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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731232/a-comprehensive-review-of-agrimoniin
#1
REVIEW
Daniel M Grochowski, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Jianbo Xiao, Marcello Locatelli, Jakub P Piwowarski, Sebastian Granica, Michał Tomczyk
Plant tannins are a unique class of polyphenols with relatively high molecular weights. Within the ellagitannins group, agrimoniin--dimeric ellagitannin--is one of the most representative compounds found in many plant materials belonging to the Rosaceae family. Agrimoniin was first isolated in 1982 from roots of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (Rosaceae), a plant traditionally used in Japan and China as an antidiarrheal, hemostatic, and antiparasitic agent. Agrimoniin is a constituent of medicinal plants, which are often applied orally in the form of infusions, decoctions, or tinctures...
July 21, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730743/inulin-type-fructans-and-whey-protein-both-modulate-appetite-but-only-fructans-alter-gut-microbiota-in-adults-with-overweight-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Raylene A Reimer, Holly J Willis, Jasmine M Tunnicliffe, Heekuk Park, Karen L Madsen, Adriana Soto-Vaca
SCOPE: Independently, prebiotics and dietary protein have been shown to improve weight loss and/or alter appetite. Our objective was to determine the effect of combined prebiotic and whey protein on appetite, body composition and gut microbiota in adults with overweight/obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a 12 week, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, 125 adults with overweight/obesity were randomly assigned to receive isocaloric snack bars of: 1) Control; 2) Inulin-type fructans (ITF); 3) Whey protein; 4) ITF + Whey protein...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729609/maternally-transmitted-microbiota-affects-odor-emission-and-preference-in-drosophila-larva
#3
Jean-Pierre Farine, Wafa Habbachi, Jérôme Cortot, Suzy Roche, Jean-François Ferveur
Experimental studies show that early sensory experience often affects subsequent sensory preference, suggesting that the heterogeneity of sensory cues in nature could induce significant inter-individual behavioral variation, potentially contributing to maintain intraspecific diversity. To test this hypothesis, we explored the behavioral effect induced by variation in the levels of a self-produced chemical, acetoin, and its link with intraspecific diversity. Acetoin is a pheromone-like substance produced by gut-associated microorganisms in Drosophila...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729558/early-life-disruption-of-amphibian-microbiota-decreases-later-life-resistance-to-parasites
#4
Sarah A Knutie, Christina L Wilkinson, Kevin D Kohl, Jason R Rohr
Changes in the early-life microbiota of hosts might affect infectious disease risk throughout life, if such disruptions during formative times alter immune system development. Here, we test whether an early-life disruption of host-associated microbiota affects later-life resistance to infections by manipulating the microbiota of tadpoles and challenging them with parasitic gut worms as adults. We find that tadpole bacterial diversity is negatively correlated with parasite establishment in adult frogs: adult frogs that had reduced bacterial diversity as tadpoles have three times more worms than adults without their microbiota manipulated as tadpoles...
July 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728746/linking-sex-differences-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-to-bile-acid-signaling-gut-microbiota-and-high-fat-diet
#5
John Y L Chiang
This commentary highlights the article by Jena et al that studied the complex interplay between diet, bile acids, sex, and dysbiosis in hepatic steatosis and inflammation.
