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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909068/use-of-multiplex-pcr-to-rapidly-diagnose-febrile-patients-during-a-gastroenteritis-outbreak-among-ebola-virus-treatment-unit-workers
#1
Tom O Evans, T Fominyam, S W Matthews, M S Bailey, E J Hutley
Multiplex PCR can provide rapid diagnosis for patients presenting with an acute undifferentiated febrile illness. Such technology is useful in deployed settings, where access to conventional microbiological diagnosis is limited. It was used in Sierra Leone to guide management of febrile healthcare workers, in whom Ebola virus disease was a possible cause. In particular, it informed appropriate antibiotic treatment while minimising the risk to clinicians of exposure to the causative organism.
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908019/a-chaotic-model-for-the-epidemic-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-west-africa-2013-2016
#2
Sylvain Mangiarotti, Marisa Peyre, Mireille Huc
An epidemic of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) broke out in Guinea in December 2013. It was only identified in March 2014 while it had already spread out in Liberia and Sierra Leone. The spill over of the disease became uncontrollable and the epidemic could not be stopped before 2016. The time evolution of this epidemic is revisited here with the global modeling technique which was designed to obtain the deterministic models from single time series. A generalized formulation of this technique for multivariate time series is introduced...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907013/development-and-implementation-of-the-ebola-traveler-monitoring-program-and-clinical-outcomes-of-monitored-travelers-during-october-may-2015-minnesota
#3
Aaron DeVries, Pamela Talley, Kristin Sweet, Susan Kline, Patricia Stinchfield, Pritish Tosh, Richard Danila
BACKGROUND: In October 2014, the United States began actively monitoring all persons who had traveled from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone in the previous 21 days. State public health departments were responsible for monitoring all travelers; Minnesota has the largest Liberian population in the United States. The MDH Ebola Clinical Team (ECT) was established to assess travelers with symptoms of concern for Ebola virus disease (EVD), coordinate access to healthcare at appropriate facilities including Ebola Assessment and Treatment Units (EATU), and provide guidance to clinicians...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867062/evaluation-of-convalescent-whole-blood-for-treating-ebola-virus-disease-in-freetown-sierra-leone
#4
F Sahr, R Ansumana, T A Massaquoi, B R Idriss, F R Sesay, J M Lamin, S Baker, S Nicol, B Conton, W Johnson, O T Abiri, O Kargbo, P Kamara, A Goba, J B W Russell, S M Gevao
BACKGROUND: Convalescent blood therapy has been a promising form of treatment for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), but less attention has been focused on it for treatment. METHOD: We assessed the effectiveness of convalescent whole blood (CWB) in the treatment of consented EVD patients. We recruited 69 subjects in December 2014 up to April 2015, at the 34 Military Hospital in Wilberforce and the PTS 1 Ebola Treatment Unit in Hastings, Freetown. Forty-four were given CWB, and 25 who consented but preferred to be exempted from the CWB treatment were used to compare clinical outcomes...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866500/coping-and-mental-health-outcomes-among-sierra-leonean-war-affected-youth-results-from-a-longitudinal-study
#5
Manasi Sharma, Shoshanna L Fine, Robert T Brennan, Theresa S Betancourt
This study explored how coping with war-related traumatic events in Sierra Leone impacted mental health outcomes among 529 youth (aged 10-17 at baseline; 25% female) using longitudinal data from three time points (Time 1 in 2002, Time 2 in 2004, and Time 3 in 2008). We examined two types of coping items (approach and avoidance); used multiple regression models to test their relations with long-term mental health outcomes (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, adaptive/prosocial behaviors, and posttraumatic stress symptoms); and used mediation analyses to test whether coping explained the relation between previous war exposures (being raped, death of parent(s), or killing/injuring someone during the war) and those outcomes...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861028/ebola-behind-the-mask-a-true-inside-story-of-the-outbreak-dennis-andy-and-simon-anna-ebola-behind-the-mask-a-true-inside-story-of-the-outbreak-270pp-%C3%A2-14-95-uitgeverij-aspekt-9789461539458-9461539452-formula-see-text
#6
(no author information available yet)
The event of the title is the world's biggest ever outbreak of Ebola virus, in West Africa from 2014-2015. The book documents the experiences of two healthcare workers who volunteered at an Ebola management centre in Kailahun, Sierra Leone.
