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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155255/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-cardiovascular-health-and-aging-a-focus-on-physical-activity-and-nutrition
#1
REVIEW
Robert G Wallace, Laura C Twomey, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Jonathan Turner, Niall Moyna, Philip M Cummins, Ronan P Murphy
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transport of blood and nutrients to tissues, and is pivotal to the physiological health and longevity. Epigenetic modification is a natural, age-associated process resulting in highly contextualised gene expression with clear implications for cell differentiation and disease onset. Biological/epigenetic age is independent of chronological age, constituting a highly reflective snapshot of an individual's overall health. Accelerated vascular aging is of major concern, effectively lowering disease threshold...
November 16, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148135/cadence-tracking-and-disturbance-rejection-in-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-for-paraplegic-subjects-a-case-study
#2
Lucas O da Fonseca, Antônio P L Bó, Juliana A Guimarães, Miguel E Gutierrez, Emerson Fachin-Martins
Functional electrical stimulation cycling has been proposed as an assistive technology with numerous health and fitness benefits for people with spinal cord injury, such as improvement in cardiovascular function, increase in muscular mass, and reduction of bone mass loss. However, some limitations, for example, lack of optimal control strategies that would delay fatigue, may still prevent this technology from achieving its full potential. In this work, we performed experiments on a person with complete spinal cord injury using a stationary tadpole trike when both cadence tracking and disturbance rejection were evaluated...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142027/underestimation-of-risk-of-carotid-subclinical-atherosclerosis-by-cardiovascular-risk-scores-in-patients-with-psoriatic-arthritis
#3
Jiayun Shen, Steven H Lam, Qing Shang, Chun-Kwok Wong, Edmund K Li, Priscilla Wong, Emily W Kun, Isaac T Cheng, Martin Li, Tena K Li, Tracy Y Zhu, Jack Jock-Wai Lee, Mimi Chang, Alex Pui-Wai Lee, Lai-Shan Tam
OBJECTIVE: To test the performances of established cardiovascular (CV) risk scores in discriminating subclinical atherosclerosis (SCA) in patients with psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: These scores were calculated: Framingham risk score (FRS), QRISK2, Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk algorithm (ASCVD) from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)-recommended modified versions (by 1...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136482/impact-of-an-elementary-school-based-intervention-on-physical-activity-time-and-aerobic-capacity-georgia-2013-2014
#4
Hayley A Braun, Christi M Kay, Patricia Cheung, Paul S Weiss, Julie A Gazmararian
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the impact of a 1-year elementary school physical activity intervention on changes in teacher-reported school-based physical activity time and (2) assess the relationship between these changes and changes in student aerobic capacity. METHODS: HealthMPowers, a nonprofit organization, provided a multicomponent physical activity intervention to 3479 students in 39 schools in Georgia during 2013-2014. HealthMPowers administered a survey to faculty members before (August 2013) and after (May 2014) the intervention to measure student physical activity times...
November 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133364/day-by-day-variability-of-home-blood-pressure-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-in-clinical-practice-the-j-hop-study-japan-morning-surge-home-blood-pressure
#5
Satoshi Hoshide, Yuichiro Yano, Hiroyuki Mizuno, Hiroshi Kanegae, Kazuomi Kario
We assessed the relationship between day-by-day home blood pressure (BP) variability and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in clinical practice. J-HOP study (Japan Morning Surge-Home Blood Pressure) participants underwent home BP monitoring in the morning and evening for a 14-day period, and their BP levels and BP variability independent of the mean (VIM) were assessed. Incident CVD events included coronary heart disease and stroke. Cox models were fitted to assess the home BP variability-CVD risk association...
November 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130612/caliber-and-fitness-of-the-axillary-artery-as-a-conduit-for-large-bore-cardiovascular-procedures
#6
Daniel M Arnett, James C Lee, Michael A Harms, Kathleen E Kearney, Mario Ramos, Bryn M Smith, Emily C Anderson, Rajiv Tayal, James M McCabe
OBJECTIVES: We sought to describe the caliber and vascular health of the subclavian and axillary arteries as related to their potential utilization in complex cardiovascular procedures. BACKGROUND: Patients referred for advanced catheter-based therapies frequently have lower extremity peripheral vascular disease that may prohibit the use of large bore arterial catheters. Utilization of the upper extremity peripheral vasculature is rarely considered as an alternative access strategy...
