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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768409/willingness-to-pay-for-health-insurance-in-the-informal-sector-of-sierra-leone
#1
Mireia Jofre-Bonet, Joseph Kamara
PURPOSE: The objective of this project is to study the willingness to pay (WTP) for health insurance (HI) of individuals working in the informal sector in Sierra Leone, using a purposely-designed survey of a representative sample of this sector. METHODS: We elicit the WTP using the Double-Bounded Dichotomous Choice with Follow Up method. We also examine the factors that are positively and negatively associated with the likelihood of the respondents to answer affirmatively to joining a HI scheme and to paying three different possible premiums, to join the HI scheme...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764824/achieving-full-neurological-recovery-in-snakebite-using-best-supportive-care
#2
Sally Wright, Genevieve Haddock
A 29-year-old woman presented to a community hospital in Sierra Leone 2 hours after being bitten by an unknown snake. On arrival, she was agitated though alert, however deteriorated into respiratory arrest. There was no local availability of antivenom. The patient remained in respiratory arrest undergoing best supportive care in a low-resource setting for 2 hours 55 minutes before returning to spontaneous ventilation. She went on to make a full neurological recovery. Though spontaneous recovery following snakebite envenoming is rare, this case showcases that good communication and basic manoeuvres can have a hugely positive impact on patient outcome...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764416/safety-of-a-condom-uterine-balloon-tamponade-esm-ubt-device-for-uncontrolled-primary-postpartum-hemorrhage-among-facilities-in-kenya-and-sierra-leone
#3
Aparna Ramanathan, Melody J Eckardt, Brett D Nelson, Moytrayee Guha, Monica Oguttu, Zaid Altawil, Thomas Burke
BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries. While evidence on uterine balloon tamponade efficacy for severe hemorrhage is encouraging, little is known about safety of this intervention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of an ultra-low-cost uterine balloon tamponade package (named ESM-UBT) for facility-based management of uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in Kenya and Sierra Leone. METHODS: Data were collected on complications/adverse events in all women who had an ESM-UBT device placed among 92 facilities in Sierra Leone and Kenya, between September 2012 and December 2015, as part of a multi-country study...
May 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744690/predicting-the-origins-of-next-forest-based-emerging-infectious-disease
#4
Vishal Shah, Anand Shah, Varoon Joshi
Land use change near dense forests is the single major cause of emergence of forest-based emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) among humans. In an attempt to predict where the next EID would originate from, we are hypothesizing that future EIDs would originate from a region having high population density, excessive poverty, and is located near dense vegetation. Using ArcGIS, we identified forest regions in ten countries across the globe that meet all the three conditions identified in the hypothesis. We further narrowed down the locations using Global Forest Watch data, which eliminates locations next to protected forests and fragmented forests...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734334/correction-participation-of-women-and-children-in-hunting-activities-in-sierra-leone-and-implications-for-control-of-zoonotic-infections
#5
Jesse Bonwitt, Martin Kandeh, Michael Dawson, Rashid Ansumana, Foday Sahr, Ann H Kelly, Hannah Brown
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005699.].
May 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705483/herbal-medicine-use-among-hypertensive-patients-attending-public-and-private-health-facilities-in-freetown-sierra-leone
#6
Peter Bai James, Halimatu Kamara, Abdulai Jawo Bah, Amie Steel, Jon Wardle
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence, determinants and pattern of herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients in Freetown. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among hypertensive patients attending public and private health facilities in Freetown, Sierra Leone between August and October 2016. We analyzed the data using SPSS version 24. We used Chi-square, Fisher exact two-tailed test and regression analysis for data analysis...
May 2018: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684075/correction-distance-accessibility-and-costs-decision-making-during-childbirth-in-rural-sierra-leone-a-qualitative-study
#7
Laura Treacy, Håkon A Bolkan, Mette Sagbakken
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188280.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678001/a-qualitative-evaluation-of-a-decision-support-system-for-district-level-disease-surveillance-in-sierra-leone
#8
Meenal Pore, Anna-Lena Arnold, Purity Mugambi, Ralph Myers, David Sengeh, Tom Sesay, Anh-Minh Tran
A decision support system for district-level disease surveillance was piloted with the Port Loko District Health Management Team in Sierra Leone. Through a qualitative evaluation, the study explores the impact of the system on disease surveillance workflows. Results indicate that the system aided decision making for operational tasks, and reduced the time taken to analyze and report surveillance data. In addition, the study discusses the challenges of deploying a pilot system during the Ebola recovery in Sierra Leone, and proposes a high-level architecture for a modular, interoperable decision support system for disease surveillance for public health decision makers in low-resource health systems...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673404/contraception-determinants-in-youths-of-sierra-leone-are-largely-behavioral
#9
Aline Labat, Marta Medina, Mohammed Elhassein, Afrina Karim, Mohammad B Jalloh, Michèle Dramaix, Wei-Hong Zhang, Sophie Alexander, Kim E Dickson
BACKGROUND: Sexual initiation occurs early in Sierra Leone. This study aims to analyze the determinants of condom and/or contraceptive use among a representative sample of young persons (10 to 24 years) in Sierra Leone. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data from a study conducted to monitor the implementation of a UNFPA package of interventions directed to improve SRH in young people of Sierra Leone. This assessment was conducted in 2016 at the end of the Ebola outbreak...
