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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213827/resistance-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-toxicity-and-associated-bioenergetic-consequences-in-a-population-of-fundulus-heteroclitus
#1
C D Lindberg, N Jayasundara, J S Kozal, T C Leuthner, R T Di Giulio
Several locations in the Elizabeth River, VA, USA are highly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to the release of creosote mixtures from wood treatment facilities. Interestingly, some populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting the Elizabeth River (ER) are resistant to PAH-induced teratogenesis. However, evolutionary resistance to PAHs due to chronic PAH exposure is associated with reduced fitness and increased susceptibility to other environmental stressors in at least one PAH-resistant ER killifish population...
February 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209366/quantifying-aortic-valve-calcification-using-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#2
Abdulrahman M Alqahtani, Kevin E Boczar, Vinay Kansal, Kwan Chan, Girish Dwivedi, Benjamin J W Chow
INTRODUCTION: Aortic valve calcification (AVC) has been associated with major adverse cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. We sought to develop and validate a method to quantify AVC using coronary CT angiography (CTA). METHODS: Of 59 patients who underwent both non-contrast and contrast enhanced coronary CTA, 25 patients served as the derivation cohort and 34 patients served as the validation cohort. For non-contrast enhanced CT, quantification of AVC was performed using the Agatston method for coronary artery calcification (CAC)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193490/physical-activity-and-academic-achievement-across-the-curriculum-results-from-a-3-year-cluster-randomized-trial
#3
Joseph E Donnelly, Charles H Hillman, Jerry L Greene, David M Hansen, Cheryl A Gibson, Debra K Sullivan, John Poggio, Matthew S Mayo, Kate Lambourne, Amanda N Szabo-Reed, Stephen D Herrmann, Jeffery J Honas, Mark R Scudder, Jessica L Betts, Katherine Henley, Suzanne L Hunt, Richard A Washburn
We compared changes in academic achievement across 3years between children in elementary schools receiving the Academic Achievement and Physical Activity Across the Curriculum intervention (A+PAAC), in which classroom teachers were trained to deliver academic lessons using moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to a non-intervention control. Elementary schools in eastern Kansas (n=17) were cluster randomized to A+PAAC (N=9, target ≥100min/week) or control (N=8). Academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-III) in a sample of children (A+PAAC=316, Control=268) in grades 2 and 3 at baseline (Fall 2011) and repeated each spring across 3years...
February 10, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192034/physiological-and-perceived-responses-in-different-levels-of-exergames-in-elite-athletes
#4
Louisa Ming Yan Chung, Feng Hua Sun, Chris Tsz Man Cheng
OBJECTIVE: Exergames have been suggested to increase the public's physical activity and to benefit cardiovascular health, particularly among the youth. However, not many studies compared the physiological and perceived responses between exergames and the authentic sports especially for elite athletes. This study aimed to investigate the physiological and perceived responses in different levels of Nintendo(®) Wii Fit™ U rowing exergames in one group of elite rowing athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All participants were asked to perform the authentic rowing on the indoor rowing machine on the first day and to play the rowing exergames on the second day, in three levels with 1 hour rest between levels...
February 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187344/evaluation-of-implementing-a-community-based-exercise-intervention-during-pregnancy
#5
Lene A H Haakstad, Birgitte Sanda, Ingvild Vistad, Linda Reme Sagedal, Hilde Lohne Seiler, Monica K Torstveit
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the implementation of a community-based exercise intervention (the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study) during pregnancy. DESIGN: descriptive, explorative. SETTING: healthcare clinics in southern Norway, including urban and rural settings. PARTICIPANTS: healthy, nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy of ≤20 gestational weeks, age ≥18 years and body mass index ≥19kg/m(2). METHODS: women were randomised to either twice-weekly supervised exercise sessions combined with nutritional counselling (n=303) or standard prenatal care (n=303)...