November 2, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853607/spatial-spread-of-the-west-africa-ebola-epidemic
#7
Andrew M Kramer, J Tomlin Pulliam, Laura W Alexander, Andrew W Park, Pejman Rohani, John M Drake
Controlling Ebola outbreaks and planning an effective response to future emerging diseases are enhanced by understanding the role of geography in transmission. Here we show how epidemic expansion may be predicted by evaluating the relative probability of alternative epidemic paths. We compared multiple candidate models to characterize the spatial network over which the 2013-2015 West Africa epidemic of Ebola virus spread and estimate the effects of geographical covariates on transmission during peak spread...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846234/exposure-patterns-driving-ebola-transmission-in-west-africa-a-retrospective-observational-study
#8
Junerlyn Agua-Agum, Archchun Ariyarajah, Bruce Aylward, Luke Bawo, Pepe Bilivogui, Isobel M Blake, Richard J Brennan, Amy Cawthorne, Eilish Cleary, Peter Clement, Roland Conteh, Anne Cori, Foday Dafae, Benjamin Dahl, Jean-Marie Dangou, Boubacar Diallo, Christl A Donnelly, Ilaria Dorigatti, Christopher Dye, Tim Eckmanns, Mosoka Fallah, Neil M Ferguson, Lena Fiebig, Christophe Fraser, Tini Garske, Lice Gonzalez, Esther Hamblion, Nuha Hamid, Sara Hersey, Wes Hinsley, Amara Jambei, Thibaut Jombart, David Kargbo, Sakoba Keita, Michael Kinzer, Fred Kuti George, Beatrice Godefroy, Giovanna Gutierrez, Niluka Kannangarage, Harriet L Mills, Thomas Moller, Sascha Meijers, Yasmine Mohamed, Oliver Morgan, Gemma Nedjati-Gilani, Emily Newton, Pierre Nouvellet, Tolbert Nyenswah, William Perea, Devin Perkins, Steven Riley, Guenael Rodier, Marc Rondy, Maria Sagrado, Camelia Savulescu, Ilana J Schafer, Dirk Schumacher, Thomas Seyler, Anita Shah, Maria D Van Kerkhove, C Samford Wesseh, Zabulon Yoti
BACKGROUND: The ongoing West African Ebola epidemic began in December 2013 in Guinea, probably from a single zoonotic introduction. As a result of ineffective initial control efforts, an Ebola outbreak of unprecedented scale emerged. As of 4 May 2015, it had resulted in more than 19,000 probable and confirmed Ebola cases, mainly in Guinea (3,529), Liberia (5,343), and Sierra Leone (10,746). Here, we present analyses of data collected during the outbreak identifying drivers of transmission and highlighting areas where control could be improved...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846221/minimally-symptomatic-infection-in-an-ebola-hotspot-a-cross-sectional-serosurvey
#9
Eugene T Richardson, J Daniel Kelly, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, Annelies W Mesman, Sahr Karku, Komba Quiwa, Regan H Marsh, Songor Koedoyoma, Fodei Daboh, Kathryn P Barron, Michael Grady, Elizabeth Tucker, Kerry L Dierberg, George W Rutherford, Michele Barry, James Holland Jones, Megan B Murray, Paul E Farmer
INTRODUCTION: Evidence for minimally symptomatic Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is limited. During the 2013-16 outbreak in West Africa, it was not considered epidemiologically relevant to published models or projections of intervention effects. In order to improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of EBOV in humans, we investigated the occurrence of minimally symptomatic EBOV infection in quarantined contacts of reported Ebola virus disease cases in a recognized 'hotspot.' METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey in Sukudu, Kono District, Sierra Leone, from October 2015 to January 2016...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836466/using-evidence-to-strengthen-accountability-for-health-financing-in-sierra-leone
#10
Sowo A Lebbie, Rosanna Le Voir, Joanna Tom-Kargbo, Mohamed Drissa Yilla, Abu Bakarr Kamara, Sara L Nam
In 2012, the government of Sierra Leone cut the national budget allocation to the health sector. Civil society organizations planned a nationwide health budget advocacy campaign, coinciding with the 2012 general elections, to hold future leaders to account on financing for women's and children's health. As part of the campaign, Evidence for Action produced district health budget tracking scorecards. The scorecards presented Ministry of Finance data on the allocation and disbursement of health funds in each district...
