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Gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049404/low-complexity-microbiota-in-the-duodenum-of-children-with-newly-diagnosed-ulcerative-colitis
#1
Fei Sjöberg, Cecilia Barkman, Intawat Nookaew, Sofia Östman, Ingegerd Adlerberth, Robert Saalman, Agnes E Wold
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by gut dysbiosis. To date, the large bowel microbiota has been in focus. However, the microbiota of the small intestine may also be of importance, as the small bowel is a site for the induction and control of mucosal immune responses, which can be modulated by constituents of the local microbiota. METHODS: Duodenal fluids were collected during diagnostic work-up of treatment-naïve children who were suspected of having IBD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049378/immune-modulatory-genomic-properties-differentiate-gut-microbiota-of-infants-with-and-without-eczema
#2
Seungdae Oh, Gaik Chin Yap, Pei-Ying Hong, Chiung-Hui Huang, Marion M Aw, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Wen-Tso Liu, Bee Wah Lee
Gut microbiota play an important role in human immunological processes, potentially affecting allergic diseases such as eczema. The diversity and structure of gut microbiota in infants with eczema have been previously documented. This study aims to evaluate by comparative metagenomics differences in genetic content in gut microbiota of infants with eczema and their matched controls. Stools were collected at the age of one month old from twelve infants from an at risk birth cohort in a case control manner. Clinical follow up for atopic outcomes were carried out at the age of 12 and 24 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049360/the-bacterial-virulence-factor-caga-induces-microbial-dysbiosis-that-contributes-to-excessive-epithelial-cell-proliferation-in-the-drosophila-gut
#3
Tiffani Alvey Jones, Diane Z Hernandez, Zoë C Wong, Anica M Wandler, Karen Guillemin
Gut microbiota facilitate many aspects of human health and development, but dysbiotic microbiota can promote hyperplasia and inflammation and contribute to human diseases such as cancer. Human patients infected with the gastric cancer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori have altered microbiota; however, whether dysbiosis contributes to disease in this case is unknown. Many H. pylori human disease phenotypes are associated with a potent virulence protein, CagA, which is translocated into host epithelial cells where it alters cell polarity and manipulates host-signaling pathways to promote disease...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048927/early-origins-of-asthma-role-of-microbial-dysbiosis-and-metabolic-dysfunction
#4
Fernando D Martinez, Stefano Guerra
Asthma is a developmental disease that affects airway growth and is characterized by inappropriate responses to a variety of environmental stimuli. Recent advances point to two altered early life pathways as major determinants of asthma risk. In the "microbial" pathway, pre- and post-natal exposures to microbiota-loaded farm environments block gene-virus interactions (e.g., interactions between risk alleles in chromosome 17q21 and lower respiratory illnesses [LRI] by rhinovirus) that are associated with asthma development...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048369/effect-of-curcumin-on-the-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-in-ovariectomized-rats
#5
Zhiguo Zhang, Yanjing Chen, Lihua Xiang, Zhen Wang, Gary Guishan Xiao, Jingqing Hu
Curcumin has been proven to have a weight-loss effect in a menopausal rat model induced by ovariectomy. However, the effects of curcumin on gut microfloral communities of ovariectomized (OVX) rats remains unclear. Here, we used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing to explore the effects of curcumin on microbial diversity in the gut of OVX rats. Female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation (SHAM group). The OVX rats were treated with vehicle (OVX group) or curcumin (CUR group) by oral gavage...
October 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047329/genome-sequencing-of-39-akkermansia-muciniphila-isolates-reveals-its-population-structure-genomic-and-functional-diverisity-and-global-distribution-in-mammalian-gut-microbiotas
#6
Xianfeng Guo, Shenghui Li, Jiachun Zhang, Feifan Wu, Xiangchun Li, Dan Wu, Min Zhang, Zihao Ou, Zhuye Jie, Qiulong Yan, Peng Li, Jiangfeng Yi, Yongzheng Peng
BACKGROUND: Akkermansia muciniphila is one of the most dominant bacteria that resides on the mucus layer of intestinal tract and plays key role in human health, however, little is known about its genomic content. RESULTS: Herein, we for the first time characterized the genomic architecture of A. muciniphila based on whole-genome sequencing, assembling, and annotating of 39 isolates derived from human and mouse feces. We revealed a flexible open pangenome of A. muciniphila currently consisting of 5644 unique proteins...
