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Gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679417/a-probiotic-modulates-the-microbiome-and-immunity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Stephanie K Tankou, Keren Regev, Brian C Healy, Emily Tjon, Luca Laghi, Laura M Cox, Pia Kivisäkk, Isabelle V Pierre, Hrishikesh Lokhande, Roopali Gandhi, Sandra Cook, Bonnie Glanz, James Stankiewicz, Howard L Weiner
OBJECTIVE: Effect of a probiotic on the gut microbiome and peripheral immune function in healthy controls and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. METHODS: MS patients (N=9) and controls (N=13) were orally administered a probiotic containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus twice daily for two months. Blood and stool specimens were collected at baseline, after completion of the 2-month treatment, and 3 months after discontinuation of therapy...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679061/the-role-of-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-in-the-function-of-intestinal-barrier
#2
Milica Vujicic, Tamara Saksida, Sanja Despotovic, Svetlana Sokovic Bajic, Ivana Lalić, Ivan Koprivica, Dragica Gajic, Natasa Golic, Maja Tolinacki, Ivana Stojanovic
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifunctional protein that is involved in the development of gut-related inflammation. To investigate the role of MIF in the function of the intestinal barrier, we have explored intestinal permeability and gut-associated immune response in MIF-deficient (MIF-KO) mice. The absence of MIF provoked impairment of tight and adherens epithelial junctions in the colon through the disturbance of E-cadherin, zonula occludens-1, occludin and claudin-2 expression, which lead to the increase of intestinal barrier permeability...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678946/prenatal-antibiotic-exposure-and-childhood-asthma-a-population-based-study
#3
Keely Loewen, Barret Monchka, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Geert 't Jong, Meghan B Azad
Antibiotic use during infancy alters gut microbiota and immune development and is associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma. The impact of prenatal antibiotic exposure is unclear. We sought to characterise the association between prenatal antibiotic exposure and childhood asthma.We performed a population-based cohort study using prescription records, hospitalization records, and physician billing claims from 213,661 mother-child dyads born in Manitoba, Canada from 1996-2012. Associations were determined using Cox regression, adjusting for maternal asthma, postnatal antibiotics, and other potential confounders...
April 20, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678920/imidacloprid-decreases-honey-bee-survival-but-does-not-affect-the-gut-microbiome
#4
Kasie Raymann, Erick V S Motta, Catherine Girard, Ian M Riddington, Jordan A Dinser, Nancy A Moran
Accumulating evidence suggests that pesticides have played a role in the increased rate of honeybee colony loss. One of the most commonly used pesticides in the US is the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. Although the primary mode of action of imidacloprid is the insect nervous system, it has also been shown to cause changes insects' digestive physiology, and alter the microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The honey bee gut microbiome plays a major role in bee health. Although many studies have shown that imidacloprid affects honey bee behavior, its impact on the microbiome has not been fully elucidated...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678349/comment-on-effects-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-the-composition-and-diurnal-oscillation-of-gut-microbiota-related-to-the-metabolic-improvements
#5
EDITORIAL
Tammy L Kindel, Jon Gould
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678198/metabolic-retroconversion-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-the-gut-microbiota
#6
Lesley Hoyles, Maria L Jiménez-Pranteda, Julien Chilloux, Francois Brial, Antonis Myridakis, Thomas Aranias, Christophe Magnan, Glenn R Gibson, Jeremy D Sanderson, Jeremy K Nicholson, Dominique Gauguier, Anne L McCartney, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas
BACKGROUND: The dietary methylamines choline, carnitine, and phosphatidylcholine are used by the gut microbiota to produce a range of metabolites, including trimethylamine (TMA). However, little is known about the use of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) by this consortium of microbes. RESULTS: A feeding study using deuterated TMAO in C57BL6/J mice demonstrated microbial conversion of TMAO to TMA, with uptake of TMA into the bloodstream and its conversion to TMAO. Microbial activity necessary to convert TMAO to TMA was suppressed in antibiotic-treated mice, with deuterated TMAO being taken up directly into the bloodstream...
