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psp phylogeny

Hyeon Ho Shin, Zhun Li, Eun Song Kim, Jong-Woo Park, Weol Ae Lim
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) caused the deaths of four people in coastal area of Korea, mainly Jinhae-Masan Bay and adjacent areas, in April 1986 and in 1996. The PSP outbreaks were caused by the consumption of mussels, Mytilus edulis. The organism that caused PSP was identified, from morphological data only, as Alexandrium tamarense which is recently renamed as A. catenella, however recent studies have shown that the morphological diagnostic characteristics used to identify Alexandrium species have uncertainties and molecular tools and other criteria should be considered as well...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
Sunju Kim, Myung Gil Park
Members of the Amoebophrya ceratii complex are endoparasitic dinoflagellates that parasitize a number of their dinoflagellate relatives, including toxic and/or harmful algal bloom-forming species. Despite many studies on the occurrence, prevalence, biology and molecular phylogeny of Amoebophrya spp., little attention has been given to toxin dynamics of host population following parasitism. Using Amoebophrya sp. infecting the paralytic shellfish toxin (PSP)-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, we addressed the following questions: (1) does parasitism by Amoebophrya sp...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
Andreas Ballot, Leonardo Cerasino, Vladyslava Hostyeva, Samuel Cirés
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin production has been detected worldwide in the cyanobacterial genera Anabaena, Lyngbya, Scytonema, Cuspidothrix and Aphanizomenon. In Europe Aphanizomenon gracile and Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi are the only known producers of PSP toxins and are found in Southwest and Central European freshwater bodies. In this study the PSP toxin producing Aphanizomenon sp. strain NIVA-CYA 851 was isolated from the Norwegian Lake Hillestadvannet. In a polyphasic approach NIVA-CYA 851 was morphologically and phylogenetically classified, and investigated for toxin production...
2016: PloS One
Vincent J Denef, Masanori Fujimoto, Michelle A Berry, Marian L Schmidt
Relative abundance profiles of bacterial populations measured by sequencing DNA or RNA of marker genes can widely differ. These differences, made apparent when calculating ribosomal RNA:DNA ratios, have been interpreted as variable activities of bacterial populations. However, inconsistent correlations between ribosomal RNA:DNA ratios and metabolic activity or growth rates have led to a more conservative interpretation of this metric as the cellular protein synthesis potential (PSP). Little is known, particularly in freshwater systems, about how PSP varies for specific taxa across temporal and spatial environmental gradients and how conserved PSP is across bacterial phylogeny...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pablo Salgado, Pilar Riobó, Francisco Rodríguez, José M Franco, Isabel Bravo
Among toxin-producing dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium, Alexandrium ostenfeldii is the only species able to produce paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, spirolides (SPXs) and gymnodimines (GYMs). In this study we characterized and compared three A. ostenfeldii strains isolated from the Baltic, Mediterranean, and southern Chile Seas with respect to their toxin profiles, morphology, and phylogeny. Toxin analyses by HPLC-FD and LC-HRMS revealed differences in the toxin profiles of the three strains...
September 2015: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Cheng Zou, Rui-Min Ye, Jian-Wei Zheng, Zhao-He Luo, Hai-Feng Gu, Wei-Dong Yang, Hong-Ye Li, Jie-Sheng Liu
To explore the genetic diversity and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin profile of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex along the coast of China, 67 strains of A. tamarense from the China Sea were collected and genetic diversity were analyzed based on the rDNA sequences. In addition, PSP toxin compositions and contents were detected by HPLC. According to the 5.8S rDNA and ITS, and LSU rDNA D1-D2 sequence, A. tamarense in the China Sea comprises at least Group IV and Group I ribotypes. In these Chinese strains, the toxins with the highest concentration in the profile were C1/2, gonyautoxins 1/4 (GTX1/4) and neosaxitoxin (NEO)...
December 15, 2014: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Maria Wiese, Shauna A Murray, Alfonsus Alvin, Brett A Neilan
Dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium produce the neurotoxin saxitoxin (STX), responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and accumulates in marine invertebrates. The recent identification of STX biosynthesis genes allowed us to investigate the expression of sxtA4 at different growth stages in Alexandrium catenella Group IV. We found no significant differences in expression of sxtA4, despite significant differences in STX levels at different growth stages (P < 0.023). Three reference genes were tested for normalisation: actin, cytochrome b (cob), and the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rDNA)...
