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neural leprosy

Muhammed Afsal, Veena Chowdhury, Anjali Prakash, Sapna Singh, Neera Chowdhury
PURPOSE: Traditionally, peripheral nerve lesions are diagnosed on the basis of clinical history, physical examination, and electrophysiological studies, and the role of imaging studies has been limited. The purpose of the study was to assess the usefulness of sonography in diagnosing peripheral nerve lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty adult patients with peripheral nerve lesion/s and 30 healthy adult volunteers were included in the study, and sonography of the relevant peripheral nerve/s was done...
September 2016: Neurology India
J M Pardal-Fernandez, S Ezsol-Lendvai, M Rodriguez-Vazquez, J L Agudo-Mena, B Godes-Medrano
INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae. It is particularly prone to affect the skin and the nerve trunks and, in fact, both are compromised in most infected patients. It is transmitted by exposure to those with the disease and sometimes by reactivation. One uncommon possibility is pure neural leprosy, which is characterised by neuropathy, but without skin lesions. We report the case of a patient with pure neural leprosy and review the diagnostic aspects...
September 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Rychelle Clayde Affonso Medeiros, Karina do Carmo de Vasconcelos Girardi, Fernanda Karlla Luz Cardoso, Bruno de Siqueira Mietto, Thiago Gomes de Toledo Pinto, Lilian Sales Gomez, Luciana Silva Rodrigues, Mariana Gandini, Julio Jablonski Amaral, Sérgio Luiz Gomes Antunes, Suzana Corte-Real, Patricia Sammarco Rosa, Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Leonardo Ribeiro Batista-Silva, Mauro Sola-Penna, Marcus Fernandes Oliveira, Milton Ozório Moraes, Flavio Alves Lara
Mycobacterium leprae, the intracellular etiological agent of leprosy, infects Schwann promoting irreversible physical disabilities and deformities. These cells are responsible for myelination and maintenance of axonal energy metabolism through export of metabolites, such as lactate and pyruvate. In the present work, we observed that infected Schwann cells increase glucose uptake with a concomitant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, the key enzyme of the oxidative pentose pathway...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Xiaoshuai Zhang, Zhongshang Yuan, Jiadong Ji, Hongkai Li, Fuzhong Xue
BACKGROUND: In stark contrast to network-centric view for complex disease, regression-based methods are preferred in disease prediction, especially for epidemiologists and clinical professionals. It remains a controversy whether the network-based methods have advantageous performance than regression-based methods, and to what extent do they outperform. METHODS: Simulations under different scenarios (the input variables are independent or in network relationship) as well as an application were conducted to assess the prediction performance of four typical methods including Bayesian network, neural network, logistic regression and regression splines...
2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Pedro Olavo De Paula Lima, Francisco Marcos Bezerra Cunha, Heitor De Sá Gonçalves, Maria Araci Pontes Aires, Rosa Lívia Freitas De Almeida, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr
BACKGROUND: In leprosy, sensory function of nerves is evaluated with monofilaments test and the motor function with voluntary muscle test, however electroneuromyography is considered as the gold-standard tool. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed: i) to evaluate the correlation between clinical tests and electroneuromyography for the diagnosis of leprosy neuropathy; and ii) to identify the prevalence of leprosy neuropathy and the most compromised peripheral nerves in leprosy...
March 2016: Leprosy Review
Carlos Gustavo Wambier, Sarah Perillo de Farias Wambier, Renata Bazan Furini, João Carlos Lopes Simão, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade, Norma Tiraboschi Foss
INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is mainly transmitted among family members who share genetic and ambient factors. The clinical form of leprosy in the index case and kinship could be risk factors for leprosy transmission. High antibody levels in household contacts (HC) in the absence of neural or skin lesions may characterize latent infection. This study aimed to evaluate the association between seropositivity for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I immunoglobulin M antibodies (APGL-I) in HC and the clinical classification of the index case and to analyze the association between APGL-I positivity with other factors such as age, kinship, and gender...