December 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829289/experiences-of-attitudes-in-sierra-leone-from-the-perspective-of-people-with-poliomyelitis-and-amputations-using-orthotics-and-prosthetics
#11
Emmelie Andregård, Lina Magnusson
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe experiences of attitudes in the society of Sierra Leone from the perspective of individuals with poliomyelitis and people with amputations using orthotic or prosthetic devices. METHODS: Individual interviews were conducted using open-ended questions. Twelve participants with amputations or polio were included. Content analysis was applied to the data. RESULTS: The following six themes emerged during data analysis: Experience of negative attitudes; Neglected and respected by family; Traditional beliefs; The importance of assistive devices; People with disability struggle with poverty; and The need for governmental and international support...
November 10, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821112/power-fairness-and-trust-understanding-and-engaging-with-vaccine-trial-participants-and-communities-in-the-setting-up-the-ebovac-salone-vaccine-trial-in-sierra-leone
#12
Luisa Enria, Shelley Lees, Elizabeth Smout, Thomas Mooney, Angus F Tengbeh, Bailah Leigh, Brian Greenwood, Deborah Watson-Jones, Heidi Larson
BACKGROUND: This paper discusses the establishment of a clinical trial of an Ebola vaccine candidate in Kambia District, Northern Sierra Leone during the epidemic, and analyses the role of social science research in ensuring that lessons from the socio-political context, the recent experience of the Ebola outbreak, and learning from previous clinical trials were incorporated in the development of community engagement strategies. The paper aims to provide a case study of an integrated social science and communications system in the start-up phase of the clinical trial...
November 8, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818362/impact-of-infectious-disease-epidemics-on-tuberculosis-diagnostic-management-and-prevention-services-experiences-and-lessons-from-the-2014-2015-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-west-africa
#13
Rashid Ansumana, Samuel Keitell, Gregory M T Roberts, Francine Ntoumi, Eskild Petersen, Giuseppe Ippolito, Alimuddin Zumla
The World Health Organization (WHO) annual TB report states twenty-eight percent of the world's 9.6 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases are in the WHO Africa Region. The Mano River Union (MRU) countries of West Africa, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, have over the past two decades made incremental sustained investments into TB control programs. The devastating 2014-2015 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa impacted significantly on all sectors of the healthcare systems in the MRU countries, including the TB prevention and control programs...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813879/ebola-anatomy-of-an-epidemic
#14
Terrence Q Lo, Barbara J Marston, Benjamin A Dahl, Kevin M De Cock
As of the end of March 2016, the West Africa epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) had resulted in a total of 28,646 cases, 11,323 of them fatal, reported to the World Health Organization. Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone were most heavily affected, but Ebola cases were exported to several other African and European countries as well as the United States, with limited further transmission, including to healthcare workers. We review the descriptive epidemiology of the outbreak, novel aspects and insights concerning the unprecedented response, scientific observations, and public health implications...
October 21, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807010/an-outbreak-inside-an-epidemic-managing-an-infectious-disease-outbreak-while-treating-ebola
#15
REVIEW
Simon Horne, K Forbes, D Burns, Jjh Tuck
Even in the middle of an epidemic of a very serious illness, outbreaks of other infectious diseases will continue. Clinicians need to be able to make rapid decisions about the nature of the outbreak and how to manage it. A balance needs to be struck between managing all patients as if they have the worst-case scenario illness and the resultant risks to themselves, their colleagues and the mission. This paper reviews basic epidemiological tools that inform robust decision-making in the management of such outbreaks...
