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Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Arumugam Kamaladevi, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian
The present investigation was deliberately aimed at evaluating the biofilm-forming ability of 63 clinical MRSA isolates recovered from pharyngitis patients through different phenotypic assays. The molecular detection of adhesion (icaA/icaD/icaB/icaC), adhesins (fnbA/fnbB, clfA, and cna), staphylococcal accessory regulator (sarA), and α-toxin (hla) genes was done by employing polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of 63 isolates, 49 (77.8%) were found slime positive by the Congo red agar (CRA) method and 44 (69...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jonathan A Mitchell, Marsha Dowda, Russell R Pate, Katarzyna Kordas, Karsten Froberg, Luís B Sardinha, Elin Kolle, Angela Page
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine if moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were independently associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. METHODS: Data from the International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD) were used to address our objectives (N=11,115; 6-18y; 51% female). We calculated age and gender specific body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) Z-scores and used accelerometry to estimate MVPA and total SB...
October 17, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Manoj Kumar Agarwala, Azeez Asad, Naveen Gummadi, Sundar Chidambaram, J Venkateswaralu
Carotid artery dissection (CAD) is a frequent cause of stroke, accounting for up to 25% of all ischemic strokes in young and middle-aged patients.(1,2) It may be traumatic or spontaneous, with multi-factorial etiology. A tear in the arterial wall causes intrusion of blood within its layers, producing intra-luminal stenosis, or aneurysmal dilatation.(3) Thrombo-embolism arising from this anatomic disruption has been postulated as the essential stroke mechanism in CAD.(4) Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) has been rarely reported...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
José Guilherme Prado Martin, Gabriela de Oliveira E Silva, Carolina Rodrigues da Fonseca, Caio Baptista Morales, Caroline Souza Pamplona Silva, Daniel Lima Miquelluti, Ernani Porto
Staphylococci are considered a major concern in dairy plants mainly due to the intensive production flow, automation of processing plants and increased demand in the microbiological quality of dairy products. This study aimed to identify S. aureus strains isolated from three Brazilian dairy plants, evaluate the influence of time, temperature and contact surface on the bacterial adhesion process, as well as the efficiency of simulated hygiene and sanitation protocol in removing adhered cells. For genotypic analyses, the presence of icaA and icaD in strains was evaluated...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Azer Majeed, Nuno Pedro Lobato Ribeiro, Asem Ali, Mohsen Hijazi, Hina Farook
Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection (sICAD) is an uncommon cause of isolated cranial nerve palsies. Commonly patients present with stroke, headache, facial pain and Horner's syndrome, with upto 16% having cranial nerve palsies. We present the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with hoarseness, dysphagia and tongue swelling, mimicking a tongue base tumor. He was found to have unilateral VIIth, Xth and XIIth nerve palsies with Horner's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal changes and loss of signal void in right internal carotid artery, later confirmed by Angiography as a dissection with pseudo-aneurysm...
October 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Myrella Cariry Lira, Paricia Emília Naves Givisiez, Francisca Geovânia Canafístula De Sousa, Marciane Magnani, Evandro Leite De Souza, Denis Augusto Spricigo, Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes, Celso José Bruno De Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance is of increasing importance to the maintenance and spread of foodborne pathogens in the food industry. This study aimed to investigate the ability to form biofilm and the antimicrobial resistance of staphylococci contaminating small-scale goat milk dairy plants. METHODOLOGY: Sixty isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance against 20 drugs by the microdilution method. Biofilm-forming traits were assessed by the microtiter plate method (MtP), Congo red agar method (CRA), and icaD gene detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Seung Chai Jung, Ho Sung Kim, Choong-Gon Choi, Sang Joon Kim, Sun U Kwon, Dong-Wha Kang, Jong S Kim
PURPOSE: The aim of this article is to present high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) findings of chronic stage spontaneous and unruptured intracranial artery dissection (ICAD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March 2012 to April 2016 a total of 29 patients (15 male and14 female, age range 37-68 years) with chronic stage spontaneous and unruptured ICAD (vertebral artery 27, posterior inferior cerebellar artery 1 and middle cerebral artery 1) were retrospectively enrolled...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Neuroradiology
Patricia Ruiz, Iris Barragán, Susana Seseña, María Llanos Palop
The aim of this study was to assess the species and the genetic diversity of the staphylococci population in raw milk from healthy goats. Isolates representative of all genotypes were screened for their potential pathogenicity by the occurrence of some relevant safety-related properties, such as antibiotic resistance, presence of virulence factor genes, biofilm formation ability and biogenic amine production. A total of 314 staphylococci were isolated, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis displayed 48 genotypes...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Baoping Jiang, Liang Le, Haibo Liu, Lijia Xu, Chunnian He, Keping Hu, Yong Peng, Peigen Xiao
Diabetic encephalopathy, which is characterized by cognitive decline and dementia, commonly occurs in patients with long-standing diabetes. Previous studies have suggested that methylglyoxal (MG), an endogenous toxic compound, plays an important role in diabetic complications such as cognitive impairment. MG induces neuronal apoptosis. To clarify whether marein, a major compound from the hypoglycemic plant Coreopsis tinctoria, prevents PC12 cell damage induced by MG, we cultured PC12 cells in the presence of MG and marein...
