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Gut microbiota

Ge-Ah Kim, Nicholas J Ginga, Shuichi Takayama
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract regulates physiologic responses in complex ways beyond facilitating nutrient entry into the circulatory system. Because of the anatomic location of the GI tract, studying in vivo physiology of the human gut, including host cell interaction with the microbiota, is limited. GI organoids derived from human stem cells are gaining interest as they recapitulate in vivo cellular phenotypes and functions. An underdeveloped capability that would further enhance the utility of these miniature models of the GI tract is to use sensors to quantitatively characterize the organoid systems with high spatiotemporal resolution...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Rajani Thanissery, Daina Zeng, Raul G Doyle, Casey M Theriot
Antibiotics are considered to be the first line of treatment for mild to moderately severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in humans. However, antibiotics are also risk factors for CDI as they decrease colonization resistance against C. difficile by altering the gut microbiota and metabolome. Finding compounds that selectively inhibit different stages of the C. difficile life cycle, while sparing the indigenous gut microbiota is important for the development of alternatives to standard antibiotic treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Valentina Kaden-Volynets, Marijana Basic, Ulrike Neumann, Dominik Pretz, Andreas Rings, André Bleich, Stephan C Bischoff
PURPOSE: Experimental liver steatosis induced by overfeeding is associated with enhanced gut permeability and endotoxin translocation to the liver. We examined the role of the gut microbiota for steatosis formation by performing the feeding experiments in mice raised under conventional and germ-free (GF) housing. METHODS: Adult wild-type and GF mice were fed a Western-style diet (WSD) or a control diet (CD), the latter combined with liquid fructose supplementation (F) or not, for 8 weeks...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Tomohisa Takagi, Yuji Naito, Ryo Inoue, Saori Kashiwagi, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Katsura Mizushima, Saeko Tsuchiya, Osamu Dohi, Naohisa Yoshida, Kazuhiro Kamada, Takeshi Ishikawa, Osamu Handa, Hideyuki Konishi, Kayo Okuda, Yoshimasa Tsujimoto, Hiromu Ohnogi, Yoshito Itoh
BACKGROUND: Human gut microbiota is involved in host health and disease development. Investigations of age-related and sex-related alterations in gut microbiota are limited, and the association between stool consistency and gut microbiota has not been fully investigated. We investigated gut microbiota differences related to age, sex, and stool consistency in healthy Japanese subjects. METHODS: Two-hundred and seventy-seven healthy Japanese subjects aged 20-89 years were enrolled...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
Erin K Crowley, Caitriona M Long-Smith, Amy Murphy, Elaine Patterson, Kiera Murphy, Denise M O'Gorman, Catherine Stanton, Yvonne M Nolan
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that dietary supplementation with functional food ingredients play a role in systemic and brain health as well as in healthy ageing. Conversely, deficiencies in calcium and magnesium as a result of the increasing prevalence of a high fat/high sugar "Western diet" have been associated with health problems such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as metabolic, immune, and psychiatric disorders. It is now recognized that modulating the diversity of gut microbiota, the population of intestinal bacteria, through dietary intervention can significantly impact upon gut health as well as systemic and brain health...
June 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
Nobuhito Taniki, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Po-Sung Chu, Yohei Mikami, Takeru Amiya, Toshiaki Teratani, Takahiro Suzuki, Tomoya Tsukimi, Shinji Fukuda, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Shiba, Rei Miyake, Tadashi Katayama, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Takanori Kanai
The gut-liver axis is of clinical importance as a potential therapeutic target in a wide range of liver diseases; however, the mechanisms underlying interactions between microbial products and immune responses in the liver remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-10-producing macrophages contribute to immune tolerance in the inflamed liver under intestinal barrier disruption in a murine tandem model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis and concanavalin A (Con A) hepatitis. Intestinal barrier disruption protected mice from subsequent liver injury, and the severity of colitis directly affected susceptibility to such injury...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
Michelle L Wright, Christina Fournier, Madelyn C Houser, Malú Tansey, Jonathan Glass, Vicki Stover Hertzberg
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etiology and pathophysiology are not well understood. Recent data suggest that dysbiosis of gut microbiota may contribute to ALS etiology and progression. This review aims to explore evidence of associations between gut microbiota and ALS etiology and pathophysiology. Databases were searched for publications relevant to the gut microbiome in ALS. Three publications provided primary evidence of changes in microbiome profiles in ALS. An ALS mouse model revealed damaged tight junction structure and increased permeability in the intestine versus controls along with a shifted microbiome profile, including decreased levels of butyrate-producing bacteria...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Tianqi Li, Shanshan Sun, Jinyue Zhang, Kai Qu, Liu Yang, Changlu Ma, Xiangju Jin, Haibo Zhu, Yinghong Wang
ABSTRACT:Hyperlipidemia is one of the main causes of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerosis. The adenosine derivative, 2', 3', 5'-tri-acetyl-N6-(3-hydroxylaniline) adenosine (IMM-H007) is an effective lipid-lowering compound that has important implications for the development of lipid-lowering drugs. Metabolomic analysis based on 1H-NMR was used to monitor dynamic changes in diverse biological media including serum, liver, urine, and feces in response to high-fat diet (HFD) and IMM-H007 treatments...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Tal Gefen, Naama Geva-Zatorsky
Studies have shown that gut commensals facilitate the differentiation of peripheral regulatory T cells (pTregs) via their metabolic products. In this issue of Immunity, Campbell et al. (2018) demonstrate a reciprocal effect of pTregs on the metabolic functions of specific gut commensals that affects their overall energy harvest capacity.