February 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Tatiane Aparecida Queiroz, Francisca Patrícia Barreto de Carvalho, Clélia Albino Simpson, Amélia Carolina Lopes Fernandes, Débora Lúcia de Araújo Figueirêdo, Maria Irany Knackfuss
OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients under treatment for leprosy-related reactions. METHOD: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted from October 2013 to April 2014 with 61 individuals in a reference center in the Brazilian northeast region. The statistical test used considered a significance level of 0,05. RESULTS: Most individuals were males (57.38%), with low family income (50...
2015: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
G Sahay, H K Kar, R Gupta
The effects of corticosteroids in varying doses and duration for the treatment of reaction and nerve function impairment (NFI) in leprosy have been studied extensively. However, an optimal dose and duration of steroid when used as a prophylactic agent for NFI is yet to be established. This study was aimed to determine whether addition of low dose steroid for the initial 8 months of multi drug therapy (MDT) can prevent further deterioration of nerve function (DON) in multibacillary leprosy patients. Sixty multibacillary leprosy patients were randomized into two groups and B consisting of 30 patients each...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Leprosy
Yvelise T Morato-Conceicao, Eduardo R Alves-Junior, Talita A Arruda, Jose C Lopes, Cor J F Fontes
Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions...
2016: PeerJ
Ismael Alves Rodrigues Júnior, Letícia Trivellato Gresta, Maria de Lourdes Meirelles Noviello, Christiane Teixeira Cartelle, Sandra Lyon, Rosa Maria Esteves Arantes
OBJECTIVES: Different methods for the classification of leprosy have been proposed since the 1930s. The aim of this study was to compare the current methods at a referral center in Brazil. METHODS: The World Health Organization (WHO) operational classification was compared to the Ridley and Jopling classification, the Madrid classification, and a classification based on the number of body areas affected by skin and/or neural lesions (NBAA). The correlation between the clinical and histopathological components of the Ridley and Jopling classification was assessed...
April 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Maria Angela Bianconcini Trindade, Lana Luiza da Cruz Silva, Lucia Maria Almeida Braz, Valdir Sabbaga Amato, Bernard Naafs, Mirian Nacagami Sotto
BACKGROUND: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermal complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which may occur after or during treatment. It has been frequently reported from India and the Sudan, but its occurrence in South America has been rarely reported. It may mimic leprosy and its differentiation may be difficult, since both diseases may show hypo-pigmented macular lesions as clinical presentation and neural involvement in histopathological investigations. The co-infection of leprosy and VL has been reported in countries where both diseases are endemic...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
K D Barman, A Madan, V K Garg, K Goel, N Khurana
Lepra reactions are acute episodes occurring during the disease process of leprosy and are of 2 types: type 1 or reversal reaction and type 2 reaction or erythema odosumleprosum (ENL). In the episodes of lepra reaction several parts are affected including face and extremities like oral cavity. In the present case report we reported a rare case of lepromatous leprosy with necrotic ENL involving scalp apart from the usual sites. A 58 year old married male presented to us with complaints of spontaneous onset, recurrent eruption of multiple reddish raised painful lesions...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Leprosy
Adma Silva de Lima, Karin Cristine Pinto, Míryan Priscilla Santos Bona, Suelen Mayara Lopes de Mattos, Marina Portiolli Hoffmann, Fabiane Andrade Mulinari-Brenner, Vanessa Cristhine Dallolmo Ottoboni
BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an infectious disease that may lead to irreversible nerve damage, compromising patient's quality of life and leading to loss of working years. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients followed at a University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study, based on a review of medical records. We studied the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with leprosy monitored at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Federal University of Paraná between January 2005 and January 2010...
