of CO fermentation by E. limosum KIST612 shifted from acetate to butyrate in the presence of acetate, and 5.72mM butyrate was produced at the end of the reaction...
August 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Huibin Chen, Sheng Chang
This study investigated the biological hydrolysis performance at 35°C (BH35), 42°C (BH42), and 55°C (BH55) and the effect of temperatures on microbial communities of the hydrolyzed sludge. The results showed that the suspended solid reduction, volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, and biogas production increased with the BH temperatures. VFAs produced in the sludge BH included acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid with the fractions of acetic acid increased with BH temperatures...
August 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Viacheslav Liato, Mohammed Aïder
Electro-activated solutions of salts of weak organic acids are defined as novel potent disinfecting agents that can be used in the agri-food industry. The aim of the present work is to study and understand the destruction mechanism of electro-activated solutions of sodium acetate (EAA) and sodium propionate (EAP) against Streptomyces avermitilis spores. The results of antibacterial activity showed high bacteriostatic effect for all the tested solutions, including sodium hypochlorite used as positive control...
September 6, 2017: Chemosphere
Ying Jiang, Yue Zhang, Charles Banks, Sonia Heaven, Philip Longhurst
The requirement of trace elements (TE) in anaerobic digestion process is widely documented. However, little is understood regarding the specific requirement of elements and their critical concentrations under different operating conditions such as substrate characterisation and temperature. In this study, a flask batch trial using fractional factorial design is conducted to investigate volatile fatty acids (VFA) anaerobic degradation rate under the influence of the individual and combined effect of six TEs (Co, Ni, Mo, Se, Fe and W)...
September 5, 2017: Water Research
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