August 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728453/incomplete-metabolism-of-phytoestrogens-by-gut-microbiota-from-children-under-the-age-of-three
#6
Pilar Gaya, Abel Sánchez-Jiménez, Ángela Peirotén, Margarita Medina, José Maria Landete
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with structural and functional similarities to mammalian oestrogens. The aim of this work was to study the metabolism of phytoestrogens by children's intestinal microbiota and to compare it with previous results in adults. Faecal samples of 24 healthy children were subjected to phytoestrogen fermentation assay. Only one child produced equol, while O-desmethylangolensin was found in all. Urolithin production was detected in 14 children and enterolactone in 10. Further comparison with the metabolism of phytoestrogens by adult intestinal microbiota reflected that glycitein, dihydrogenistein, urolithins D and E, enterolactone, secoisolariciresinol and arctigenin were the most important metabolites differentiating between adult and child microbial gut metabolism...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727987/associations-of-autoimmunity-immunodeficiency-lymphomagenesis-and-gut-microbiota-in-mice-with-knockins-for-a-pathogenic-autoantibody
#7
Shweta Jain, Jerrold M Ward, Dong-Mi Shin, Hongsheng Wang, Zohreh Naghashfar, Alexander L Kovalchuk, Herbert C Morse
A number of mouse strains transgenic for B-cell receptors specific for nucleic acids or other autoantigens have been generated to understand how autoreactive B cells are regulated in normal and autoimmune mice. Previous studies of nonautoimmune C57BL/6 mice heterozygous for both the IgH and IgL knockins of the polyreactive autoantibody, 564, produced high levels of autoantibodies in a largely Toll-like receptor 7-dependent manner. Herein, we describe studies of mice homozygous for the knockins that also expressed high levels of autoantibodies but, unlike the heterozygotes, exhibited a high incidence of mature B-cell lymphomas and enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infections...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727498/new-perspectives-regarding-the-antiviral-effect-of-vitamin-a-on-norovirus-using-modulation-of-gut-microbiota
#8
Heetae Lee, GwangPyo Ko
Gut microbiota has been revealed to play an important role in various health conditions, and recent studies have suggested the modulation of gut microbiota as a therapeutic strategy. There is no effective treatment for norovirus infection, though vitamin A has been suggested to have an antiviral effect in an epidemiological study. We demonstrated that vitamin A significantly inhibited murine norovirus replication. Vitamin A supplementation significantly increased the abundance of Lactobacillus sp. during norovirus infection, which played a crucial role in antiviral efficacy, inhibiting murine norovirus...
July 20, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727206/the-mother-offspring-dyad-microbial-transmission-immune-interactions-and-allergy-development
#9
REVIEW
Maria C Jenmalm
The increasing prevalence of allergy in affluent countries may be caused by reduced intensity and diversity of microbial stimulation, resulting in abnormal postnatal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms have focused on postnatal microbial exposure, for example demonstrating that the gut microbiota differs in composition and diversity during the first months of life in children who later do or do not develop allergic disease. However, it is also becoming increasingly evident that the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy is important in childhood immune programming, and the first microbial encounters may occur already in utero...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#10
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726854/erratum-the-gut-microbiota-a-major-player-in-the-toxicity-of-environmental-pollutants
#11
Sandrine P Claus, Hervé Guillou, Sandrine Ellero-Simatos
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/npjbiofilms.2016.3.].
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726512/human-milk-oligosaccharide-categories-define-the-microbiota-composition-in-human-colostrum
#12
J Aakko, H Kumar, S Rautava, A Wise, C Autran, L Bode, E Isolauri, S Salminen
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are structurally diverse unconjugated glycans with a composition unique to each lactating mother. While HMOs have been shown to have an impact on the development of infant gut microbiota, it is not well known if HMOs also already affect milk microbial composition. To address this question, we analysed eleven colostrum samples for HMO content by high-pressure liquid chromatography and microbiota composition by quantitative PCR. Higher total HMO concentration was associated with higher counts of Bifidobacterium spp...
July 20, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726511/how-do-probiotics-and-prebiotics-function-at-distant-sites
#13
G Reid, T Abrahamsson, M Bailey, L B Bindels, R Bubnov, K Ganguli, C Martoni, C O'Neill, H M Savignac, C Stanton, N Ship, M Surette, K Tuohy, S van Hemert
The realisation that microbes regarded as beneficial to the host can impart effects at sites distant from their habitat, has raised many possibilities for treatment of diseases. The objective of a workshop hosted in Turku, Finland, by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, was to assess the evidence for these effects and the extent to which early life microbiome programming influences how the gut microbiota communicates with distant sites. In addition, we examined how probiotics and prebiotics might affect the skin, airways, heart, brain and metabolism...
July 20, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725891/fecal-excretion-of-maillard-reaction-products-and-the-gut-microbiota-composition-of-rats-fed-with-bread-crust-or-bread-crumb
#14
C Helou, P M Anton, C Niquet-Léridon, M Spatz, F J Tessier, P Gadonna-Widehem
A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks...