June 19, 2018: Immunity
Juan Li, Linmiao Li, Haiying Jiang, Lihong Yuan, Libiao Zhang, Jing-E Ma, Xiujuan Zhang, Minhua Cheng, Jinping Chen
Bats can be divided into frugivory, nectarivory, insectivory, and sanguivory based on their diets, and are therefore ideal wild animal models to study the relationship between diets and intestinal microflora. Early studies of bat gut bacteria showed that the diversity and structure of intestinal bacterial communities in bats are closely related to dietary changes. Worthy of note, intestinal microbes are composed of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and archaea. Although the number of gut fungi is much lower than that of gut bacteria, they also play an important role in maintaining the host homeostasis...
June 19, 2018: Current Microbiology
Federica Del Chierico, Francesca Abbatini, Alessandra Russo, Andrea Quagliariello, Sofia Reddel, Danila Capoccia, Romina Caccamo, Stefano Ginanni Corradini, Valerio Nobili, Francesco De Peppo, Bruno Dallapiccola, Frida Leonetti, Gianfranco Silecchia, Lorenza Putignani
Obesity levels, especially in children, have dramatically increased over the last few decades. Recently, several studies highlighted the involvement of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of obesity. We investigated the composition of gut microbiota in obese adolescents and adults compared to age-matched normal weight (NW) volunteers in order to assemble age- and obesity-related microbiota profiles. The composition of gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA-based metagenomics. Ecological representations of microbial communities were computed, and univariate, multivariate, and correlation analyses performed on bacterial profiles...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Glynn Martin, Sofia Kolida, Julian R Marchesi, Elizabeth Want, James E Sidaway, Jonathan R Swann
Bile acids, the products of concerted host and gut bacterial metabolism, have important signaling functions within the mammalian metabolic system and a key role in digestion. Given the complexity of the mega-variate bacterial community residing in the gastrointestinal tract, studying associations between individual bacterial genera and bile acid processing remains a challenge. Here, we present a novel in vitro approach to determine the bacterial genera associated with the metabolism of different primary bile acids and their potential to contribute to inter-individual variation in this processing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Caroline S Zhu, Ramesh Grandhi, Thomas Tyler Patterson, Susannah E Nicholson
The gut microbiome and its role in health and disease have recently been major focus areas of research. In this review, we summarize the different ways in which the gut microbiome interacts with the rest of the body, with focus areas on its relationships with immunity, the brain, and injury. The gut⁻brain axis, a communication network linking together the central and enteric nervous systems, represents a key bidirectional pathway with feed-forward and feedback mechanisms. The gut microbiota has a central role in this pathway and is significantly altered following injury, leading to a pro-inflammatory state within the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
Kai Wang, Qinqin Yang, Quanxin Ma, Bei Wang, Zhengrui Wan, Minli Chen, Liming Wu
Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is an active phenolic acid derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen). To explore whether SAA has a therapeutic effect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an acute colitis model was induced in rats by administering 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) for one week. SAA in doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/day was given by tail vein injection during DSS administration. Both dosages of SAA ameliorated the colitis symptoms, with decreases observed in the disease activity index. A high dosage of SAA (8 mg/kg/day) promoted a longer colon length and an improved colonic tissue structure, compared with the DSS-treated rats not receiving SAA...