November 11, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128242/early-changes-of-blood-lipid-levels-during-psychotropic-drug-treatment-as-predictors-of-long-term-lipid-changes-and-of-new-onset-dyslipidemia
#7
Aurélie Delacrétaz, Frederik Vandenberghe, Mehdi Gholam-Rezaee, Nuria Saigi Morgui, Anaïs Glatard, Jacques Thonney, Alessandra Solida-Tozzi, Stéphane Kolly, Sylfa Fassassi Gallo, Philipp Baumann, Sylvie Berney, Sandrine Valloton Zulauff, Jean-Michel Aubry, Roland Hasler, Karsten Ebbing, Armin von Gunten, Philippe Conus, Chin B Eap
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases and dyslipidemia represent a major health issue in psychiatry. Many psychotropic drugs can induce a rapid and substantial increase of blood lipid levels. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the potential predictive power of an early change of blood lipid levels during psychotropic treatment on long-term change and on dyslipidemia development. METHODS: Data were obtained from a prospective study including 181 psychiatric patients with metabolic parameters monitored during the first year of treatment and with adherence ascertained...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127590/body-mass-index-diet-and-exercise-testing-possible-linkages-to-breast-cancer-risk-via-dna-methylation
#8
Arielle S Gillman, Casey K Gardiner, Claire E Koljack, Angela D Bryan
PURPOSE: To examine DNA methylation as a mechanism linking diet, physical activity, weight status, and breast cancer risk. METHODS: Insufficiently active women of varying weight status, without a history of cancer, completed a maximal exercise test, clinical measurement of height and weight, and a dietary intake measure. They also provided blood samples, which were analyzed to ascertain average methylation of candidate genes related to breast cancer (BRCA1, RUNX3, GALNT9, and PAX6) and inflammation (TLR4 and TLR6)...
November 10, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125879/spironolactone-is-effective-in-treating-hypokalemia-among-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#9
Amit Langote, Swapnil Hiremath, Marcel Ruzicka, Brendan B McCormick
BACKGROUND: Hypokalemia is common in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and is associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The management approach for such patients routinely includes spironolactone at our centre. We undertook this study to assess the efficacy of spironolactone for the treatment of hypokalemia in PD patients. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of PD patients at a single centre. Serum potassium was compared prior to initiation of spironolactone and two months afterwards...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120983/assessing-differences-in-anthropometric-and-fitness-characteristics-between-police-academy-cadets-and-incumbent-officers
#10
Robin Orr, J Jay Dawes, Rodney Pope, Joseph Terry
The physical fitness of police officers must be developed in new cadets and sustained in incumbent officers. The aims of this study were to profile and compare the anthropometric and fitness characteristics of police academy cadets and incumbent officers of varying ages from a single police force. Retrospective data for 84 police academy cadets (♂=66, mean age=27.96±5.73 yrs; ♀=18, mean age=30.50±5.76 yrs) and 80 incumbent police officers (♂=73, mean age=39.43±8.28 yrs; ♀=7, mean age=37.86±3.67 yrs) were compiled...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120154/predisposing-factors-responsible-for-the-occurrence-of-bacterial-purulent-meningoencephalitis
#11
Brankica Dupanović, Olgica Gajović, Dragica Terzić, Bogdanka Andrić, Zoran Todorović, Branko Jakovljević, Danko Živković
Bacterial purulent meningoencephalitis (BPME) is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by various pyogenic bacteria. The disease is defined as the inflammatory process of leptomeninges (visceral layer, pia mater and arachnoid membrane) and brain parenchyma with exudates in the subarachnoid space and surrounding brain structures. The aim of the study was to define the predisposing factors responsible for the occurrence of BPME, as well as the possible correlation between the presence of predisposing factors and patient demographic characteristics, etiology and outcome of the disease...
March 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118992/identifying-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-in-different-age-cohorts-does-one-size-fit-all
#12
Maria L Alva, Thomas J Hoerger, Ping Zhang, Edward W Gregg
Objective: To estimate age-specific risk equations for type 2 diabetes onset in young, middle-aged, and older US adults, and to compare the performance of simple equations based on readily available demographic information alone, against enhanced equations that require both demographic and clinical information (fasting plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels). Research design and methods: We estimated the probability of developing diabetes by age group using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (for ages 18-40 years), Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (for ages 45-64 years), and the Cardiovascular Health Study (for ages 65 years and older)...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112958/cardiovascular-disease-cvd-and-chronic-kidney-disease-ckd-event-rates-in-hiv-positive-persons-at-high-predicted-cvd-and-ckd-risk-a-prospective-analysis-of-the-d-a-d-observational-study
#13
Mark A Boyd, Amanda Mocroft, Lene Ryom, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Caroline Sabin, Wafaa M El-Sadr, Camilla Ingrid Hatleberg, Stephane De Wit, Rainer Weber, Eric Fontas, Andrew Phillips, Fabrice Bonnet, Peter Reiss, Jens Lundgren, Matthew Law
BACKGROUND: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) events in HIV-positive people. We hypothesized that participants in D:A:D at high (>5%) predicted risk for both CVD and CKD would be at even greater risk for CVD and CKD events. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included all participants with complete risk factor (covariate) data, baseline eGFR > 60 ml/min/1...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111863/multicomponent-exercise-intervention-and-metacognition-in-obese-preadolescents-a-randomized-controlled-study
#14
Feng-Tzu Chen, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu, Jen-Hao Liu, Yu-Kai Chang
This study examines the effect of a 12-week multicomponent exercise intervention on metacognition among preadolescents with obesity. Seventy-five preadolescents were randomly assigned to either a multicomponent exercise group or a reading control group. An exercise intervention consisting of a jumping rope was utilized to develop multifaceted fitness features, with each session lasting for 75 min and three sessions being conducted per week for 12 weeks. Results revealed significant interactions between group and time point for cardiovascular fitness, muscular endurance, flexibility, and power, as well as for Tower of London task measures, including total move score, total executive time, and total planning-solving time, with better postintervention performances achieved by the exercise group...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106631/effect-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-blockade-in-adults-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-not-on-dialysis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Ionut Nistor, Johan De Sutter, Christiane Drechsler, David Goldsmith, Maria Jose Soler, Charles Tomson, Andrzej Wiecek, Mihaela-Dora Donciu, Davide Bolignano, Wim Van Biesen, Adrian Covic
The presumed superiority of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)-blocking agents over other antihypertensive agents in patients with diabetes to delay development of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has recently been challenged. In addition, there is ongoing uncertainty whether RAAS-blocking agents reduce mortality and/or delay ESKD in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-5. In this subgroup, there might be an expedited need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) when RAAS-blocking agents are used...