January 21, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187054/effects-of-an-8-week-aerobic-dance-program-on-health-related-fitness-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Shu-Li Cheng, Huey-Fang Sun, Mei-Ling Yeh
BACKGROUND: Both psychiatric symptoms and the side effects of medication significantly affect patients with schizophrenia. These effects frequently result in a sedentary lifestyle and weight gain, which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. PURPOSE: This study developed an aerobic dance program for patients with schizophrenia and then evaluated the effect of this program on health-related fitness outcomes. METHODS: An experimental research design was used...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185810/statins-for-primary-prevention-in-physically-active-individuals-do-the-risks-outweigh-the-benefits
#7
Ishak A Mansi, Jenny L English, Michael J Morris, Song Zhang, Eric M Mortensen, Ethan A Halm
OBJECTIVES: There are little data on the potential benefits and adverse events of statins among physically fit individuals. Our objective was to examine the associations of statin use with beneficial cardiovascular outcomes and adverse events in active duty military (a surrogate for high level of physical fitness). DESIGN: This is a retrospective propensity score-matched cohort study of healthy active duty military (fiscal years [FY] 2002-2011). METHODS: Statin-users received statins during FY 2005 as their only prescription medication...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185805/comparison-of-energy-expenditure-and-heart-rate-responses-between-three-commercial-group-fitness-classes
#8
James B Wickham, Nicholas J Mullen, Douglas G Whyte, Jack Cannon
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to compare the energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes (group resistance exercise [PUMP]; indoor stationary cycling [RIDE]; and step aerobics [STEP]). DESIGN: One-Way Repeated Measures incorporating a Latin Square Design for class randomisation. METHODS: Ten participants (5 males and 5 females) completed each group fitness class in random order with energy expenditure and heart rate determined using an Actiheart monitor...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184234/exploring-diurnal-variation-using-piecewise-linear-splines-an-example-using-blood-pressure
#9
Jamie M Madden, Xia Li, Patricia M Kearney, Kate Tilling, Anthony P Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: There are many examples of physiological processes that follow a circadian cycle and researchers are interested in alternative methods to illustrate and quantify this diurnal variation. Circadian blood pressure (BP) deserves additional attention given uncertainty relating to the prognostic significance of BP variability in relation to cardiovascular disease. However, the majority of studies exploring variability in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) collapse the data into single readings ignoring the temporal nature of the data...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181777/differences-in-energy-expenditure-amount-of-physical-activity-and-physical-exertion-level-during-a-zumba-fitness-class-among-adult-women-who-are-normal-weight-overweight-and-obese
#10
Rodrigo Yáñez-Sepúlveda, Fernando Barraza-Gómez, Eduardo Báez-San Martin, Oscar F Araneda, Juan P Zavala, Gernot K Hecht, Marcelo Tuesta
BACKGROUND: One of the most popular expressions of massive group classes of aerobic physical activity is Zumba fitness. The aim of the study was to compare and relate the energy expenditure and the amount and intensity of physical effort during a Zumba fitness class in women with different Body Mass Index (BMI). METHODS: Body displacements of 61 adult women who performed a one-hour Zumba session were evaluated with triaxial accelerometers. In order to observe the effect of BMI women were divided into normal weight (n= 26), overweight (n= 21) and obese groups (n=14)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178928/measurement-of-blood-pressure-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-hypertension-in-different-ethnic-groups-one-size-fits-all
#11
Paramjit Gill, M Sayeed Haque, Una Martin, Jonathan Mant, Mohammed A Mohammed, Gurdip Heer, Amanpreet Johal, Ramandeep Kaur, Claire Schwartz, Sally Wood, Sheila M Greenfield, Richard J McManus
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and prevalence varies by ethnic group. The diagnosis and management of blood pressure are informed by guidelines largely based on data from white populations. This study addressed whether accuracy of blood pressure measurement in terms of diagnosis of hypertension varies by ethnicity by comparing two measurement modalities (clinic blood pressure and home monitoring) with a reference standard of ambulatory BP monitoring in three ethnic groups...
February 8, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170314/heart-disease-mortality-in-the-life-span-study-1950-2008
#12
Ikuno Takahashi, Yukiko Shimizu, Eric J Grant, John Cologne, Kotaro Ozasa, Kazunori Kodama
Based on the findings from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's studies of the cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, it has been reported that total-body irradiation at 0.5-1.0 Gy could be responsible for increased rates of mortality from broad-based categories of cardiovascular disease (CVD), i.e., stroke and heart disease. However, CVD consists of various subtypes that have potentially different radiation dose responses, as well as subtype-specific risks that have not been fully evaluated. Potential problems with changes in the coding rules for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the underlying causes and trends in CVD mortality in Japan also need to be considered...
February 7, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169553/improvements-in-health-related-quality-of-life-cardio-metabolic-health-and-fitness-in-postmenopausal-women-after-an-exercise-plus-health-promotion-intervention-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Mercedes Vélez Toral, Débora Godoy-Izquierdo, Nicolás Mendoza Ladrón de Guevara, Carlos de Teresa Galván, Alberto Salamanca Ballesteros, Juan F Godoy García
BACKGROUND: This study explored multidimensional outcomes that were derived from the adherence to regular exercise among previously sedentary postmenopausal 45-64 years old women who engaged in a ~20-week exercise programme. METHODS: A RCT with between-group (intervention and control women) and within-subject measures (baseline, postintervention and 3-month and 12-month follow-ups) wasconducted. HRQoL and several indicators of cardio-metabolic status and fitness were assessed...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169018/impact-of-age-at-smoking-initiation-on-smoking-related-morbidity-and-all-cause-mortality
#14
Seung Hee Choi, Manfred Stommel
INTRODUCTION: Using a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, the aims of this study were to examine the impact of early smoking initiation on the development of self-reported smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality. METHODS: National Health Interview Survey data from 1997 through 2005 were linked to the National Death Index with follow-up to December 31, 2011. Two primary dependent variables were smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality; the primary independent variable was age of smoking initiation...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166774/highly-wearable-cuff-less-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-monitoring-with-single-arm-electrocardiogram-and-photoplethysmogram-signals
#15
Qingxue Zhang, Dian Zhou, Xuan Zeng
BACKGROUND: Long-term continuous systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) monitors are of tremendous value to medical (cardiovascular, circulatory and cerebrovascular management), wellness (emotional and stress tracking) and fitness (performance monitoring) applications, but face several major impediments, such as poor wearability, lack of widely accepted robust SBP models and insufficient proofing of the generalization ability of calibrated models. METHODS: This paper proposes a wearable cuff-less electrocardiography (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG)-based SBP and HR monitoring system and many efforts are made focusing on above challenges...