December 15, 2014: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Kenji V P Nagashima, André Verméglio, Naoki Fusada, Sakiko Nagashima, Keizo Shimada, Kazuhito Inoue
A mutant of the phototrophic species belonging to the β-proteobacteria, Rubrivivax gelatinosus, lacking the photosynthetic growth ability was constructed by the removal of genes coding for the L, M, and cytochrome subunits of the photosynthetic reaction center complex. The L, M, and cytochrome genes derived from five other species of proteobacteria, Acidiphilium rubrum, Allochromatium vinosum, Blastochloris viridis, Pheospirillum molischianum, and Roseateles depolymerans, and the L and M subunits from two other species, Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, respectively, have been introduced into this mutant...
August 2014: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Garima Arora, Prabhakar Tiwari, Rahul Shubhra Mandal, Arpit Gupta, Deepak Sharma, Sudipto Saha, Ramandeep Singh
The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis makes identification and validation of newer drug targets a global priority. Phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP), a key essential metabolic enzyme involved in conversion of O-phospho-l-serine to l-serine, was characterized in this study. The M. tuberculosis genome harbors all enzymes involved in l-serine biosynthesis including two PSP homologs: Rv0505c (SerB1) and Rv3042c (SerB2). In the present study, we have biochemically characterized SerB2 enzyme and developed malachite green-based high throughput assay system to identify SerB2 inhibitors...
September 5, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Fei Su, Hong-Yu Ou, Fei Tao, Hongzhi Tang, Ping Xu
BACKGROUND: With genomic sequences of many closely related bacterial strains made available by deep sequencing, it is now possible to investigate trends in prokaryotic microevolution. Positive selection is a sub-process of microevolution, in which a particular mutation is favored, causing the allele frequency to continuously shift in one direction. Wide scanning of prokaryotic genomes has shown that positive selection at the molecular level is much more frequent than expected. Genes with significant positive selection may play key roles in bacterial adaption to different environmental pressures...
2013: BMC Genomics
Khin Khin Lay, Chailai Koowattananukul, Nisit Chansong, Rungtip Chuanchuen
A total of 344 commensal Escherichia coli isolates from clinically healthy pigs were examined for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, class 1 integrons, resistance genes, virulence gene profile, and phylogenetic groups. The majority of E. coli isolates were resistant to tetracycline (96.2%) and ampicillin (91.6%). Up to 98% were multidrug resistant. Seventy-three percent of the isolates carried class 1 integrons. Inserted-gene cassette arrays in variable regions included incomplete sat, aadA22, aadA1, dfrA12-aadA2, and sat-psp-aadA2, of which the aadA2 gene cassette was most prevalent (42...
November 2012: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Richard J Butler, Paul M Barrett, David J Gower
Uniquely among extant vertebrates, birds possess complex respiratory systems characterised by the combination of small, rigid lungs, extensive pulmonary air sacs that possess diverticula that invade (pneumatise) the postcranial skeleton, unidirectional ventilation of the lungs, and efficient crosscurrent gas exchange. Crocodilians, the only other living archosaurs, also possess unidirectional lung ventilation, but lack true air sacs and postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP). PSP can be used to infer the presence of avian-like pulmonary air sacs in several extinct archosaur clades (non-avian theropod dinosaurs, sauropod dinosaurs and pterosaurs)...
2012: PloS One
Yoko Chiba, Kenro Oshima, Hiroyuki Arai, Masaharu Ishii, Yasuo Igarashi
Phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP) catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphoserine to serine and inorganic phosphate. PSPs, which have been found in all three domains of life, belong to the haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase superfamily. However, certain organisms, particularly bacteria, lack a classical PSP gene, although they appear to possess a functional phosphoserine synthetic pathway. The apparent lack of a PSP ortholog in Hydrogenobacter thermophilus, an obligately chemolithoautotrophic and thermophilic bacterium, represented a missing link in serine anabolism because our previous study suggested that serine should be synthesized from phosphoserine...
