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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652589/distributed-newton-methods-for-deep-neural-networks
#1
Chien-Chih Wang, Kent Loong Tan, Chun-Ting Chen, Yu-Hsiang Lin, S Sathiya Keerthi, Dhruv Mahajan, S Sundararajan, Chih-Jen Lin
Deep learning involves a difficult nonconvex optimization problem with a large number of weights between any two adjacent layers of a deep structure. To handle large data sets or complicated networks, distributed training is needed, but the calculation of function, gradient, and Hessian is expensive. In particular, the communication and the synchronization cost may become a bottleneck. In this letter, we focus on situations where the model is distributedly stored and propose a novel distributed Newton method for training deep neural networks...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652587/superspike-supervised-learning-in-multilayer-spiking-neural-networks
#2
Friedemann Zenke, Surya Ganguli
A vast majority of computation in the brain is performed by spiking neural networks. Despite the ubiquity of such spiking, we currently lack an understanding of how biological spiking neural circuits learn and compute in vivo, as well as how we can instantiate such capabilities in artificial spiking circuits in silico. Here we revisit the problem of supervised learning in temporally coding multilayer spiking neural networks. First, by using a surrogate gradient approach, we derive SuperSpike, a nonlinear voltage-based three-factor learning rule capable of training multilayer networks of deterministic integrate-and-fire neurons to perform nonlinear computations on spatiotemporal spike patterns...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652043/-the-hardware-techniques-for-the-restoration-of-the-gait-stereotype-in-the-patients-following-total-hip-replacement-the-personalized-approach
#3
E S Koneva, K V Lyadov, T V Shapovalenko, E V Zhukova, V G Polushkin
BACKGROUND: total hip replacement has long ago become the «golden standard» for the treatment of dysplastic coxarthrosis in thousands of the patients receiving it every year. In the meantime, the analysis of the specialized literature gives evidence of the lack of a systematic and personified approach to the rehabilitation treatment. AIM: The objective of the present study was to improve medical rehabilitation of the patients following the total hip replacement and to develop the personalized programs for walking modality reconstruction taking into consideration the age and the body weight of the patients...
April 9, 2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650484/identification-of-new-tools-to-predict-surgical-performance-of-novices-using-a-plastic-surgery-simulator
#4
Roy Kazan, Alex Viezel-Mathieu, Shantale Cyr, Thomas M Hemmerling, Samuel J Lin, Mirko S Gilardino
OBJECTIVE: To identify new tools capable of predicting surgical performance of novices on an augmentation mammoplasty simulator. The pace of technical skills acquisition varies between residents and may necessitate more time than that allotted by residency training before reaching competence. Identifying applicants with superior innate technical abilities might shorten learning curves and the time to reach competence. The objective of this study is to identify new tools that could predict surgical performance of novices on a mammoplasty simulator...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649669/360%C3%A2-virtual-reality-video-for-the-acquisition-of-knot-tying-skills-a-randomised-control-trial
#5
S Yoganathan, D A Finch, Ed Parkin, James Pollard
BACKGROUND: 360° virtual reality (VR) video is an exciting and evolving field. Current technology promotes a totally immersive, 3-dimensional (3D), 360° experience anywhere in the world using simply a smart phone and virtual reality headset. The potential for its application in the field of surgical education is enormous. The aim of this study was to determine knot tying skills taught with a 360-degree VR video compared to conventional 2D video teaching. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This trial was a prospective, randomised controlled study...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644916/predicting-the-toxicities-of-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-based-on-support-vector-regression-with-a-residual-bootstrapping-method
#6
Xiuyun Zhai, Mingtong Chen, Wencong Lu
For safely using the untested metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) in industrial and commercial applications, it is important to predict their potential toxicities quickly and efficiently. In this research, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model based on support vector regression (SVR) with a residual bootstrapping technique (BTSVR) was proposed to predict the toxicities of MONPs. It was found that the main features influencing the toxicities of MONPs were RAatom (atomic ratio of oxygen to metal), ΔHm (enthalpy of melting), and Ecoh (cohesive energy)...
April 12, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643087/selection-of-morphological-features-of-pollen-grains-for-chosen-tree-taxa
#7
Agnieszka Kubik-Komar, Elżbieta Kubera, Krystyna Piotrowska-Weryszko
The basis of aerobiological studies is to monitor airborne pollen concentrations and pollen season timing. This task is performed by appropriately trained staff and is difficult and time consuming.The goal of this research is to select morphological characteristics of grains that are the most discriminative for distinguishing between birch, hazel and alder taxa and are easy to determine automatically from microscope images. This selection is based on the split attributes of the J4.8 classification trees built for different subsets of features...