April 20, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677563/polysaccharide-of-hericium-erinaceus-attenuates-colitis-in-c57bl-6-mice-via-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-inflammation-related-signaling-pathways-and-modulating-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiota
#7
Yilin Ren, Yan Geng, Yan Du, Wang Li, Zhen-Ming Lu, Hong-Yu Xu, Guo-Hua Xu, Jin-Song Shi, Zheng-Hong Xu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disease caused by a dysregulated immune with unknown etiology. Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a Chinese medicinal fungus, with the effect of prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we have tested the anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharide of H. erinaceus (HECP, Mw: 86.67 kDa) in the model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice. Our data indicated that HECP could improve clinical symptoms and down-regulate key markers of oxidative stresses, including nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677472/translating-immunology-into-therapeutic-concepts-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Holm H Uhlig, Fiona Powrie
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) defines a spectrum of complex disorders. Understanding how environmental risk factors, alterations of the intestinal microbiota, and polygenetic and epigenetic susceptibility impact on immune pathways is key for developing targeted therapies. Mechanistic understanding of polygenic IBD is complemented by Mendelian disorders that present with IBD, pharmacological interventions that cause colitis, autoimmunity, and multiple animal models. Collectively, this multifactorial pathogenesis supports a concept of immune checkpoints that control microbial-host interactions in the gut by modulating innate and adaptive immunity, as well as epithelial and mesenchymal cell responses...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676858/effects-of-prebiotic-fiber-xylooligosaccharide-in-adenine-induced-nephropathy-in-mice
#9
Jieping Yang, Qing Li, Susanne M Henning, Jin Zhong, Mark Hsu, Rupo Lee, Jianfeng Long, Brenda Chan, Glenn T Nagami, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
SCOPE: We evaluated the effect of the prebiotic fiber xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on kidney function and gut microbiome in mice with adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHOD AND RESULTS: Mice were fed the control diet containing adenine for three weeks to induce CKD and switched to XOS supplemented (2 or 7%) or control diets for another 3 weeks. Mice with CKD exhibited increased BUN, creatinine and kidney histopathology. XOS significantly reversed kidney injuries in CKD mice...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676108/-fecal-tibetan-medicines
#10
Huan Du, Tong Xu, Hai-Jiao Li, Qi Li, Chen-Lei GangHuan, Gang Fan, Yi Zhang
Fecal Tibetan medicines have a long history of application in China, with a good clinical efficacy. In order to promote the development and modernization of these medicines, we consulted ancient and modern Tibetan medicine literatures to collect and summarize the names, original species, natures, flavor, functions and processing methods of fecal Tibetan medicines. A total of 35 fecal Tibetan medicines were collected, such as Jiufen, Heibingpian, Langfen, Mafen, Goufen, Gezifen. The most commonly used medicines were Jiufen and Heibingpian...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675845/genome-sequence-and-description-of-gracilibacillus-timonensis-sp-nov-strain-marseille-p2481-t-a-moderate-halophilic-bacterium-isolated-from-the-human-gut-microflora
#11
Awa Diop, El Hadji Seck, Gregory Dubourg, Nicholas Armstrong, Caroline Blanc-Tailleur, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
Microbial culturomics represents an ongoing revolution in the characterization of the human gut microbiota. By using three culture media containing high salt concentrations (10, 15, and 20% [w/v] NaCl), we attempted an exhaustive exploration of the halophilic microbial diversity of the human gut and isolated strain Marseille-P2481 (= CSUR P2481 =  DSM 103076), a new moderately halophilic bacterium. This bacterium is a Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, spore-forming rod that is motile by use of a flagellum and exhibits catalase, but not oxidase activity...
April 19, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675053/the-potential-effect-of-chinese-herbal-formula-hongqijiangzhi-fang-in-improving-nafld-focusing-on-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-gut-microbiota
#12
Shu Liang, Yupei Zhang, Yuanjun Deng, Yifang He, Yinji Liang, Zien Liang, Yanning Chen, Kairui Tang, Runsen Chen, Qinhe Yang
The present study investigates the potential therapeutic mechanism underlying the effects of the Chinese herbal formula Hongqijiangzhi Fang (HJF) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups ( n = 8): control group was fed a normal diet, three other groups were fed high-fat diets (HFD), and the two treatment groups were intragastrically given a compound probiotic or HJF during the molding time. After 16 w, related indices were detected...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674425/impact-of-gut-colonization-with-butyrate-producing-microbiota-on-respiratory-viral-infection-following-allo-hct
#13
Bastiaan W Haak, Eric R Littmann, Jean-Luc Chaubard, Amanda J Pickard, Emily Fontana, Fatima Adhi, Yangtsho Gyaltshen, Lilan Ling, Sejal M Morjaria, Jonathan U Peled, Marcel R van den Brink, Alexander I Geyer, Justin R Cross, Eric G Pamer, Ying Taur
Respiratory viral infections are frequent in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT), and can potentially progress to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The intestinal microbiota contributes to resistance against viral and bacterial pathogens in the lung. However, whether intestinal microbiota composition and associated changes in microbe-derived metabolites contribute to the risk of LRTI following upper respiratory tract viral infection remains unexplored in the setting of allo-HCT...
