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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156248/the-symbolic-violence-of-outbreak-a-mixed-methods-quasi-experimental-impact-evaluation-of-social-protection-on-ebola-survivor-wellbeing
#1
Eugene T Richardson, J Daniel Kelly, Osman Sesay, Michael D Drasher, Ishaan K Desai, Raphael Frankfurter, Paul E Farmer, Mohamed Bailor Barrie
Despite over 28,000 reported cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the 2013-16 outbreak in West Africa, we are only beginning to trace the complex biosocial processes that have promoted its spread. Important questions remain, including the effects on survivors of clinical sequelae, loss of family and livelihood, and other psychological and social trauma. Another poorly understood question is what effect social protection and job creation programs have had on survivors' wellbeing. Several clinical and social protection programs have been developed to respond to the needs of EVD survivors; however, little in the way of impact evaluation has taken place...
November 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155674/ebola-response-impact-on-public-health-programs-west-africa-2014-2017
#2
Barbara J Marston, E Kainne Dokubo, Amanda van Steelandt, Lise Martel, Desmond Williams, Sara Hersey, Amara Jambai, Sakoba Keita, Tolbert G Nyenswah, John T Redd
Events such as the 2014-2015 West Africa epidemic of Ebola virus disease highlight the importance of the capacity to detect and respond to public health threats. We describe capacity-building efforts during and after the Ebola epidemic in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea and public health progress that was made as a result of the Ebola response in 4 key areas: emergency response, laboratory capacity, surveillance, and workforce development. We further highlight ways in which capacity-building efforts such as those used in West Africa can be accelerated after a public health crisis to improve preparedness for future events...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155657/frontline-field-epidemiology-training-programs-as-a-strategy-to-improve-disease-surveillance-and-response
#3
A McKenzie André, Augusto Lopez, Samantha Perkins, Stephanie Lambert, Lesley Chace, Nestor Noudeke, Aissatou Fall, Biagio Pedalino
Since 1980, Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) have trained highly qualified field epidemiologists to work for ministries of health (MOH) around the world. However, the 2013-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, which primarily affected Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, demonstrated a lack of field epidemiologists at the local levels. Trained epidemiologists at these levels could have detected the Ebola outbreak earlier. In 2015, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched FETP-Frontline, a 3-month field training program targeting local MOH staff in 24 countries to augment local public health capacity...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155654/surveillance-training-for-ebola-preparedness-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-guinea-bissau-senegal-and-mali
#4
Victor M Cáceres, Sekou Sidibe, McKenzie Andre, Denise Traicoff, Stephanie Lambert, Melanie King, Ditu Kazambu, Augusto Lopez, Biagio Pedalino, Dionisio J Herrera Guibert, Peter Wassawa, Placido Cardoso, Bernard Assi, Alioune Ly, Bouyagui Traore, Frederick J Angulo, Linda Quick
The 2014-2015 epidemic of Ebola virus disease in West Africa primarily affected Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Several countries, including Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal, experienced Ebola importations. Realizing the importance of a trained field epidemiology workforce in neighboring countries to respond to Ebola importations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Field Epidemiology Training Program unit implemented the Surveillance Training for Ebola Preparedness (STEP) initiative. STEP was a mentored, competency-based initiative to rapidly build up surveillance capacity along the borders of the at-risk neighboring countries Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Senegal, and Guinea-Bissau...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151629/six-new-phytophthora-species-from-its-clade-7a-including-two-sexually-functional-heterothallic-hybrid-species-detected-in-natural-ecosystems-in-taiwan
#5
T Jung, M H Jung, B Scanu, D Seress, G M Kovács, C Maia, A Pérez-Sierra, T-T Chang, A Chandelier, K Heungens, K van Poucke, P Abad-Campos, M Léon, S O Cacciola, J Bakonyi
During a survey of Phytophthora diversity in natural ecosystems in Taiwan six new species were detected. Multigene phylogeny based on the nuclear ITS, ß-tubulin and HSP90 and the mitochondrial cox1 and NADH1 gene sequences demonstrated that they belong to ITS Clade 7a with P. europaea, P. uniformis, P. rubi and P. cambivora being their closest relatives. All six new species differed from each other and from related species by a unique combination of morphological characters, the breeding system, cardinal temperatures and growth rates...