February 6, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166765/optitrain-a-randomised-controlled-exercise-trial-for-women-with-breast-cancer-undergoing-chemotherapy
#16
Y Wengström, K A Bolam, S Mijwel, C J Sundberg, M Backman, M Browall, J Norrbom, H Rundqvist
BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy suffer from a range of detrimental disease and treatment related side-effects. Exercise has shown to be able to counter some of these side-effects and improve physical function as well as quality of life. The primary aim of the study is to investigate and compare the effects of two different exercise regimens on the primary outcome cancer-related fatigue and the secondary outcomes muscle strength, function and structure, cardiovascular fitness, systemic inflammation, skeletal muscle gene activity, health related quality of life, pain, disease and treatment-related symptoms in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy...
February 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166118/all-extremity-exercise-training-improves-arterial-stiffness-in-older-adults
#17
Han-Kyul Kim, Chueh-Lung Hwang, Jeung-Ki Yoo, Moon-Hyon Hwang, Eileen M Handberg, John W Petersen, Wilmer W Nichols, Sofia Sofianos, Demetra D Christou
: Large elastic arteries stiffen with age which predisposes older adults to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise training is known to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease, but the optimal exercise prescription for attenuating large elastic arterial stiffening in older adults is not known. PURPOSE: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the effect of all-extremity high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and carotid artery compliance in older adults...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165641/effects-of-nitrate-supplementation-in-trained-and-untrained-muscle-is-modest-with-initial-high-plasma-nitrite-levels
#18
Peter M Christensen, Nanna K Petersen, Signe N Friis, Eddie Weitzberg, Lars Nybo
Nitrate (NO3(-) ) supplementation resulting in higher plasma nitrite (NO2(-) ) is reported to lower resting mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and oxygen uptake (VO2 ) during submaximal exercise in non-athletic populations, whereas effects in general are absent in endurance trained individuals. To test whether physiological effects of NO3(-) supplementation depend on local muscular training status or cardiovascular fitness, male endurance-trained cyclists (CYC, n=9, VO2 -max: 64±3 ml/min/kg; mean±SD) and recreational active subjects serving as a control group (CON, n=8, 46±3 ml/min/kg), acutely consumed nitrate-rich beetroot-juice ([NO3(-) ] ~9 mmol) (NIT) or placebo (PLA) with assessment of resting MAP and energy expenditure during moderate intensity (~50% VO2 -max) and incremental leg cycling (LEG-ex) and arm cranking exercise (ARM-ex)...
February 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163426/a-pediatric-echocardiographic-z-score-nomogram-for-a-developing-country-indian-pediatric-echocardiography-study-the-z-score
#19
Rajendra Kumar Gokhroo, Avinash Anantharaj, Devendra Bisht, Kamal Kishor, Nishad Plakkal, Rajeswari Aghoram, Nivedita Mondal, Shashi K Pandey, Ramsagar Roy
BACKGROUND: Almost all presently available pediatric echocardiography Z-score nomograms are based on Western data. They may not be a suitable reference standard for assessing the sizes of cardiac structures of children from developing countries. OBJECTIVE: This study's objective was to collect normative data of 21 commonly measured cardiovascular structures using M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography in Indian children aged between 4 and 15 years and to derive Z-score nomograms for each...
January 2017: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162927/the-standardization-of-frailty-phenotype-criteria-improves-its-predictive-ability-the-toledo-study-for-healthy-aging
#20
Cristina Alonso Bouzón, Jose Antonio Carnicero, Jimmy Gonzáles Turín, Francisco J García-García, Andrés Esteban, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have assessed the performance of the original frailty phenotype criteria (FPC) and the standardized version according to the characteristics of the population. No studies exist, however, evaluating the impact of this standardization on its predictive ability. OBJECTIVE: To compare how the original FPC and the standardized-frailty phenotype criteria (S-FPC) estimate the prevalence of frailty and their ability to predict mortality, hospitalization, incident disability, and falls...
February 2, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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