November 2, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806732/clinical-presentations-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-ebola-virus-disease-in-freetown-sierra-leone
#16
Ying-Jie Ji, Xue-Zhang Duan, Xu-Dong Gao, Lei Li, Chen Li, Dong Ji, Wen-Gang Li, Li-Fu Wang, Yu-Hua Meng, Xiao Yang, Bin-Fang Ling, Xue-Ai Song, Mei-Lei Gu, Tao Jiang, She-Ku M Koroma, James Bangalie, Hui-Juan Duan
BACKGROUND: Clinical and laboratory data were collected and analysed from patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Jui Government Hospital in Freetown, Sierra Leone, where patients with EVD were received and/or treated from October 1, 2014 to March 21, 2015 during the West Africa EVD outbreak. METHODS: The study admitted 285 patients with confirmed EVD and followed them up till the endpoint (recovery or death). EVD was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR assays detecting blood Ebola virus (EBOV)...
November 3, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806049/containing-ebola-at-the-source-with-ring-vaccination
#17
Stefano Merler, Marco Ajelli, Laura Fumanelli, Stefano Parlamento, Ana Pastore Y Piontti, Natalie E Dean, Giovanni Putoto, Dante Carraro, Ira M Longini, M Elizabeth Halloran, Alessandro Vespignani
Interim results from the Guinea Ebola ring vaccination trial suggest high efficacy of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine. These findings open the door to the use of ring vaccination strategies in which the contacts and contacts of contacts of each index case are promptly vaccinated to contain future Ebola virus disease outbreaks. To provide a numerical estimate of the effectiveness of ring vaccination strategies we introduce a spatially explicit agent-based model to simulate Ebola outbreaks in the Pujehun district, Sierra Leone, structurally similar to previous modelling approaches...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795234/complete-genome-sequence-of-an-ebola-virus-isolate-imported-from-sierra-leone-to-germany-determined-by-circle-sequencing
#18
Jan Philipp Mengel, Artur Lissin, Nadine Biedenkopf, Tilman Schultze, Gopala Krishna Mannala, Gordian Schudt, Gerrit Kann, Timo Wolf, Markus Eickmann, Stephan Becker, Franz Cemic, Torsten Hain
We report here a complete genome sequence of Ebola virus Makona from a nonfatal patient sample that originated in Sierra Leone during the last Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa (species Zaire ebolavirus) using a highly accurate circle sequencing (Cir-seq) method.
October 6, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784275/the-impact-of-active-surveillance-and-health-education-on-an-ebola-virus-disease-cluster-kono-district-sierra-leone-2014-2015
#19
Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Alexander Rosewell, Sahr A Moiba, Brima Berthalomew Yorpie, Kai David Ndomaina, Kai Samuel Jimissa, Eva Leidman, Dingeman J Rijken, Colin Basler, James Wood, Dumbuya Manso
BACKGROUND: During December 2014-February 2015, an Ebola outbreak in a village in Kono district, Sierra Leone, began following unsafe funeral practices after the death of a person later confirmed to be infected with Ebola virus. In response, disease surveillance officers and community health workers, in collaboration with local leadership and international partners, conducted 1 day of active surveillance and health education for all households in the village followed by ongoing outreach...
October 27, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783379/the-sierra-leone-ultrasound-rainbow4africa-project-slurp-an-observational-study-of-ultrasound-effectiveness-in-developing-countries
#20
Alessandro Lamorte, Enrico Boero, Paola Crida, Abdul R Conteh, Marco Foletti, Paolo Narcisi
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic tools available in low-income countries are often really basic even if patients can be as sick as those of the richer countries. Point-of-care ultrasound could be a solution for this problem. We studied the impact of ultrasound at the Holy Spirit Hospital, Makeni, Sierra Leone. METHODS: This is a prospective, observational study on outpatients presenting at the HSH. We enrolled continually for 1 month 105 patients asked for ultrasound examination by the caring physician that had to indicate the differential diagnosis hypothesized, the confidence degree about these on a 5-point Likert scale, and the therapy before and after the US...
December 2016: Critical Ultrasound Journal
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