June 2017: Persoonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149313/how-do-health-workers-experience-and-cope-with-shocks-learning-from-four-fragile-and-conflict-affected-health-systems-in-uganda-sierra-leone-zimbabwe-and-cambodia
#6
Sophie Witter, Haja Wurie, Pamela Chandiwana, Justine Namakula, Sovannarith So, Alvaro Alonso-Garbayo, Freddie Ssengooba, Joanna Raven
This article is grounded in a research programme which set out to understand how to rebuild health systems post-conflict. Four countries were studied-Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe and Cambodia-which were at different distances from conflict and crisis, as well as having unique conflict stories. During the research process, the Ebola epidemic broke out in West Africa. Zimbabwe has continued to face a profound economic crisis. Within our research on health worker incentives, we captured insights from 128 life histories and in-depth interviews with a variety of staff that had remained in service...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149311/beyond-the-crisis-did-the-ebola-epidemic-improve-resilience-of-liberia-s-health-system
#7
Emilia J Ling, Elysia Larson, Rose Jallah Macauley, Yvonne Kodl, Brian VanDeBogert, Saye Baawo, Margaret E Kruk
Resilience was widely identified as a critical attribute for strong health systems following the 2014-15 West Africa Ebola epidemic. In Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, struggles to control the disease and suspension of the operation of many health services demonstrated that health systems must plan for resilience long before a crisis. However, the operational elements of resilience and ways that a crisis experience can shape resilience are not well described in the literature. To understand how a health system adapts to crisis and how the priorities of different health system actors influence this response we conducted interviews with global, national, and local respondents in Liberia between July and September 2015 (n = 108), several months after the country was first declared Ebola-free...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149310/counting-indirect-crisis-related-deaths-in-the-context-of-a-low-resilience-health-system-the-case-of-maternal-and-neonatal-health-during-the-ebola-epidemic-in-sierra-leone
#8
Laura Sochas, Andrew Amos Channon, Sara Nam
Although the number of direct Ebola-related deaths from the 2013 to 2016 West African Ebola outbreak has been quantified, the number of indirect deaths, resulting from decreased utilization of routine health services, remains unknown. Such information is a key ingredient of health system resilience, essential for adequate allocation of resources to both 'crisis response activities' and 'core functions'. Taking stock of indirect deaths may also help the concept of health system resilience achieve political traction over the traditional approach of disease-specific surveillance...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148858/from-bench-to-almost-bedside-the-long-road-to-a-licensed-ebola-virus-vaccine
#9
Gary Wong, Emelissa J Mendoza, Francis A Plummer, George F Gao, Gary P Kobinger, Xiangguo Qiu
The Ebola virus (EBOV) disease epidemic during 2014-16 in West Africa has accelerated the clinical development of several vaccine candidates that have demonstrated efficacy in the gold standard nonhuman primate (NHP) model, namely cynomolgus macaques. Areas covered: This review discusses the pre-clinical research and if available, clinical evaluation of the currently available EBOV vaccine candidates, while emphasizing the translatability of pre-clinical data generated in the NHP model to clinical data in humans...
November 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148368/lack-of-secondary-transmission-of-ebola-virus-from-healthcare-worker-to-238-contacts-united-kingdom-december-2014
#10
Paul Crook, Alison Smith-Palmer, Helen Maguire, Noel McCarthy, Hilary Kirkbride, Bruce Court, Sanch Kanagarajah, Deborah Turbitt, Syed Ahmed, Paul Cosford, Isabel Oliver
In December 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) was diagnosed in a healthcare worker in the United Kingdom after the worker returned from an Ebola treatment center in Sierra Leone. The worker flew on 2 flights during the early stages of disease. Follow-up of 238 contacts showed no evidence of secondary transmission of Ebola virus.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140442/variability-in-intra-household-transmission-of-ebola-virus-and-estimation-of-the-household-secondary-attack-rate
#11
Judith R Glynn, Hilary Bower, Sembia Johnson, Cecilia Turay, Daniel Sesay, Saidu H Mansaray, Osman Kamara, Alie Joshua Kamara, Mohammed S Bangura, Francesco Checchi
Transmission between family members accounts for most Ebola virus transmission, but little is known about determinants of intra-household spread. From detailed exposure histories, intra-household transmission chains were created for 94 households of Ebola survivors in Sierra Leone: 109 (co-)primary cases gave rise to 317 subsequent cases (0-100% of those exposed). Larger households were more likely to have subsequent cases, and the proportion of household members affected depended on individual and household-level factors...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118621/a-new-species-of-trachymyrmex-hymenoptera-formicidae-fungus-growing-ant-from-the-sierra-madre-oriental-of-northeastern-mexico
