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D L M Campbell, A B A Ali, D M Karcher, J M Siegford
The tiered aviary for laying hens includes a floor litter area to promote foraging and dust bathing. Data are needed on hens' use of different litter substrates and effectiveness of substrates in removing excess feather lipids to ensure a suitable litter area. Bovans White hens were housed in commercial-style aviaries with access to one of 3 litter substrates (wood shavings, straw, or plastic turf mats-AstroTurf®, n = 4 aviary pens per substrate, 144 cage-reared hens populated per pen). Litter areas were videoed across 2 d each at 4 ages: immediately following first aviary opening (25 wk), then at 28, 50, and 68 weeks...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Hamada E Ali, Björn Reineking
Soil erosion is a widespread problem in agricultural landscapes, particularly in regions with strong rainfall events. Vegetated field margins can mitigate negative impacts of soil erosion off-site by trapping eroded material. Here we analyse how local management affects the trapping capacity of field margins in a monsoon region of South Korea, contrasting intensively and extensively managed field margins on both steep and shallow slopes. Prior to the beginning of monsoon season, we equipped a total of 12 sites representing three replicates for each of four different types of field margins ("intensive managed flat", "intensive managed steep", "extensive managed flat" and "extensive managed steep") with Astroturf mats...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Jenine K Harris, Sarah Moreland-Russell, Bechara Choucair, Raed Mansour, Mackenzie Staub, Kendall Simmons
BACKGROUND: In January 2014, the Chicago City Council scheduled a vote on local regulation of electronic cigarettes as tobacco products. One week prior to the vote, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) released a series of messages about electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) through its Twitter account. Shortly after the messages, or tweets, were released, the department's Twitter account became the target of a "Twitter bomb" by Twitter users sending more than 600 tweets in one week against the proposed regulation...
2014: Journal of Medical Internet Research
George C Balazs, Gabriel J Pavey, Alaina M Brelin, Adam Pickett, David J Keblish, John-Paul H Rue
BACKGROUND: The effect of synthetic playing surfaces on the risk of injury in athletes is frequently debated in the orthopaedic literature. Biomechanical studies have identified increased frictional force at the shoe-surface interface, theoretically increasing the risk of injury relative to natural grass. This increase in frictional force is potentially relevant for the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, where noncontact mechanisms are frequent. However, clinical studies examining this issue have shown mixed results...
July 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Melinda Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2010: Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons
B Scholz, S Urselmans, J B Kjaer, L Schrader
The provision for dustbathing material will be a legal requirement in cage-housing systems for laying hens within the European Union beginning in 2012. At present, food particles are widely used and typically offered in small amounts on Astroturf mats one or more times per day to facilitate dustbathing, pecking, and scratching. In the present study, we compared layers' preference for food and 3 other (nonnutritive) substrates for foraging and dustbathing. In each of 2 identical trials, 72 hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown) were kept in 12 compartments (6 hens each)...
August 2010: Poultry Science
Mark C Drakos, Howard Hillstrom, James E Voos, Anna N Miller, Andrew P Kraszewski, Thomas L Wickiewicz, Russell F Warren, Answorth A Allen, Stephen J O'Brien
The shoe-surface interface has been implicated as a possible risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The purpose of this study is to develop a biomechanical, cadaveric model to evaluate the effect of various shoe-surface interfaces on ACL strain. There will be a significant difference in ACL strain between different shoe-surface combinations when a standardized rotational moment (a simulated cutting movement) is applied to an axially loaded lower extremity. The study design was a controlled laboratory study...
January 2010: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Kevin Currell, Steve Conway, Asker E Jeukendrup
The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability of a new test of soccer performance and evaluate the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) on soccer performance. Eleven university footballers were recruited and underwent 3 trials in a randomized order. Two of the trials involved ingesting a placebo beverage, and the other, a 7.5% maltodextrin solution. The protocol comprised a series of ten 6-min exercise blocks on an outdoor Astroturf pitch, separated by the performance of 2 of the 4 soccer-specific tests, making the protocol 90 min in duration...
February 2009: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
L Aldred
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2000: American Indian Quarterly
Glen A Livesay, Dawn R Reda, Eric A Nauman
BACKGROUND: Shoe-surface interactions have been implicated in the high number of noncontact knee injuries suffered by athletes at all levels. PURPOSE: To examine shoe-surface interactions on newer field designs and compare these with more traditional shoe-surface combinations. The peak torque and rotational stiffness (the rate at which torque is developed under rotation) were determined. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: A device was constructed to measure the torque versus applied rotation developed between different shoe-surface combinations...
