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cardiovascular fitness

Karsten Königstein, Denis Infanger, Christopher Klenk, Timo Hinrichs, Anja Rossmeissl, Sandra Baumann, Benjamin Hafner, Henner Hanssen, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness in normal weight individuals, and this has not been examined in obese individuals. It is unclear whether an altered body composition acts as a modifier of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and arterial stiffness. We examined the association between peak oxygen uptake and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and analysed whether body composition attenuates this association in obese middle-aged individuals...
March 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Krzysztof Karpowicz, Katarzyna Krych, Małgorzata Karpowicz, Witold Nowak, Piotr Gronek
The map of candidate genes that can potentially affect physical fitness becomes larger every year, and they are associated with such aspects as respiratory and cardiovascular stability; body build and composition - especially muscle mass and strength; carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; response to training; and exercise intolerance.The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the CA repeat polymorphism of the P1 promoter of the IGF1 gene and the structure of motor skills in the two groups of Polish young athletes in 2011-2013...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
L Vincze, M E Rollo, M J Hutchesson, R Callister, C E Collins
BACKGROUND: A tailored approach to nutrition and physical activity advice can support women following childbirth in managing barriers (i.e. time and childcare) to making healthy lifestyle changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a personally tailored nutrition and exercise programme for postpartum women delivered via video-consultations by an accredited practising dietitian (APD) and accredited exercise physiologist (AEP)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Helena Hörder, Lena Johansson, XinXin Guo, Gunnar Grimby, Silke Kern, Svante Östling, Ingmar Skoog
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether greater cardiovascular fitness in midlife is associated with decreased dementia risk in women followed up for 44 years. METHODS: A population-based sample of 1,462 women 38 to 60 years of age was examined in 1968. Of these, a systematic subsample comprising 191 women completed a stepwise-increased maximal ergometer cycling test to evaluate cardiovascular fitness. Subsequent examinations of dementia incidence were done in 1974, 1980, 1992, 2000, 2005, and 2009...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
Sebastian E Beyer, Mihir M Sanghvi, Nay Aung, Alice Hosking, Jackie A Cooper, José Miguel Paiva, Aaron M Lee, Kenneth Fung, Elena Lukaschuk, Valentina Carapella, Murray A Mittleman, Soren Brage, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Steffen E Petersen
BACKGROUND: Handgrip strength, a measure of muscular fitness, is associated with cardiovascular (CV) events and CV mortality but its association with cardiac structure and function is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine if handgrip strength is associated with changes in cardiac structure and function in UK adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), mass (M), and mass-to-volume ratio (MVR) were measured in a sample of 4,654 participants of the UK Biobank Study 6...
2018: PloS One
Daniela G L Terson de Paleville, Susan J Harkema, Claudia A Angeli
CONTEXT: Four individuals with motor complete SCI with an implanted epidural stimulator who were enrolled in another study were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, metabolic function and body composition at four time points before, during, and after task specific training. Following 80 locomotor training sessions, a 16-electrode array was surgically placed on the dura (L1-S1 cord segments) to allow for electrical stimulation. After implantation individuals received 160 sessions of task specific training with epidural stimulation (stand and step)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Emanuele D'Artibale, Paul B Laursen, John B Cronin
Performance in motorcycle road racing is typically considered as the summation of interactions between rider, motorcycle, tires, and environment. Despite the substantial investments made towards the development of motorcycle technology and the business interests of manufacturers, published research focusing on the riders is relatively sparse, and a bike-centered mentality tends to dominate the sport. This manuscript reviews the known human performance aspects of motorcycle road racing and suggests directions for future research...
March 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Diego Z Carvalho, Erik K St Louis, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Val J Lowe, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Scott A Przybelski, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Prashanthi Vemuri
Importance: Aging is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), which has been linked to cognitive decline in the elderly. However, whether EDS is associated with the pathologic processes of Alzheimer disease remains unclear. Objective: To investigate whether EDS at baseline is associated with a longitudinal increase in regional β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in a cohort of elderly individuals without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective analysis included participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a longitudinal population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Rui Zhang, Changwei Li, Tingting Liu, Liqiang Zheng, Shengxu Li
Background: Previous studies have reported that handgrip strength, a measure of muscular fitness, is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. However, the association of handgrip strength with blood pressure in children has been inconsistent. We tested the association of handgrip strength with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in children and adolescents from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014. Methods: The study included 3,929 participants aged 8-19 years who underwent a handgrip test...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Maria Laura Canale, Chiara Lestuzzi, Irma Bisceglia, Paola Vallerio, Iris Parrini
AIMS: Cardio-oncology is imposing as the specialty deputed to the management of a large and rapidly increasing population of cancer patients receiving anticancer treatments with cardiovascular side effects or presenting with cardiac and oncological comorbidities. Organization patterns dramatically vary across Italy. METHODS: On the behalf of ANMCO, we have analyzed the characteristics of cardio-oncology services across different hospital types in Italy. A questionnaire was sent out to all ANMCO divisions inquiring about inner organization, workload, multidisciplinary team and inter-hospital connections...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Marco Herbsleb, Andy Schumann, Berend Malchow, Christian Puta, P Christian Schulze, Holger W Gabriel, Karl-Jürgen Bär
The elevated cardiovascular risk of patients with schizophrenia contributes to a reduced life expectancy of 15-20years. This study investigated whether cardiac autonomic dysfunction (CADF) in schizophrenia is related to chronotropic incompetence, an established cardiovascular risk marker. We investigated thirty-two patients suffering from paranoid schizophrenia and thirty-two control subjects matched for age, sex, body mass index and fat free mass. A cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was performed to study heart rate responses to exercise as well as submaximal (ventilatory threshold 1, VT1 ) and maximal endurance capacities (peak oxygen consumption, VO2peak ; peak power output, Ppeak )...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Hari Rajagopal, Santosh C Uppu, Justin Weigand, Simon Lee, Ruchika Karnik, Helen Ko, Puneet Bhatla, James Nielsen, John Doucette, Ira Parness, Shubhika Srivastava
Right atrial (RA) size is a prognostic indicator for heart failure and cardiovascular death in adults. Data regarding use of RA area (RAA) by two-dimensional echocardiography as a surrogate for RA size and allometric modeling to define appropriate indexing of the RAA are lacking. Our objective was to validate RAA as a reliable measure of RA size and to define normal reference values by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in a large population of healthy children and develop Z-scores using a validated allometric model for indexing RAA independent of age, sex, and body size...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Aleksandra Żebrowska, Barbara Hall, Aleksandra Kochańska-Dziurowicz, Grażyna Janikowska
BACKGROUND: An integral part of the treatment of diabetes is physical activity. Scientific reports have shown the beneficial effects of hypoxia and exercise on cardiovascular and metabolic variables in patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of normobaric hypoxia and exercise on the serum concentrations of proangiogenic factors and glycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 28 adults (aged 30...