September 6, 2016: Free Radical Research
Özkan Aslantaş, Cemil Demir
A total of 112 Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from subclinical bovine mastitis cases were examined for antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm-forming ability as well as genes responsible for antibiotic resistance, biofilm-forming ability, and adhesin. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates were determined by disk diffusion method. Biofilm forming ability of the isolates were investigated by Congo red agar method, standard tube method, and microplate method. The genes responsible for antibiotic resistance, biofilm-forming ability, and adhesion were examined by PCR...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Bahija Serray, Salwa Oufrid, Imane Hannaoui, Fatna Bourjilate, Nabila Soraa, Mostafa Mliji, Mohammed Sobh, Abderrahmane Hammoumi, Mohammed Timinouni, Mohamed El Azhari
INTRODUCTION: Infections involving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remain a serious threat to hospitalized patients worldwide. MRSA is characterized by recalcitrance to antimicrobial therapy, which is a function not only of widespread antimicrobial resistance, but also the capacity to form biofilms. The present study evaluated the presence of genes encoding adhesion factors and the biofilm-forming capacity in MRSA. METHODOLOGY: In this study, 53 isolates of MRSA, recovered from December 2010 to May 2014 in a mother and child hospital, CHU Mohamed VI in Marrakech, Morocco, were screened for the presence of bap and ica genes associated with biofilm formation, and for bbp, cna, ebpS, eno, fib, fnbA, fnbB, clfA, and clfB genes that encode microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs)...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Jose Enrique Alonso Formento, Jose Luis Fernández Reyes, Blanca Mar Envid Lázaro, Teresa Fernández Letamendi, Ryth Yeste Martín, Francisco José Jódar Morente
Internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a rare entity that either results from traumatic injury or can be spontaneously preceded or not by a minor trauma such as sporting activities. It represents a major cause of stroke in young patients. The diagnosis should be suspected with the combination of Horner's syndrome, headache or neck pain, and retinal or cerebral ischaemia. The confirmation is frequently made with a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Although anticoagulation with heparin followed by vitamin-K-antagonists is the most common treatment, there is no difference in efficacy of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs at preventing stroke and death in patients with symptomatic carotid dissection...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Masahiro Uemura, Kenshi Terajima, Yuji Suzuki, Masaki Watanabe, Yasuhisa Akaiwa, Shinichi Katada, Kouichirou Okamoto, Masatoyo Nishizawa, Hironaka Igarashi, Tsutomu Nakada
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Presence of an intimal flap is a critical imaging finding in diagnosing intracranial artery dissection (ICAD). Recent reports showed that high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was better at identifying intimal flaps as compared with routine MRI techniques used in clinical settings. However, no current standardized sequence for high-resolution MRI without gadolinium enhancement produces images of satisfactory quality with clinically tolerable scanning times...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Sami Al Kasab, Zayed Almadidy, Alejandro M Spiotta, Aquilla S Turk, M Imran Chaudry, John P Hungerford, Raymond D Turner
BACKGROUND: Acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) can result from thromboemboli or underlying intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). Although the technique for revascularization differs significantly for these two lesions (simple thrombectomy for thromboemboli and balloon angioplasty and stenting for ICAD), the underlying etiology is often unknown in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether procedural complications, revascularization rates, and functional outcomes differ among patients with LVO from ICAD or thromboembolism...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Kirsten Corder, Stephen J Sharp, Andrew J Atkin, Lars B Andersen, Greet Cardon, Angie Page, Rachel Davey, Anders Grøntved, Pedro C Hallal, Kathleen F Janz, Katarzyna Kordas, Susi Kriemler, Jardena J Puder, Luis B Sardinha, Ulf Ekelund, Esther M F van Sluijs
