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Dry eye and diabetes

Joseph W Sassani, Patricia J Mc Laughlin, Ian S Zagon
The Opioid Growth Regulatory System consists of opioid growth factor (OGF), [Met(5)]-enkephalin, and its unique receptor (OGFr). OGF inhibits cell division when bound to OGFr. Conversely, blockade of the interaction of OGF and OGFr, using the potent, long-acting opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), results in increased DNA synthesis and cell division. The authors have demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo that the addition of exogenous OGF or an increase in available OGFr decreases corneal epithelial cell division and wound healing...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Beatriz Abadia, Pilar Calvo, Antonio Ferreras, Fran Bartol, Guayente Verdes, Luis Pablo
The risk of severe eye problems has been found to increase significantly with age, particularly between the fifth and sixth decades of life. Cataracts, dry eye, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion (RVO) are very common and very different age-related ocular diseases that reduce the patient's quality of life. The rationale for using corticosteroids to treat anterior and posterior ocular segment diseases is driven by inflammation. Dexamethasone, one of the most powerful corticosteroids available, is widely used for topical or intravitreal administration...
September 2016: Drugs & Aging
Chen Zhang, Lei Xi, Shaozhen Zhao, Ruihua Wei, Yue Huang, Ruibo Yang, Long Su, Xun Liu
OBJECTIVES: To compare expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the conjunctiva of diabetic and non-diabetic patients with symptomatic moderate dry eye. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen diabetic patients with dry eye, 15 non-diabetic patients with dry eye and 14 diabetic patients without dry eye were recruited. The relative expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) specimens was evaluated using immunofluorescent staining and in conjunctival biopsy specimens using immunohistochemical staining...
2016: BMJ Open
G Sosne, D Rimmer, H K Kleinman, G Ousler
Chronic ocular surface diseases such as dry eye, blepharitis, and neurotrophic keratopathies represent a significant and a growing therapeutic challenge. The basis of this expanding prevalence is multifactorial and may due to issues such as an aging population, an increasing use of video display terminals, and increases in frequency of refractive surgeries. The growing incidence of diseases such as diabetes may also be a contributing factor. Current treatments for ocular surface disease include artificial tears, lubricants, tear duct plugs, steroids, antibiotics, cyclosporine, scleral lenses, and serum tears...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Mayss Al-Sheikh, Handan Akil, Srinivas R Sadda
PURPOSE: To describe optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) image artefacts in eyes with and without ocular pathologies. METHODS: The OCTA images of healthy subjects and patients with age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinal vascular occlusions were retrospectively reviewed. All OCTA images were obtained using a swept-source OCTA instrument (Triton, Topcon). The frequency of various image artefacts including segmentation, banding, motion, projection, masking, unmasking, doubling of the retinal vessels, blink, stretching, out-of-window and crisscross artefacts was assessed...
July 20, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Mohammed Aljarousha, Noor Ezailina Badarudin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes may affect the human body's systems and organs, including the eye. Diabetic retinopathy is the 5th leading cause of blindness globally. Diabetic subjects demonstrated dry eye symptoms that were also supported by the low values of the clinical tests. PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the dry eye symptoms and signs between diabetics and non-diabetics and tear functions between diabetic subjects with and without dry eye. METHODS: This retrospective study was based on the observation of 643 medical files...
May 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
Illés Kovács, Lóránt Dienes, Kristóf Perényi, Susana Quirce, Carolina Luna, Kamila Mizerska, M Carmen Acosta, Carlos Belmonte, Juana Gallar
Lacosamide is an anti-epileptic drug that is also used for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy acting through voltage-gated sodium channels. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of acute application of lacosamide on the electrical activity of corneal cold nerve terminals in lacrimo-deficient guinea pigs. Four weeks after unilateral surgical removal of the main lachrimal gland in guinea pigs, corneas were excised and superfused in vitro at 34°C for extracellular electrophysiological recording of nerve terminal impulse activity of cold thermosensitive nerve terminals...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yusuke Hayashi, Hiroshi Toshida, Yusuke Matsuzaki, Asaki Matsui, Toshihiko Ohta
OBJECTIVE: Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was developed for the treatment of dry eyes and for other corneal diseases, promoting the secretion of both mucin in tear fluid and membrane-associated mucin, increasing the number of goblet cells, and restoring the barrier function of the corneal epithelium. We report a case of a persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes treated with topical application of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old woman had a history of type 2 diabetes for 35 years and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy for 23 years...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Xinyuan Zhang, Lin Zhao, Shijing Deng, Xuguang Sun, Ningli Wang
There has been substantial progress in our understanding of the ocular surface system/lacrimal function unit in the past 15 years. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, more commonly referred to as dry eye syndrome (DES), is the most frequently encountered condition and diabetes mellitus (DM) has been identified as one of the leading causes of DES. Poor glycemic control affects both the anterior and the posterior segments of the eye and increasing prevalence of diabetes-associated DES (DMDES) has been reported in recent years...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Murat Gunay, Gokhan Celik, Elvin Yildiz, Handan Bardak, Nermin Koc, Heves Kirmizibekmez, Betul Onal Gunay, Rahime Gul Yesiltepe Mutlu
PURPOSE: To compare tear film osmolarity (TFO) and other dry eye tests between diabetic children and normal healthy children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six diabetic children (Group 1) and 20 healthy children without any ocular and/or systemic disorder (Group 2) were enrolled in the study. Detailed ocular surface assessment including, ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, TFO measurement (Tear Lab Osmolarity System, San Diago, CA, USA), corneal epithelial thickness (CET) measurement using the anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) (RTVue CAM, Optovue Inc, CA, USA), tear film break-up time (TFBUT) test, Schirmer test, meibography, and conjunctival brush cytology were performed...