April 19, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659910/household-transmission-of-ebola-virus-risks-and-preventive-factors-freetown-sierra-leone-2015
#10
Mary R Reichler, James Bangura, Dana Bruden, Charles Keimbe, Nadia Duffy, Harold Thomas, Barbara Knust, Ishmail Farmar, Erin Nichols, Amara Jambai, Oliver Morgan, Thomas Hennessy
BACKGROUND: Knowing risk factors for household transmission of Ebola virus is important to guide preventive measures during Ebola outbreaks. METHODS: We enrolled all confirmed persons with Ebola who were the first case in a household from December 2014-April 2015 in Freetown, Sierra Leone, and their household contacts. Cases and contacts were interviewed, contacts followed prospectively through the 21-day incubation period, and secondary cases confirmed by laboratory testing...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651117/field-validation-of-recombinant-antigen-immunoassays-for-diagnosis-of-lassa-fever
#11
Matthew L Boisen, Jessica N Hartnett, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Augustine Goba, Mambu Momoh, John Demby Sandi, Mohamed Fullah, Diana K S Nelson, Duane J Bush, Megan M Rowland, Megan L Heinrich, Anatoliy P Koval, Robert W Cross, Kayla G Barnes, Anna E Lachenauer, Aaron E Lin, Mahan Nekoui, Dylan Kotliar, Sarah M Winnicki, Katherine J Siddle, Michael Gbakie, Mbalu Fonnie, Veronica J Koroma, Lansana Kanneh, Peter C Kulakosky, Kathryn M Hastie, Russell B Wilson, Kristian G Andersen, Onikepe O Folarin, Christian T Happi, Pardis C Sabeti, Thomas W Geisbert, Erica Ollmann Saphire, S Humarr Khan, Donald S Grant, John S Schieffelin, Luis M Branco, Robert F Garry
Lassa fever, a hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is endemic in West Africa. It is difficult to distinguish febrile illnesses that are common in West Africa from Lassa fever based solely on a patient's clinical presentation. The field performance of recombinant antigen-based Lassa fever immunoassays was compared to that of quantitative polymerase chain assays (qPCRs) using samples from subjects meeting the case definition of Lassa fever presenting to Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone. The recombinant Lassa virus (ReLASV) enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) for detection of viral antigen in blood performed with 95% sensitivity and 97% specificity using a diagnostic standard that combined results of the immunoassays and qPCR...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649187/surveillance-to-track-progress-toward-polio-eradication-worldwide-2016-2017
#12
Tracie J Gardner, Ousmane M Diop, Jaume Jorba, Smita Chavan, Jamal Ahmed, Abhijeet Anand
Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification. Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years, combined with collection and testing of stool specimens for detection of WPV and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs)* in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) (1,2)...
April 13, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642879/correlates-of-healthy-life-expectancy-in-low-and-lower-middle-income-countries
#13
Md Shariful Islam, Md Nazrul Islam Mondal, Md Ismail Tareque, Md Aminur Rahman, Md Nazrul Hoque, Md Munsur Ahmed, Hafiz T A Khan
BACKGROUND: Healthy life expectancy (HALE) at birth is an important indicator of health status and quality of life of a country's population. However, little is known about the determinants of HALE as yet globally or even country-specific level. Thus, we examined the factors that are associated with HALE at birth in low- and lower-middle-income countries. METHODS: In accordance with the World Bank (WB) classification seventy-nine low- and lower-middle-income countries were selected for the study...
April 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629189/trust-fear-stigma-and-disruptions-community-perceptions-and-experiences-during-periods-of-low-but-ongoing-transmission-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-sierra-leone-2015
#14
Azizeh Nuriddin, Mohamed F Jalloh, Erika Meyer, Rebecca Bunnell, Franklin A Bio, Mohammad B Jalloh, Paul Sengeh, Kathy M Hageman, Dianna D Carroll, Lansana Conteh, Oliver Morgan
Social mobilisation and risk communication were essential to the 2014-2015 West African Ebola response. By March 2015, >8500 Ebola cases and 3370 Ebola deaths were confirmed in Sierra Leone. Response efforts were focused on 'getting to zero and staying at zero'. A critical component of this plan was to deepen and sustain community engagement. Several national quantitative studies conducted during this time revealed Ebola knowledge, personal prevention practices and traditional burial procedures improved as the outbreak waned, but healthcare system challenges were also noted...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628019/impact-of-five-annual-rounds-of-mass-drug-administration-with-ivermectin-on-onchocerciasis-in-sierra-leone
#15
Joseph B Koroma, Santigie Sesay, Abdul Conteh, Benjamin Koudou, Jusufu Paye, Mohamed Bah, Mustapha Sonnie, Mary H Hodges, Yaobi Zhang, Moses J Bockarie
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is endemic in 12 of the 14 health districts of Sierra Leone. Good treatment coverage of community-directed treatment with ivermectin was achieved between 2005 and 2009 after the 11-year civil conflict. Sentinel site surveys were conducted in 2010 to evaluate the impact of five annual rounds of ivermectin distribution. METHODS: In total, 39 sentinel villages from hyper- and meso-endemic areas across the 12 endemic districts were surveyed using skin snips in 2010...