September 2015: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Abhishek De, Abu Hena Hasanoor Reja, Supratik Biswas, Basudev Bhattacharya, Gobinda Chatterjee, Keya Basu, Aarti Sarda, Nidhi Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: Genomic reduction helps obligate intracellular microbes to survive difficult host niches. Adaptation of Mycobacterium leprae in cases of pure neural leprosy (PNL) in the intracellular niche of peripheral nerves can be associated with some gene loss. Recently, a stable but variable number of tandem repefzats (TTC) have been reported in strains of M. leprae. FolP and rpoB genes are the two common mutation sites which deal with the susceptibility of the bacteria to drugs. AIM: We attempted to find if genomic reduction of M...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Vagner Wilian Batista E Sá, Maria Katia Gomes, Maria Luíza Sales Rangel, Tiago Arruda Sanchez, Filipe Azaline Moreira, Sebastian Hoefle, Inaiacy Bittencourt Souto, Antônio José Ledo Alves da Cunha, Ana Paula Fontana, Claudia Domingues Vargas
BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an endemic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that predominantly attacks the skin and peripheral nerves, leading to progressive impairment of motor, sensory and autonomic function. Little is known about how this peripheral neuropathy affects corticospinal excitability of handgrip muscles. Our purpose was to explore the motor cortex organization after progressive peripheral nerve injury and upper-limb dysfunction induced by leprosy using noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jogendra K Bastia, Sanjeev K Bhoi, Jayantee Kalita, Usha K Misra
This study aims to evaluate the types of neuropathy in a cohort of restless leg syndrome (RLS) patients and compare them with primary RLS. RLS symptoms can occur in peripheral neuropathy and may cause diagnostic confusion, and there is a paucity of studies comparing neuropathic RLS and primary RLS. Patients with RLS diagnosed according to the international restless legs syndrome study group criteria were categorized as primary RLS or secondary. Those with evidence of peripheral neuropathy were categorized as neuropathic RLS...
August 2015: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Abhishek De, Trupti V Surana, Saugato Biswas, Abu Hena Hasanoor Reja, Gobinda Chatterjee
A middle aged male presented with non-tender cystic swelling over left distal forearm since 1 year. No other cutaneous abnormality could be found except mild paresthesia of the overlying skin and equivocal thickening of the ipsilateral ulnar nerve. Routine investigation was within normal limits. Detailed workup of the patient including MRI of the lesion suggested the diagnosis as tenosynovitis with a soft tissue mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology from the cyst showed foamy macrophages and acid fast bacilli; while PCR of the aspirate confirmed the etiological agent as M...
March 2015: Indian Journal of Dermatology
M R Jardim, R Vital, M A Hacker, M Nascimento, S L Balassiano, E N Sarno, X Illarramendi
INTRODUCTION: Leprosy causes nerve injury, which mimics clinical and neurophysiological conditions, rendering it an excellent model of peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: A retrospective study including 822 nerve conduction studies (NCS) of 509 patients was developed to appraise the electrophysiological pattern of leprosy neuropathy. NCS of motor and sensory nerves performed before, during, and after multidrug therapy (MDT) were analyzed. RESULTS: During the three periods of MDT, while NCS alterations were similar regarding extension, topography, damage severity, and type of lesion, NCS showed that sensory was more frequent (sural nerve) (92-96%) than motor impairment (70-77%) (ulnar nerve)...
April 2015: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Tinara Leila de Souza Aarão, Nelma Rosa Esteves, Natalia Esteves, Luis Paulo de Miranda Soares, Denise da Silva Pinto, Hellen Thais Fuzii, Juarez Antônio Simões Quaresma
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae which affects the skin and peripheral nervous system. The immune response of the host determines the clinical course of the disease. The tuberculoid form is the result of high cell-mediated immunity characterized by a Th1 response, whereas the lepromatous form is characterized by low cell-mediated immunity and a Th2 humoral response. The neural damage established produces marked changes in the expression of growth factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors (NGF-R)...
December 2014: Microbial Pathogenesis
David M Scollard, Richard W Truman, Gigi J Ebenezer
All patients with leprosy have some degree of nerve involvement. Perineural inflammation is the histopathologic hallmark of leprosy, and this localization may reflect a vascular route of entry of Mycobacterium leprae into nerves. Once inside nerves, M. leprae are ingested by Schwann cells, with a wide array of consequences. Axonal atrophy may occur early in this process; ultimately, affected nerves undergo segmental demyelination. Knowledge of the mechanisms of nerve injury in leprosy has been greatly limited by the minimal opportunities to study affected nerves in man...
January 2015: Clinics in Dermatology
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