May 9, 2016: Current Eye Research
(no author information available yet)
Hyperkalaemia with spironolactone ● Testosterone treatment in older men and sexual function ● OTC artificial tear drops for dry eye ● Decline in age-specific incidence of dementia ● Diabetes and blood pressure targets ● Zika virus and travel advice for pregnant women ● Minimising the risk of DKA with SGLT2 inhibitors ● NSAIDs for chronic low back pain ● Review of online point-of-care information.
May 2016: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
So-Hyang Chung, Jun-Pyo Myong
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. METHODS: Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery...
2016: BMJ Open
María D Pinazo-Durán, Vicente Zanón-Moreno, José J García-Medina, J Fernando Arévalo, Roberto Gallego-Pinazo, Carlo Nucci
Coexistence of several ocular diseases is more frequent than suspected. In spite of the refractive errors, one or more of the following can be detected simultaneously: glaucoma, cataracts, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eyes. In addition, as people age, ocular comorbidities are much more usually seen. Specific diseases are openly acknowledged to affect the eyes and vision, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension blood pressure, arthritis, hyperthyroidism, neurodegenerative disorders, hematologic malignancies, and/or systemic infections...
2016: BioMed Research International
Iman M Eissa, Noha M Khalil, Heba A El-Gendy
Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Suchi Shah, Harsha Jani
CONTEXT: Dry eye is a very common as well as under-diagnosed ocular disorder. It is not only troublesome in terms of its symptoms but also imposes a great financial burden. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of dry eye in ophthalmology out-patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital and its association with various clinico-epidemiological factors. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A hospital-based study at a Tertiary Care Center was conducted including 400 out-patients of age 40 years and above...
September 2015: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Donghyun Jee, Seungbum Kang, Changzheng Yuan, Eunyoung Cho, Jorge G Arroyo
PURPOSE: To investigate associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dry eye syndrome (DES), and to evaluate the differential effect of vitamin D on ocular diseases including age-related macular disease (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), cataract, and DES. METHODS: A total of 16,396 participants aged >19 years were randomly selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. All participants participated in standardized interviews, blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level evaluations, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations...
2016: PloS One
Salman Sarwar, Elizabeth Clearfield, Mohamed Kamel Soliman, Mohammad Ali Sadiq, Andrew J Baldwin, Mostafa Hanout, Aniruddha Agarwal, Yasir J Sepah, Diana V Do, Quan Dong Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Central vision loss caused by age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. Neovascular AMD is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Growth of new blood vessels in patients with neovascular AMD is driven by a complex process that involves a signal protein called vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). Anti-VEGF drugs that block this protein include ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sam Young Yoon, Seok Hyun Bae, Young Joo Shin, Shin Goo Park, Sang-Hee Hwang, Joon Young Hyon, Won Ryang Wee
BACKGROUND: Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common tear film and ocular surface disease that results in discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. Systemic diseases associated with DES include diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, anxiety, thyroid disease, allergic diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pain syndrome, and hyperlipidemia. Interestingly, it has been found that most of these are associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) or inadequate sunlight exposure...
2016: PloS One
Donghong Jiang, Xiangqian Xiao, Tongsheng Fu, Alireza Mashaghi, Qinghuai Liu, Jiaxu Hong
PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly common systemic disease. Many diabetic patients seek cataract surgery for a better visual acuity. Unlike in the general population, the influence of cataract surgery on tear film function in diabetic patients remains elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tear function in diabetic and nondiabetic patients following cataract surgery. METHODS: In this prospective, interventional case series, 174 diabetic patients without dry eye syndrome (DES) and 474 age-matched nondiabetic patients as control who underwent phacoemulsification were enrolled at two different eye centers between January 2011 and January 2013...
2016: PloS One
Takeshi Umazume, William M Thomas, Sabrina Campbell, Hema Aluri, Suharika Thotakura, Driss Zoukhri, Helen P Makarenkova
PURPOSE: The adult lacrimal gland (LG) is highly regenerative and is able to repair itself even after substantial damage; however, this ability to regenerate is lost with the development of dry eye conditions in chronically inflamed LGs.This study compares changes in the cell adhesion and cell matrix molecules and stem cell transcription factors in the LGs of healthy mice and of two mouse models of Sjögren's syndrome: nonobese diabetic (NOD) and MRL-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice during the early stage of inflammation...
December 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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