April 6, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622497/ebola-virus-persistence-in-ocular-tissues-and-fluids-evict-study-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-and-cataract-surgery-outcomes-of-ebola-survivors-in-sierra-leone
#16
Jessica G Shantha, John G Mattia, Augustine Goba, Kayla G Barnes, Faiqa K Ebrahim, Colleen S Kraft, Brent R Hayek, Jessica N Hartnett, Jeffrey G Shaffer, John S Schieffelin, John D Sandi, Mambu Momoh, Simbirie Jalloh, Donald S Grant, Kerry Dierberg, Joyce Chang, Sharmistha Mishra, Adrienne K Chan, Rob Fowler, Tim O'Dempsey, Erick Kaluma, Taylor Hendricks, Roger Reiners, Melanie Reiners, Lowell A Gess, Kwame ONeill, Sarian Kamara, Alie Wurie, Mohamed Mansaray, Nisha R Acharya, William J Liu, Sina Bavari, Gustavo Palacios, Moges Teshome, Ian Crozier, Paul E Farmer, Timothy M Uyeki, Daniel G Bausch, Robert F Garry, Matthew J Vandy, Steven Yeh
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors are at risk for uveitis during convalescence. Vision loss has been observed following uveitis due to cataracts. Since Ebola virus (EBOV) may persist in the ocular fluid of EVD survivors for an unknown duration, there are questions about the safety and feasibility of vision restorative cataract surgery in EVD survivors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of EVD survivors anticipating cataract surgery and patients with active uveitis to evaluate EBOV RNA persistence in ocular fluid, as well as vision outcomes post cataract surgery...
March 23, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622025/health-workers-experiences-of-coping-with-the-ebola-epidemic-in-sierra-leone-s-health-system-a-qualitative-study
#17
Joanna Raven, Haja Wurie, Sophie Witter
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease epidemic evolved in alarming ways in Sierra Leone spreading to all districts. The country struggled to control it against a backdrop of a health system that was already over-burdened. Health workers play an important role during epidemics but there is limited research on how they cope during health epidemics in fragile states. This paper explores the challenges faced by health workers and their coping strategies during the Ebola outbreak in four districts - Bonthe, Kenema, Koinadugu and Western Area - of Sierra Leone...
April 5, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614756/the-effectiveness-of-international-non-governmental-organizations-response-operations-during-public-health-emergency-lessons-learned-from-the-2014-ebola-outbreak-in-sierra-leone
#18
Yoon Ah Shin, Jungwon Yeo, Kyujin Jung
International Nongovernmental Organizations (INGOs) have played critical roles in improving the quality of primary health care in ordinary time and, indeed, responding to epidemic crises in developing countries. Due to a lack of empirical research for effectiveness of their responding activities, the legitimacy and accountability of nonprofits' engagement in the health crisis as a critical responder is doubted. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of INGOs in a context of managing a fatal epidemic outbreak of Ebola in Sierra Leone during May-November, 2014; building healthcare infrastructures, providing medical supplies, educating local residents, and training response staffs...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611499/case-report-paederus-dermatitis-in-the-returning-traveler
#19
Jacob W Pierce, Barry Rittman, Jillian E Raybould
Rash in the returned traveler can provide a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians, but a detailed history including epidemiologic exposures can allow prompt diagnosis of etiologies uncommon in the United States. One such disease is Paederus dermatitis, an irritant contact dermatitis related to exposure to the rove beetle characterized by bullous lesions with surrounding erythema. Although cases and outbreaks have commonly been reported throughout the world, they are rarely reported in travelers returning to the United States...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610334/impact-of-the-tree-prior-on-estimating-clock-rates-during-epidemic-outbreaks
#20
Simon Möller, Louis du Plessis, Tanja Stadler
Bayesian phylogenetics aims at estimating phylogenetic trees together with evolutionary and population dynamic parameters based on genetic sequences. It has been noted that the clock rate, one of the evolutionary parameters, decreases with an increase in the sampling period of sequences. In particular, clock rates of epidemic outbreaks are often estimated to be higher compared with the long-term clock rate. Purifying selection has been suggested as a biological factor that contributes to this phenomenon, since it purges slightly deleterious mutations from a population over time...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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