April 11, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643062/a-survey-on-data-reproducibility-and-the-effect-of-publication-process-on-the-ethical-reporting-of-laboratory-research
#8
Delphine R Boulbes, Tracy J Costello, Keith A Baggerly, Fan Fan, Rui Wang, Rajat Bhattacharya, Xiangcang Ye, Lee M Ellis
PURPOSE:  The successful translation of laboratory research into effective therapies is dependent upon the validity of peer-reviewed publications. However, several publications in recent years suggested that published scientific findings could only be reproduced 11-45% of the time. Multiple surveys attempted to elucidate the fundamental causes of data irreproducibility and underscored potential solutions; more robust experimental designs, better statistics, and better mentorship. However, no prior survey has addressed the role of the review and publication process on honest reporting...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628540/classifying-heatwaves-developing-health-based-models-to-predict-high-mortality-versus-moderate-united-states-heatwaves
#9
G Brooke Anderson, Keith W Oleson, Bryan Jones, Roger D Peng
Heatwaves are divided between moderate, more common heatwaves and rare "high-mortality" heatwaves that have extremely large health effects per day, which we define as heatwaves with a 20% or higher increase in mortality risk. Better projections of the expected frequency of and exposure to these separate types of heatwaves could help communities optimize heat mitigation and response plans and gauge the potential benefits of limiting climate change. Whether a heatwave is high-mortality or moderate could depend on multiple heatwave characteristics, including intensity, length, and timing...
February 2018: Climatic Change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626496/coaching-positively-influences-the-effects-of-working-memory-training-on-visual-working-memory-as-well-as-mathematical-ability
#10
Michel Nelwan, Constance Vissers, Evelyn H Kroesbergen
The goal of the present study was to test whether the amount of coaching influenced the results of working memory training on both visual and verbal working memory. Additionally, the effects of the working memory training on the amount of progress after specific training in mathematics were evaluated. In this study, 23 children between 9 and 12 years of age with both attentional and mathematical difficulties participated in a working memory training program with a high amount of coaching, while another 25 children received no working memory training...
April 4, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626427/engineering-improved-balance-confidence-among-older-adults-with-complex-health-care-needs-learning-from-the-muscling-up-against-disability-study
#11
Sharon Hetherington, Tim Henwood, Paul Swinton, Justin Keogh, Paul Gardiner, Anthony Tuckett
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of balance confidence with physical and cognitive markers of wellbeing among older adults receiving government-funded aged care services, and whether progressive resistance plus balance training could positively influence change. DESIGN: Intervention study. SETTING: Community-based older-adult-specific exercise clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults (N=245) with complex care needs who were receiving government aged care support...
April 4, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625566/passing-mrcp-uk-paces-a-cross-sectional-study-examining-the-performance-of-doctors-by-sex-and-country
#12
Emily Unwin, Henry W W Potts, Jane Dacre, Andrew Elder, Katherine Woolf
BACKGROUND: There is much discussion about the sex differences that exist in medical education. Research from the United Kingdom (UK) and United States has found female doctors earn less, and are less likely to be senior authors on academic papers, but female doctors are also less likely to be sanctioned, and have been found to perform better academically and clinically. It is also known that international medical graduates tend to perform more poorly academically compared to home-trained graduates in the UK, US, and Canada...
April 6, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621822/-web-based-field-studies-on-diagnostic-classification-and-code-assignment-of-mental-disorders-comparison-of-icd-11-and-icd-10
#13
Wolfgang Gaebel, Mathias Riesbeck, Jürgen Zielasek, Ariane Kerst, Eva Meisenzahl-Lechner, Volker Köllner, Matthias Rose, Tobias Hofmann, Ingo Schäfer, Annett Lotzin, Peer Briken, Verena Klein, Franziska Brunner, Jared W Keeley, Tahilia J Rebello, Howard F Andrews, Geoffrey M Reed, Nenad F I Kostanjsek, Alkomiet Hasan, Pamina Russek, Peter Falkai
The German Society for Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy (DGPPN,) conducted a comprehensive field study (principal investigator WG) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Health in cooperation with 4 other German medical societies in the field of mental health (DGPM, DGPPR, DeGFS, DGfS) * to support WHO's development of the ICD-11 (Chapters 6 and 17). The objective of the web-based field study was to compare ICD-10 and ICD-11 (beta draft) for selected mental disorders, regarding consistency, accuracy and assessment of utility...
March 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621810/-secondary-full-title-effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-in-plain-and-uphill-regarding-physical-performance
#14
Natalie Marterer, Verena Menz, Martin Burtscher
BACKGROUND:  As the number of HIITs is increasing in competitive and non-competitive sports, the risk of injuries and overload is increasing. There are no scientific data to support specific recommendations in regard to intensity, duration, number of intervals and gradient for HIIT that result in improved muscular parameters in athletes. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare HIIT in plain and uphill exercise, with respect to exercise tolerance and improvements in performance (VO2max and 800 m running time in the plain and uphill)...