March 2006: American Journal of Sports Medicine
John W Orchard, John W Powell
PURPOSE: Previous studies have found conflicting relationships between type of playing surface and injury in American football but have not taken into account possible variations in the surface conditions of outdoor stadiums due to changing weather. METHODS: A total of 5910 National Football League team games between 1989 and 1998 inclusive were studied to determine associations between knee and ankle sprains, playing surface, and the weather conditions on the day of the game...
July 2003: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
H Wall, R Tauson
Egg quality, egg production, and hen use of facilities, with respect mainly to proportion of eggs laid in nests and bird locations after lights-out, were studied in furnished-cage models for six or eight birds. In these cages, most of the eggs are laid in the 25 cm wide nest, i.e., egg laying is concentrated to a much smaller area compared with conventional cages. The study (20 to 80 wk of age) used 1,296 hens of three genotypes Hy-Line White, Hy-Line Brown, and Lohmann Selected Leghorn. Conventional four-hen cages were included as a reference...
March 2002: Poultry Science
R S Heidt, S G Dormer, P W Cawley, P E Scranton, G Losse, M Howard
This study evaluated the shoe-surface interaction of 15 football shoes made by 3 manufacturers in both anterior translation and rotation using a specially designed pneumatic testing system. The shoes included traditional cleated football shoes, "court" shoes (basketball-style shoes), molded-cleat shoes, and turf shoes. Under an 11.35-kg (25-pound) axial load, all shoes were tested on synthetic turf under wet and dry conditions and on natural stadium grass. Test-retest reliability, as calculated using the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation test, was 0...
November 1996: American Journal of Sports Medicine
G Eggers-Ströder, B Hermann
Frequency and mechanisms of injuries in field hockey are evaluated in a retrospective study of 322 players. Each athlete sustains 0.6 (female) respectively 1.0 (male) injuries per season on the average, mostly minor lesions. Severe injuries are mostly due to the playing surface; especially astroturf seems to be dangerous. The risk during match exceeds the risk during practice by a factor of 10.36% are typical field hockey injuries as they are caused by ball or stick. 62% of the lesions are related to the lower limb, 19% to the upper limb (mainly hand and fingers), and 19% to head and trunk...
June 1994: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
K D Bowers, R B Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1974: Medicine and Science in Sports
J W Powell, M Schootman
This study focuses on the injury rates for natural grass and AstroTurf surfaces and the risk factors of game position and type of play. We examined the game-related knee sprains, medial collateral ligament sprains, and anterior cruciate ligament sprains that occurred in the National Football League during the 1980 to 1989 seasons. The findings are controlled for categories of severity (number of games missed due to injury), position, and situation (rushing or passing) at the time of injury. The analysis of the data incorporates epidemiologic techniques associated with incidence density ratios...
November 1992: American Journal of Sports Medicine
L K Dixon, D Van Mayeda
Mice representing the twenty-second generation of selection for high and low open-field activity were tested on four different floor textures: soil, bedding, metal, and astroturf. Members of both groups were most active on soil and least active on the metal floor surface. Although floor texture significantly affected activity level, rank order of the high and low selected groups was maintained. In general, defecation scores were negatively correlated with activity.
January 1976: Behavior Genetics
K D Bowers, R B Martin
The authors have studied the alterations in cleat-surface friction of AstroTurf associated with use and exposure. Three cleat types were studied on five year old turf and on an unused, unexposed turf sample of the same production batch. Tests were carried out with and against surface grain under wet and dry conditions. It was found that with use and exposure the surface friction of AstroTurf does change, affecting both player performance and safety.
1975: Medicine and Science in Sports
K D Bowers, R B Martin
Plantar capsule-ligament sprain of the great toe metatarsophalangeal joint, herein referred to as "turf-toe," is discussed with emphasis on two apparantly predisposing factors, playing surface hardness and shoe stiffness. Surface hardness studies have previously been performed by the authors on natural grass and AstroTurf. A study of football shoe flexibility is presented and the results correlated with the occurrence of turftoe. We have not encountered this entity in players wearing relatively stiff conventional seven posted football shoes or the more flexible soccer style shoe on natural grass fields...
1976: Medicine and Science in Sports
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