Physical activity declines during youth but most evidence reports on combined moderate and vigorous-intensity physical activity. We investigated how vigorous-intensity activity varies with age. Cross-sectional data from 24,025 participants (5.0-18.0 y; from 20 studies in 10 countries obtained 2008-2010) providing ≥ 1 day accelerometer data (International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD)). Linear regression was used to investigate age-related patterns in vigorous-intensity activity; models included age (exposure), adjustments for monitor wear-time and study...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Mark R Villwock, David J Padalino, Raghu Ramaswamy, Eric M Deshaies
BACKGROUND: The future of neuroendovascular treatment for intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) has been debated since the results of SAMMPRIS reflected poor outcomes following endovascular therapy. There is currently a large spectrum of current management strategies. We compared historical outcomes of patients with ICAD and stroke that were treated with angioplasty-alone versus stent placement. METHODS: We extracted a population from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) (2005-2011) and the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) (2012) composed of patients with ICAD and infarction that were admitted nonelectively and received endovascular revascularization...
June 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
Fateh Rahimi, Mohammad Katouli, Sharmin Karimi
Between June 2011 and May 2014, we isolated a total of 419 Staphylococcus aureus strains from catheterized patients with UTI in a referral hospital in Tehran. Of these, 108 were identified as methicillin resistant (MRSA) based on their phenotypic resistance to oxacillin and the presence of mecA gene. The MRSA isolates were tested for their clonality using a combination of PFGE, prophage typing, SCCmec and ccr typing and examined for their biofilm formation as well as their resistance against 17 antibiotics...
September 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Luiza Pinheiro, Carla Ivo Brito, Adilson de Oliveira, Valéria Cataneli Pereira, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha
Infections with coagulase-negative staphylococci are often related to biofilm formation. This study aimed to detect biofilm formation and biofilm-associated genes in blood culture isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus. Half (50.6%) of the 85 S. epidermidis isolates carried the icaAD genes and 15.3% the bhp gene, while these numbers were 42.9% and 0 for S. haemolyticus, respectively. According to the plate test, 30 S. epidermidis isolates were biofilm producers and 40% of them were strongly adherent, while only one (6%) of the 17 S...
September 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Fahimeh Nourbakhsh, Amirmorteza Ebrahimzadeh Namvar
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the Gram-positive pathogens causing a wide range of nosocomial infections. The present study investigates genotypic and phenotypic aspects involved in biofilm formation in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from nosocomial infections in Isfahan. A total of 110 S. aureus strains were collected from three major hospitals in Isfahan, the center of Iran. The antibiotic resistance pattern, phenotypes, and biofilm formation genes were studied using Congo red agar (CRA) and multiplex PCR (M-PCR)...
2016: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Seyed Sajjad Khoramrooz, Fariba Mansouri, Masoud Marashifard, Seyed Ali Asghar Malek Hosseini, Fereshteh Akbarian Chenarestane-Olia, Banafsheh Ganavehei, Farzaneh Gharibpour, Ardavan Shahbazi, Mehdi Mirzaii, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil
Staphylococcus aureus by producing biofilm and facilitating chronic infection is a common cause of mastitis in cows and thereby can cause food poisoning by production of enterotoxins in milk. The agr typing method is an important tool for epidemiological investigation about S. aureus. The aims of the present study were to detect biofilm related genes, 5 classical enterotoxin genes and the agr types among S. aureus isolates. The ability of S. aureus isolates to produce biofilm was evaluated by modified CRA plate...
August 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
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