February 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Wally Omar, Ambarish Pandey, Mark J Haykowsky, Jarett D Berry, Carl J Lavie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper highlights the dynamic relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and heart failure (HF). As heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) surpasses heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in prevalence, our void in understanding how to treat this syndrome becomes less justifiable. As such, significant attention has been given to the role that obesity and physical inactivity play, as both risk factors for heart failure, and therapeutic targets for its treatment...
March 8, 2018: Current Heart Failure Reports
J W M Greve, N D Bouvy
The EndoBarrier (duodenal-jejunal bypass liner) became available in 2009 as an endoscopic treatment method for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The treatment results in significant weight loss and improvement of the obesity-related morbidities such as T2D, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. However, unexpected complications such as liver abscesses can occur, in addition to expected adverse events such as bleeding, obstruction, and migration. The incidence of these complications is low however, and to date no treatment-related mortality has occurred with the use of EndoBarrier...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Mihir M Sanghvi, Nay Aung, Jackie A Cooper, José Miguel Paiva, Aaron M Lee, Filip Zemrak, Kenneth Fung, Ross J Thomson, Elena Lukaschuk, Valentina Carapella, Young Jin Kim, Nicholas C Harvey, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Steffen E Petersen
BACKGROUND: The effect of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT)-previously known as hormone replacement therapy-on cardiovascular health remains unclear and controversial. This cross-sectional study examined the impact of MHT on left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) structure and function, alterations in which are markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease, in a population-based cohort. METHODS: Post-menopausal women who had never used MHT and those who had used MHT ≥3 years participating in the UK Biobank who had undergone cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and free of known cardiovascular disease were included...
2018: PloS One
Natalia Ivanovna Kurysheva, Tamara Yakovlevna Ryabova, Vitaliy Nikiforovich Shlapak
Relevance: Vascular factors may be involved in the development of both high tension glaucoma (HTG) and normal tension (NTG) glaucoma; however, they may be not exactly the same. Autonomic dysfunction characterized by heart rate variability (HRV) is one of the possible reasons of decrease in mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP). Purpose: To compare the shift of the HRV parameters in NTG and HTG patients after a cold provocation test (CPT). Methods: MOPP, 24-hour blood pressure and HRV were studied in 30 NTG, 30 HTG patients, and 28 healthy subjects...
March 2018: EPMA Journal
Lukas Streese, Arne Deiseroth, Juliane Schäfer, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Henner Hanssen
Background: Age is a key determinant for the development of cardiovascular disease and higher age coincides with an increased prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. The study examines the influence of physical activity on aging processes of physiological systems focusing on the mechanisms of vascular aging. Methods/Design: The study consists of two parts. The cross-sectional approach aims at examining the association of physical fitness and cardiovascular risk with large and small artery function in healthy older active (HOA, n = 40) and sedentary (HOS, n = 40) persons as well as older sedentary individuals with increased cardiovascular risk (OSR, n = 80) aged 50-80 years...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Liliana C Baptista, André Pinto Amorim, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Aristides M Machado-Rodrigues, Manuel Teixeira Veríssimo, Raul A Martins
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of functionally-limited hypertensive individuals highlights the need for interventions to reduce the burden of hypertension-aging-disability and to maximize the chances of healthy aging. AIM: This study aims to compare the effects of multicomponent exercise and different pharmacological treatments on functional status and cardiovascular risk outcomes in hypertensive older adults with comorbidities. METHODS: Participants (n = 96) engage in a 3 days/week multicomponent (aerobic + resistance) exercise program and for one of the following three conditions: (1) thiazide-related diuretics (TDs; n = 33, 69...
March 6, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Giulio Sergio Roi, Giovanni Mosconi, Valentina Totti, Maria Laura Angelini, Erica Brugin, Patrizio Sarto, Laura Merlo, Sergio Sgarzi, Michele Stancari, Paola Todeschini, Gaetano La Manna, Andrea Ermolao, Ferdinando Tripi, Lucia Andreoli, Gianluigi Sella, Alberto Anedda, Laura Stefani, Giorgio Galanti, Rocco Di Michele, Franco Merni, Manuela Trerotola, Daniela Storani, Alessandro Nanni Costa
AIM: To evaluate the effect of a 12-mo supervised aerobic and resistance training, on renal function and exercise capacity compared to usual care recommendations. METHODS: Ninety-nine kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) were assigned to interventional exercise (Group A; n = 52) and a usual care cohort (Group B; n = 47). Blood and urine chemistry, exercise capacity, muscular strength, anthropometric measures and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed at baseline, and after 6 and 12 mo...
February 24, 2018: World Journal of Transplantation
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