June 19, 2018: Nutrients
Erich Loza Telleria, Andrea Martins-da-Silva, Antonio Jorge Tempone, Yara Maria Traub-Csekö
In this review, we explore the state-of-the-art of sand fly relationships with microbiota, viruses and Leishmania, with particular emphasis on the vector immune responses. Insect-borne diseases are a major public health problem in the world. Phlebotomine sand flies are proven vectors of several aetiological agents including viruses, bacteria and the trypanosomatid Leishmania, which are responsible for diseases such as viral encephalitis, bartonellosis and leishmaniasis, respectively. All metazoans in nature coexist intimately with a community of commensal microorganisms known as microbiota...
June 20, 2018: Parasitology
Andrzej Tkacz, Marion Hortala, Philip S Poole
BACKGROUND: Microbial communities (microbiota) influence human and animal disease and immunity, geochemical nutrient cycling and plant productivity. Specific groups, including bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes or fungi, are amplified by PCR to assess the relative abundance of sub-groups (e.g. genera). However, neither the absolute abundance of sub-groups is revealed, nor can different amplicon families (i.e. OTUs derived from a specific pair of PCR primers such as bacterial 16S, eukaryotic 18S or fungi ITS) be compared...
June 19, 2018: Microbiome
John Richard Lee, Matthew Magruder, Lisa Zhang, Lars F Westblade, Michael J Satlin, Amy Robertson, Emmanuel Edusei, Carl Crawford, Lilan Ling, Ying Taur, Jonas Schlueter, Michelle Lubetzky, Darshana Dadhania, Eric Pamer, Manikkam Suthanthiran
Post-transplant diarrhea is associated with kidney allograft failure and death but its etiology remains unknown in the majority of cases. Because altered gut microbial ecology is a potential basis for diarrhea, we investigated whether post-transplant diarrhea is associated with gut dysbiosis. We enrolled 71 kidney allograft recipients for serial fecal specimen collections in the first 3 months of transplantation and profiled the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene V4-V5 deep sequencing. The Shannon diversity index was significantly lower in 28 diarrheal fecal specimens from 25 recipients with post-transplant diarrhea than in 112 fecal specimens from 46 recipients without post-transplant diarrhea...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
D Maciejewska, K Skonieczna-Zydecka, A Lukomska, I Gutowska, K Dec, P Kupnicka, J Palma, A Pilutin, W Marlicz, E Stachowska
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced by the gut microbiota during the fermentation of non-digestible polysaccharides. Diet is a major factor driving the composition and metabolism of the colonic microbiota. The aim of our study was to examine how a fat-rich and cholesterol-rich diet that, which leads to many metabolic disorders, affects the SCFA profile and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration. The experiment was carried out on 72 male, 8-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The study group (n = 30 rats) received high-fat and high cholesterol diet (HFHCh)...
April 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Hans-Frieder Schoett, Sabrina Krautbauer, Marcus Hoering, Gerhard Liebisch, Silke Matysik
There has been an increasing interest during recent years in the role of the gut microbiome on health and disease. Therefore, metabolites in human faeces related to microbial activity are attractive surrogate marker to track changes of microbiota induced by diet or disease. Such markers include 5α/β-stanols as microbiome-derived metabolites of sterols. Currently, reliable, robust, and fast methods to quantify faecal sterols and their related metabolites are missing. We developed a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS/HRMS) method for the quantification of sterols and their 5α/β-stanols in human faecal samples...
June 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Aspen T Reese, Eugenia H Cho, Bruce Klitzman, Scott P Nichols, Natalie A Wisniewski, Max M Villa, Heather K Durand, Sharon Jiang, Firas S Midani, Sai N Nimmagadda, Thomas M O'Connell, Justin P Wright, Marc A Deshusses, Lawrence A David
How host and microbial factors combine to structure gut microbial communities remains incompletely understood. Redox potential is an important environmental feature affected by both host and microbial actions. We assessed how antibiotics, which can impact host and microbial function, change redox state and how this contributes to post-antibiotic succession. We showed gut redox potential increased within hours of an antibiotic dose in mice. Host and microbial functioning changed under treatment, but shifts in redox potentials could be attributed specifically to bacterial suppression in a host-free ex vivo human gut microbiota model...
June 19, 2018: ELife
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