October 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047231/alterations-in-gut-microbiota-and-immunity-by-dietary-fat
#7
REVIEW
Bo Gie Yang, Kyu Yeon Hur, Myung Shik Lee
Gut microbiota play critical physiological roles in energy extraction from the intestine and in the control of systemic immunity, as well as local intestinal immunity. Disturbance of gut microbiota leads to the development of several diseases, such as colitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, metabolic disorders, cancer, etc. From a metabolic point of view, the gut is a large metabolic organ and one of the first to come into contact with dietary fats. Interestingly, excessive dietary fat has been incriminated as a primary culprit of metabolic syndrome and obesity...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045896/microbes-rev-up-host-metabolism-around-the-clock
#8
Geoffrey N Pronovost, Elaine Y Hsiao
There is increasing evidence that the microbiome regulates host metabolism, but specific mechanisms underlying these interactions remain poorly understood. In a recent paper in Science, Wang et al. (2017) reveal that the gut microbiota regulates the expression of circadian-clock genes to impact host lipid metabolism and body composition.
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045737/comparative-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-of-culex-restuans-diptera-culicidae-females-from-different-parents
#9
Ephantus J Muturi, Jose L Ramirez, Alejandro P Rooney, Chang-Hyun Kim, Brenda Beerntsen
The potential for gut microbiota to impede or enhance pathogen transmission is well-documented but the factors that shape this microbiota in mosquito vectors are poorly understood. We characterized and compared the gut microbiota of adult females of Culex restuans (Theobald; Diptera: Culicidae) from different parents. Cx. restuans larvae from nine field-collected egg rafts were reared on a common diet and gut microbiota of newly emerged adult females characterized by MiSeq sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045670/impact-of-age-related-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-exercise-on-intestinal-microbiota-composition
#10
David Houghton, Christopher J Stewart, Craig Stamp, Andrew Nelson, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Anil Wipat, Michael I Trenell, Douglass M Turnbull, Laura C Greaves
Mitochondrial dysfunction is prevalent in the ageing gastrointestinal tract. We investigated whether mitochondrial function in ageing colonic crypts and exercise influence microbial gut communities in mice. Twelve PolgAmut/mut mice were randomly divided into a sedentary and exercise group at 4 months. Seven aged matched PolgA+/+ mice remained sedentary throughout. Stool samples were collected at 4, 7 and 11 months, and bacterial profiling was achieved through 16S rDNA sequencing profiling. Mitochondrial enzyme activity was assessed in colonic epithelial crypts at 11 months for PolgAmut/mut and PolgA+/+ mice...
October 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045472/sulfites-inhibit-the-growth-of-four-species-of-beneficial-gut-bacteria-at-concentrations-regarded-as-safe-for-food
#11
Sally V Irwin, Peter Fisher, Emily Graham, Ashley Malek, Adriel Robidoux
Sulfites and other preservatives are considered food additives to limit bacterial contamination, and are generally regarded as safe for consumption by governmental regulatory agencies at concentrations up to 5000 parts per million (ppm). Consumption of bactericidal and bacteriostatic drugs have been shown to damage beneficial bacteria in the human gut and this damage has been associated with several diseases. In the present study, bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects of two common food preservatives, sodium bisulfite and sodium sulfite, were tested on four known beneficial bacterial species common as probiotics and members of the human gut microbiota...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045349/male-specific-association-between-fat-free-mass-index-and-faecal-microbiota-in-2-to-3-year-old-australian-children
#12
Paula Smith-Brown, Mark Morrison, Lutz Krause, Peter S W Davies
OBJECTIVES: Maturation of the gut microbiota has been shown to influence childhood growth while alterations in microbiota composition are proposed to be causally related to the development of overweight and obesity. The objective of this study is to explore the association between microbiota profile, body size and body composition in young children. METHODS: Faecal microbiota was examined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing while body composition was assessed using the deuterium oxide dilution technique in a cohort of 37 well-nourished 2 to 3 year old Australian children...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045253/gut-microbial-diversity-in-hiv-infection-post-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-a-key-target-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#13
Mohamed El-Far, Cécile L Tremblay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the HIV-infected population is living longer and getting older under current treatment regimens, significant challenges arise for health management as the infection is associated with various premature aging phenotypes, particularly increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Here we review the current understanding of HIV-related gut dysbiosis in association with CVD and advances in clinical trials aiming to restore gut microbial diversity. RECENT FINDING: Identification of a unique signature for gut dysbiosis in HIV infection between different cohorts remains challenging...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045252/altered-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-infection-causes-effects-and-potential-intervention