April 5, 2018: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621177/the-role-of-title-ix-coordinators-on-college-and-university-campuses
#15
Jacquelyn D Wiersma-Mosley, James DiLoreto
The purpose of this study was to better understand the role of Title IX coordinators and their policies across four-year universities and two-year community colleges in the United States (U.S.). There is little information regarding Title IX coordinators' training, background, and policies on how they handle Title IX investigations regarding sexual violence. The data come from an online survey that included 692 Title IX coordinators across four-year (private and public) and two-year campuses and represented 42 different states in the US...
April 5, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620397/real-world-use-of-the-risk-need-responsivity-model-and-the-level-of-service-case-management-inventory-with-community-supervised-offenders
#16
Heather L Dyck, Mary Ann Campbell, Julie L Wershler
The risk-need-responsivity model (RNR; Bonta & Andrews, 2017) has become a leading approach for effective offender case management, but field tests of this model are still required. The present study first assessed the predictive validity of the RNR-informed Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (LS/CMI; Andrews, Bonta, & Wormith, 2004) with a sample of Atlantic Canadian male and female community-supervised provincial offenders (N = 136). Next, the case management plans prepared from these LS/CMI results were analyzed for adherence to the principles of risk, need, and responsivity...
April 5, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620019/a-comparison-of-probabilistic-classifiers-for-sleep-stage-classification
#17
Pedro Fonseca, Niek den Teuling, Xi Long, Ronald M Aarts
To compare conditional random fields (CRF), hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Bayesian linear discriminants (LDs) for cardiorespiratory sleep stage classification on a five-class sleep staging task (Wake/N1/N2/N3/REM), to explore the benefit of incorporating time information in the classification and to evaluate the feasibility of sleep staging on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients.
 Approach: The classifiers with and without time information were evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation on five-, four- (Wake/N1+N2/N3/REM) and three-class (Wake/NREM/REM) classification tasks using a data set comprising 443 night-time polysomnography (PSG) recordings of 231 participants (180 healthy participants, 100 of which with a 'regular' sleep architecture, and 51 participants previously diagnosed with OSA)...
April 5, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619213/pet-owner-and-vet-interactions-exploring-the-drivers-of-amr
#18
Matt Smith, Caroline King, Mark Davis, Adele Dickson, Jeni Park, Fraser Smith, Kay Currie, Paul Flowers
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing public health problem across the world. As the negative consequences of AMR become apparent at local, national and international levels, more attention is being focussed on the variety of mechanisms by which AMR is potentiated. We explore how interactions between pet owners and veterinarians represent a key arena in which AMR-related behaviours can be shaped. Methods: In depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with pet owners ( n  = 23) and vets ( n  = 16) across the UK in 2017...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616702/identifying-better-outcome-measures-to-improve-treatment-of-agitation-in-dementia-a-report-from-the-eu-us-ctad-task-force
#19
M Sano, M Soto, M Carrillo, J Cummings, S Hendrix, J Mintzer, A Porsteinsson, P Rosenberg, L Schneider, J Touchon, P Aisen, B Vellas, C Lyketsos
For the second time in the past 3 years, the EU-US CTAD Task Force addressed challenges related to designing clinical trials for agitation in dementia, which is one of the most disruptive aspects of the condition for both patients and caregivers. Six recommendations emerged from the Task Force meeting: 1 - Operationalizing agitation criteria established by the IPA; 2 - Combining clinician- and caregiver-derived outcomes as primary outcome measures; 3 - Using global ratings to define clinically meaningful effects and power studies; 4 - Improving the accuracy of caregiver reports by better training and education of caregivers; 5 - Employing emerging technologies to collect near real-time behavioral data; and 6 - Utilizing innovative trial designs and increasing the use of biomarkers to maximize the productivity of clinical trials for neuropsychiatric symptoms...
2018: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615014/assessing-the-implementation-processes-of-a-large-scale-multi-year-quality-improvement-initiative-survey-of-health-care-providers
#20
Donna Goodridge, Masud Rana, Elizabeth L Harrison, Thomas Rotter, Roy Dobson, Gary Groot, Sonia Udod, Joshua Lloyd
BACKGROUND: Beginning in 2012, Lean was introduced to improve health care quality and promote patient-centredness throughout the province of Saskatchewan, Canada with the aim of producing coordinated, system-wide change. Significant investments have been made in training and implementation, although limited evaluation of the outcomes have been reported. In order to better understand the complex influences that make innovations such as Lean "workable" in practice, Normalization Process Theory guided this study...
April 3, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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