April 19, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674267/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-multistrain-probiotic-formulation-l-rhamnosus-b-lactis-and-b-longum
#14
Marzia Sichetti, Stefania De Marco, Rita Pagiotti, Giovanna Traina, Donatella Pietrella
OBJECTIVE: In recent years, a great number of studies have been directed toward the evaluation of gastrointestinal microbiota modulation through the introduction of beneficial microorganisms, also known as probiotics. Many studies have highlighted how this category of bacteria is very important for the good development, functioning, and maintenance of our immune system. There is a delicate balance between the immune system, located under the gut epithelial barrier, and the microbiota, but many factors can induce a disequilibrium that leads to an inflammatory state and dysbiosis...
February 14, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674211/pcbs-high-fat-diet-interactions-as-mediators-of-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-abdominal-fat-accumulation-in-female-mice
#15
Yulang Chi, Yi Lin, Huimin Zhu, Qiansheng Huang, Guozhu Ye, Sijun Dong
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), one type of lipophilic pollutant, are ubiquitous in daily life. PCBs exposure has been implicated in the alterations of gut microbial community which is profoundly associated with diverse metabolic disorders, including obesity. High-fat diet (H) is a dietary pattern characterized by a high percentage of fat. According to the theory that similarities can be easily solvable in each other, PCBs and H exposures are inevitably and objectively coexistent in a real living environment, prompting great concerns about their individual and combined effects on hosts...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673868/corrigendum-to-acute-and-repeated-exposure-to-social-stress-reduces-gut-microbiota-diversity-in-syrian-hamsters-behav-brain-res-345-2018-39-48
#16
Katherine A Partrick, Benoit Chassaing, Linda Q Beach, Katharine E McCann, Andrew T Gewirtz, Kim L Huhman
Social stress can promote a variety of neuropsychiatric illnesses, many of which have a high co-morbidity with gastrointestinal disorders. Recent data indicate that gastrointestinal microbiota can affect their host's brain and behavior. Syrian hamsters are ideal subjects for social stress research because they are territorial, aggressive, and rapidly form dominant/subordinate relationships. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to social stress in hamsters alters gut microbiota in dominants and subordinates after an agonistic encounter and if pre-stress gut microbiota composition is correlated with the outcome of such a conflict...
April 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673295/gut-microbiota-metabolism-and-psychopathology-a-critical-review-and-novel-perspectives
#17
Robin N Groen, Nicolien C de Clercq, Max Nieuwdorp, H J Rogier Hoenders, Albert K Groen
Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic comorbidities. However, the mechanisms through which metabolic and psychiatric disorders are connected remain unclear. Pre-clinical studies in rodents indicate that the bidirectional signaling between the intestine and the brain, the so-called microbiome-gut-brain axis, plays an important role in the regulation of both metabolism and behavior. The gut microbiome produces a vast number of metabolites that may be transported into the host and play a part in homeostatic control of metabolism as well as brain function...
April 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673211/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-obesity-and-type-2-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-new-insights-into-old-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Igor Alexander Harsch, Peter Christopher Konturek
The investigation of the human microbiome is the most rapidly expanding field in biomedicine. Early studies were undertaken to better understand the role of microbiota in carbohydrate digestion and utilization. These processes include polysaccharide degradation, glycan transport, glycolysis, and short-chain fatty acid production. Recent research has demonstrated that the intricate axis between gut microbiota and the host metabolism is much more complex. Gut microbiota—depending on their composition—have disease-promoting effects but can also possess protective properties...
April 17, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672211/increased-prevalence-of-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-infants-at-risk-of-developing-celiac-disease-the-proficel-study
#19
Marta Olivares, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Giada de Palma, Amalia Capilla, Esther Nova, Gemma Castillejo, Vicente Varea, Ascensión Marcos, José Antonio Garrote, Isabel Polanco, Ester Donat, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen Calvo, Luis Ortigosa, Francesc Palau, Yolanda Sanz
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy involving genetic and environmental factors, whose interaction influences disease risk. The intestinal microbiota, including viruses and bacteria, could play a role in the pathological process leading to gluten intolerance. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of pathogens in the intestinal microbiota of infants at familial risk of developing CD. We included 127 full-term newborns with at least one first-degree relative with CD. Infants were classified according to milk-feeding practice (breastfeeding or formula feeding) and HLA-DQ genotype (low, intermediate or high genetic risk)...
April 19, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672197/inflammasomes-make-the-case-for-littermate-controlled-experimental-design-in-studying-host-microbiota-interactions
#20
Michail Mamantopoulos, Francesca Ronchi, Kathy D McCoy, Andy Wullaert
Several human diseases are thought to evolve due to a combination of host genetic mutations and environmental factors that include alterations in intestinal microbiota composition termed dysbiosis. Although in some cases, host genetics may shape the gut microbiota and enable it to provoke disease, experimentally disentangling cause and consequence in such host-microbe interactions requires strict control over non-genetic confounding factors. Mouse genetic studies previously proposed Nlrp6/ASC inflammasomes as innate immunity regulators of the intestinal ecosystem...
April 19, 2018: Gut Microbes
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