#14
Alessandra Bandera, Ilaria De Benedetto, Giorgio Bozzi, Andrea Gori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aim of this review is to summarize the alterations occurring in gut microbiome composition after HIV infection, and to underline how intestinal dysbiosis can affect immune homeostasis, immune recovery, and persisting immune activation under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many interventions have been suggested, mostly with inconclusive results. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence showed that gut microbiota from HIV-infected patients harbor reproducible differences compared to uninfected individuals...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044635/development-and-application-of-a-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-detection-of-a-novel-gut-bacteriophage-crassphage
#15
Yuying Liang, Xin Jin, Yuan Huang, Shuiping Chen
BACKGROUND: crAssphage is a novel and by far the most abundant bacteriophage in human gut. This bacteriophage might modulate gut microbiota balance so as to be involved in some diseases like obesity, diabetes, metabolic disorders, hypertension, and cancer. Therefore, a rapid and reliable detection and quantification method for crAssphage is essential for studying its molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity in human diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primers-probes set for the quantitative real-time PCR assay was designed based on the DNA polymerase gene (ORF00018) of crAssphage...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044140/therapeutic-potential-of-bifidobacterium-breve-strain-a1-for-preventing-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Yodai Kobayashi, Hirosuke Sugahara, Kousuke Shimada, Eri Mitsuyama, Tetsuya Kuhara, Akihito Yasuoka, Takashi Kondo, Keiko Abe, Jin-Zhong Xiao
It has previously been shown that the consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects not only on peripheral tissues but also on the central nervous system and behavior via the microbiota-gut-brain axis, raising the possibility that treatment with probiotics could be an effective therapeutic strategy for managing neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve strain A1 (B. breve A1) on behavior and physiological processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043783/marine-mammal-microbiota-yields-novel-antibiotic-with-potent-activity-against-clostridium-difficile
#17
Jessica L Ochoa, Laura M Sanchez, Byoung-Mo Koo, Jennifer S Doherty, Manohary Rajendram, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Carol A Gross, Roger G Linington
The recent explosion of research on the microbiota has highlighted the important interplay between commensal microorganisms and the health of their cognate hosts. Metabolites isolated from commensal bacteria have been demonstrated to possess a range of antimicrobial activities, and it is widely believed that some of these metabolites modulate host behavior, affecting predisposition to disease and pathogen invasion. Our access to the local marine mammal stranding network and previous successes in mining the fish microbiota poised us to test the hypothesis that the marine mammal microbiota is a novel source of commensal bacteria-produced bioactive metabolites...
October 18, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043249/interactions-between-bacteria-and-bile-salts-in-the-gastrointestinal-and-hepatobiliary-tracts
#18
REVIEW
Verónica Urdaneta, Josep Casadesús
Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome-bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043007/amino-acid-supplements-and-metabolic-health-a-potential-interplay-between-intestinal-microbiota-and-systems-control
#19
REVIEW
Francesco Bifari, Chiara Ruocco, Ilaria Decimo, Guido Fumagalli, Alessandra Valerio, Enzo Nisoli
Dietary supplementation of essential amino acids (EAAs) has been shown to promote healthspan. EAAs regulate, in fact, glucose and lipid metabolism and energy balance, increase mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintain immune homeostasis. Basic science and epidemiological results indicate that dietary macronutrient composition affects healthspan through multiple and integrated mechanisms, and their effects are closely related to the metabolic status to which they act. In particular, EAA supplementation can trigger different and even opposite effects depending on the catabolic and anabolic states of the organisms...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043006/does-dietary-fat-affect-inflammatory-markers-in-overweight-and-obese-individuals-a-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials-from-2010-to-2016
#20
REVIEW
Vibeke H Telle-Hansen, Jacob J Christensen, Stine M Ulven, Kirsten B Holven
BACKGROUND: Obesity, a major cause of death and disability, is increasing worldwide. Obesity is characterized by a chronic, low-grade inflammatory state which is suggested to play a critical role in the development of obesity-related diseases like cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In fact, in the hours following consumption of a meal, a transient increase in inflammatory markers occurs, a response that is exaggerated in obese subjects. Dietary composition, including content of dietary fatty acids, may affect this inflammatory response both acutely and chronically, and thereby be predictive of progression of disease...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
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