July 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725447/anti-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-antibodies-asca-are-associated-with-body-fat-mass-and-systemic-inflammation-but-not-with-dietary-yeast-consumption-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Anne Stine Kvehaugen, Martin Aasbrenn, Per G Farup
BACKGROUND: Baker's/brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters to improve growth performance in animals. In humans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is among the most commonly detected fungi in fecal samples and likely originates from food. Recently, an association between anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and obesity in humans was suggested, but the cause of the elevated ASCA levels is not clear. Our aim was to study ASCA in morbidly obese subjects and explore potential associations with anthropometrics, diet, co-morbidities and biomarkers of inflammation and gut permeability...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725398/phenological-asynchrony-between-host-plant-and-gypsy-moth-reduces-insect-gut-microbiota-and-susceptibility-to-bacillus-thuringiensis
#16
Vyacheslav V Martemyanov, Irina A Belousova, Sergey V Pavlushin, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Nikita I Ershov, Tatyana Y Alikina, Marsel R Kabilov, Victor V Glupov
The phenological synchrony between the emergence of overwintering herbivorous insects and the budding of host plants is considered a crucial factor in the population dynamics of herbivores. However, the mechanisms driving the interactions between the host plant, herbivores, and their pathogens are often obscure. In the current study, an artificially induced phenological asynchrony was used to investigate how the asynchrony between silver birch Betula pendula and gypsy moth Lymantria dispar affects the immunity of the insect to bacteria, its susceptibility to the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, and the diversity in its midgut microbiota...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725219/gut-microbiota-co-microevolution-with-selection-for-host-humoral-immunity
#17
Lingyu Yang, Shuyun Liu, Jinmei Ding, Ronghua Dai, Chuan He, Ke Xu, Christa F Honaker, Yan Zhang, Paul Siegel, He Meng
To explore coevolution between the gut microbiota and the humoral immune system of the host, we used chickens as the model organism. The host populations were two lines (HAS and LAS) developed from a common founder that had undergone 40 generations of divergent selection for antibody titers to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and two relaxed sublines (HAR and LAR). Analysis revealed that microevolution of host humoral immunity contributed to the composition of gut microbiota at the taxa level. Relaxing selection enriched some microorganisms whose functions were opposite to host immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725001/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-tcdd-elicited-effects-on-bile-acid-homeostasis-alterations-in-biosynthesis-enterohepatic-circulation-and-microbial-metabolism
#18
Kelly A Fader, Rance Nault, Chen Zhang, Kazuyoshi Kumagai, Jack R Harkema, Timothy R Zacharewski
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental contaminant which elicits hepatotoxicity through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Male C57BL/6 mice orally gavaged with TCDD (0.01-30 µg/kg) every 4 days for 28 days exhibited bile duct proliferation and pericholangitis. Mass spectrometry analysis detected a 4.6-fold increase in total hepatic bile acid levels, despite the coordinated repression of genes involved in cholesterol and primary bile acid biosynthesis including Cyp7a1...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724687/direct-and-trans-generational-effects-of-male-and-female-gut-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Juliano Morimoto, Stephen J Simpson, Fleur Ponton
There is increasing evidence of the far-reaching effects of gut bacteria on physiological and behavioural traits, yet the fitness-related consequences of changes in the gut bacteria composition of sexually interacting individuals remain unknown. To address this question, we manipulated the gut microbiota of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, by monoinfecting flies with either Acetobacter pomorum (AP) or Lactobacillus plantarum (LP). Re-inoculated individuals were paired in all treatment combinations. LP-infected males had longer mating duration and induced higher short-term offspring production in females compared with AP-infected males...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724546/high-protein-diet-promotes-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiome-without-altering-brain-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#20
Lixin Wang, Jonathan P Jacobs, Venu Lagishetty, Pu-Qing Yuan, Shuping Vincent Wu, Mulugeta Million, Joseph R Reeve, Joseph R Pisegna, Yvette Taché
High protein diet (HPD) curtails obesity and/or fat mass but it is unknown whether it reverses neuroinflammation, altered glucose levels, cholecystokinin (CCK) sensitivity and gut microbiome in rats fed a Western diet (WD)-induced obesity (DIO). Male rats fed a WD (high fat and sugar) for 12 weeks were switched to a HPD for 6 weeks. Body composition, food intake, meal pattern, sensitivity to intraperitoneal CCK-8S, blood glucose, brain signaling, and cecal microbiota were assessed. Compared to normal diet, WD increased body weight (9...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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