July 2, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101264/increased-coronary-heart-disease-and-stroke-hospitalisations-from-ambient-temperatures-in-ontario
#16
Li Bai, Qiongsi Li, Jun Wang, Eric Lavigne, Antonio Gasparrini, Ray Copes, Abderrahmane Yagouti, Richard T Burnett, Mark S Goldberg, Sabit Cakmak, Hong Chen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between ambient temperatures and hospitalisations for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. METHODS: Our study comprised all residents living in Ontario, Canada, 1996-2013. For each of 14 health regions, we fitted a distributed lag non-linear model to estimate the cold and heat effects on hospitalisations from CHD, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and ischaemic stroke, respectively. These effects were pooled using a multivariate meta-analysis...
November 3, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101174/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-in-cardiovascular-health-an-ergogenic-aid-or-exercise-therapeutic
#17
Mary N Woessner, Luke Colin McIlvenna, Joaquin Ortiz de Zevallos, Christopher Neil, Jason David Allen
Oral consumption of inorganic nitrate, which is abundant in green leafy vegetables and roots, has been shown to increase circulating plasma nitrite concentration, which can be converted to NO in low oxygen conditions. The associated beneficial physiological effects include a reduction in blood pressure, modification of platelet aggregation and increases in limb blood flow. There have been numerous studies of nitrate supplementation in healthy recreational and competitive athletes, however, the ergogenic benefits are currently unclear due to a variety of factors including small sample sizes, different dosing regimens, variable nitrate conversion rates, the heterogeneity of participants' initial fitness levels and the types of exercise tests employed...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100088/natural-selection-on-genes-related-to-cardiovascular-health-in-high-altitude-adapted-andeans
#18
Jacob E Crawford, Ricardo Amaru, Jihyun Song, Colleen G Julian, Fernando Racimo, Jade Yu Cheng, Xiuqing Guo, Jie Yao, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, João A Lima, Jerome I Rotter, Josef Stehlik, Lorna G Moore, Josef T Prchal, Rasmus Nielsen
The increase in red blood cell mass (polycythemia) due to the reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) of residence at high altitude or other conditions is generally thought to be beneficial in terms of increasing tissue oxygen supply. However, the extreme polycythemia and accompanying increased mortality due to heart failure in chronic mountain sickness most likely reduces fitness. Tibetan highlanders have adapted to high altitude, possibly in part via the selection of genetic variants associated with reduced polycythemic response to hypoxia...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099231/effects-of-high-intensity-intermittent-training-on-vascular-function-in-obese-preadolescent-boys
#19
Napasakorn Chuensiri, Daroonwan Suksom, Hirofumi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: High-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) may serve as an effective alternative to traditional endurance training, since HIIT has been shown to induce greater improvements in aerobic fitness and health-related markers in adult populations. Our objective was to determine whether HIIT and supramaximal high-intensity intermittent training (supra-HIIT) would improve vascular structure and function in obese preadolescent boys. METHODS: Before the baseline testing, 48 obese preadolescent boys, aged 8-12 years, were randomly assigned into control (CON; n = 16), HIIT (8 × 2 minutes at 90% peak power output, n = 16), and supra-HIIT (8 × 20 seconds at 170% peak power output, n = 16) groups...
November 3, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098620/clinical-evidence-of-exercise-benefits-for-stroke
#20
Peipei Han, Wen Zhang, Li Kang, Yixuan Ma, Liyuan Fu, Liye Jia, Hairui Yu, Xiaoyu Chen, Lin Hou, Lu Wang, Xing Yu, Masahiro Kohzuki, Qi Guo
Even though stroke is the third, not the first, most common cause of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries, it is one of the most expensive to treat. Part of the expense is due to secondary problems in the post-stroke period including: cognition, memory, attention span, pain, sensation loss, psychological issues, and problems with mobility and balance. Research has identified that exercise has both positive physical and psychosocial effects for post-stroke patients. Therefore, this scientific statement provides an overview on exercise rehabilitation for post-stroke patients...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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