April 6, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Colin D Bingle, Ruth L Seal, C Jeremy Craven
We present the BPIFAn/BPIFBn systematic nomenclature for the PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelium clone)/PSP (parotid secretory protein)/BSP30 (bovine salivary protein 30)/SMGB (submandibular gland protein B) family of proteins, based on an adaptation of the SPLUNCn (short PLUNCn)/LPLUNCn (large PLUNCn) nomenclature. The nomenclature is applied to a set of 102 sequences which we believe represent the current reliable data for BPIFA/BPIFB proteins across all species, including marsupials and birds. The nomenclature will be implemented by the HGNC (HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee)...
August 2011: Biochemical Society Transactions
Margarida Sousa, Carmen Torres, Joana Barros, Sergio Somalo, Gilberto Igrejas, Patricia Poeta
In recent years, bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics has risen dramatically in Escherichia coli isolated from animals that could pass through the food chain to humans. One hundred eighteen fecal samples of Sparus aurata were tested for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-containing E. coli recovery. Susceptibility to 16 antimicrobial agents was performed by disk diffusion. ESBL-phenotypic detection was carried out by double-disk test, and the presence of genes encoding TEM, OXA, SHV, and CTX-M type beta-lactamases was studied by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing...
October 2011: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
M Huvet, T Toni, X Sheng, T Thorne, G Jovanovic, C Engl, M Buck, J W Pinney, M P H Stumpf
Sensing the environment and responding appropriately to it are key capabilities for the survival of an organism. All extant organisms must have evolved suitable sensors, signaling systems, and response mechanisms allowing them to survive under the conditions they are likely to encounter. Here, we investigate in detail the evolutionary history of one such system: The phage shock protein (Psp) stress response system is an important part of the stress response machinery in many bacteria, including Escherichia coli K12...
March 2011: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Kennedy F Chah, Ifeoma C Agbo, Didacus C Eze, Sergio Somalo, Vanesa Estepa, Carmen Torres
Eleven multiresistant Escherichia coli strains of animal and human origin were assayed for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes, integrons and associated gene cassettes, as well as plasmid content. Ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were screened for amino acid changes in GyrA and ParC proteins. The E. coli strains were found to harbor a variety of genes including cmlA, aac (3)-II, aac (3)-IV, aadA, strA-strB, tet (A), tet (B), bla(TEM), sul1, sul2 and sul3. Four of the eight int I1-positive strains were also positive for qacE Δ1 -sul1 region and the following gene cassettes were detected: dfrA7, dfrA12 + orfF + aadA2 and bla(OXA1)+ aadA1...
December 2010: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Karina Stucken, Uwe John, Allan Cembella, Alejandro A Murillo, Katia Soto-Liebe, Juan J Fuentes-Valdés, Maik Friedel, Alvaro M Plominsky, Mónica Vásquez, Gernot Glöckner
Cyanobacterial morphology is diverse, ranging from unicellular spheres or rods to multicellular structures such as colonies and filaments. Multicellular species represent an evolutionary strategy to differentiate and compartmentalize certain metabolic functions for reproduction and nitrogen (N(2)) fixation into specialized cell types (e.g. akinetes, heterocysts and diazocytes). Only a few filamentous, differentiated cyanobacterial species, with genome sizes over 5 Mb, have been sequenced. We sequenced the genomes of two strains of closely related filamentous cyanobacterial species to yield further insights into the molecular basis of the traits of N(2) fixation, filament formation and cell differentiation...
2010: PloS One
Andreas Ballot, Jutta Fastner, Claudia Wiedner
Neurotoxic paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, anatoxin-a (ATX), and hepatotoxic cylindrospermopsin (CYN) have been detected in several lakes in northeast Germany during the last 2 decades. They are produced worldwide by members of the nostocalean genera Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, and Aphanizomenon. Although no additional sources of PSP toxins and ATX have been identified in German water bodies to date, the observed CYN concentrations cannot be produced solely by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, the only known CYN producer in Germany...
February 2010: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
H Radhouani, P Poeta, G Igrejas, A Gonçalves, L Vinué, C Torres
Fifty-three faecal samples from yellow-legged gulls (Larus cachinnans) at the Berlengas nature reserve in Portugal were cultured on Levine agar plates not supplemented with antimicrobial agents, and one Escherichia coli colony was isolated and identified from each sample. The percentages of resistant isolates for each of the drugs were ampicillin (43.4 per cent), tetracycline (39.6 per cent), nalidixic acid (34.0 per cent), streptomycin (32.1 per cent), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (26.4 per cent), ciprofloxacin (18...
August 1, 2009: Veterinary Record
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