#12
Sergio R Sánchez-Peña, Manuela Citlali Chacón-Cardosa, Ricardo Canales-Del-Castillo, Lauren Ward, Diana Resendez-Pérez
Here we describe a new species of Trachymyrmex, T. pakawasp. n., from the Gran Sierra Plegada range of the Sierra Madre Oriental, in the states of Coahuila and Nuevo Leon, northeastern Mexico. Trachymyrmex pakawa is a large-sized species compared to other North American Trachymyrmex. Its geographic distribution includes the piedmont of the Gran Sierra Plegada at La Estanzuela, Monterrey, as well as peripheral mountains segregated from the Sierra Madre Oriental (Cerro de las Mitras, Sierra de Zapalinamé, Cañon de San Lorenzo, Cerro de las Letras)...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111084/a-model-for-humanitarian-outreach-in-today-s-world
#13
REVIEW
James A O'Neill
The traditional model for humanitarian work for surgeons has been a few long-term people and a larger number of volunteers on short-term missions to needy places for one or two weeks with limited opportunity for follow-up. While a great deal of good has resulted from these efforts, in the long term not much has changed. Recent studies like the U.N. Millennium Development Goals and the Lancet Commission Report, Surgery 2030, have pointed out that the burden of surgical disease is the major public health issue in the world, such that an estimated five billion people worldwide do not have access to safe surgery and anesthesia, with the largest number being in Africa where almost half of the population is less than age 18years...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110721/prevalence-of-markers-of-hiv-infection-among-febrile-adults-and-children-in-bo-sierra-leone-2012-2013
#14
Rashid Ansumana, Donald F Dariano, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Tomasz A Leski, Chris R Taitt, Joseph M Lamin, Joseph Lahai, Umaru Bangura, Alfred S Bockarie, Chadwick Yasuda, Moses J Bockarie, David A Stenger
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence of HIV among febrile patients seeking care in Mercy Hospital, Bo, Sierra Leone, in 2012-2013. RESULTS: A total of 1207 febrile persons were tested for HIV with Determine™ and SD Bioline rapid diagnostic tests kits that detect the presence of HIV antibodies and HIV p24 antigens. The overall prevalence of HIV among the tested patients was 8.9%, which is considerably higher than the < 2% prevalence of HIV reported previously in the general population...
November 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107122/ebola-ag-k-set-rapid-test-field-evaluation-in-sierra-leone
#15
Francesca Colavita, Mirella Biava, Pascal Mertens, Quentin Gilleman, Céline Borlon, Michela Delli Guanti, Antonio Petrocelli, Gianluca Cataldi, Alhaji T Kamara, Santige A Kamara, Kelfala Konneh, Donatella Vincenti, Concetta Castilletti, Samir Abdurahman, Ali Mirazimi, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Giuseppe Ippolito, Rossella Miccio, Antonino Di Caro
OBJECTIVES: Efficient interruption of Ebola virus disease (EVD) transmission chains critically depends on reliable and fast laboratory diagnosis. We evaluated the performance of the EBOLA Virus Antigen Detection K-SeT (EBOLA Ag K-SeT), a new rapid diagnostic antigen test (RDT)in field settings. METHODS: The study was conducted in a field laboratory located in Freetown (Sierra Leone) by the Italian National Institute for Infectious Diseases "L. Spallanzani" and EMERGENCY Onlus NGO...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094370/post-ebola-situational-assessment-of-opportunities-for-capacity-building-at-the-national-obstetrics-and-gynecology-referral-hospital-in-sierra-leone
#16
Rachel Chan Seay, Alimamy P Koroma, Jenell Coleman, John Sampson, Lucy Koroma, Emmanuel A Ugwa, Jean Anderson
OBJECTIVE: To describe a site assessment of the Princess Christian Maternity Hospital (PCMH; Freetown, Sierra Leone), the national referral center for reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (RMNCAH) services and logical site for focused efforts to train and expand the RMNCAH workforce in Sierra Leone. METHODS: In April 2016, a mixed-methods assessment approach was used involving facility observation and staff interviews using the WHO's Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) tool...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082000/leaving-no-one-behind-lessons-on-rebuilding-health-systems-in-conflict-and-crisis-affected-states
#17
REVIEW
Tim Martineau, Barbara McPake, Sally Theobald, Joanna Raven, Tim Ensor, Suzanne Fustukian, Freddie Ssengooba, Yotamu Chirwa, Sreytouch Vong, Haja Wurie, Nick Hooton, Sophie Witter
Conflict and fragility are increasing in many areas of the world. This context has been referred to as the 'new normal' and affects a billion people. Fragile and conflict-affected states have the worst health indicators and the weakest health systems. This presents a major challenge to achieving universal health coverage. The evidence base for strengthening health systems in these contexts is very weak and hampered by limited research capacity, challenges relating to insecurity and apparent low prioritisation of this area of research by funders...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075043/temporality-and-positive-living-in-the-age-of-hiv-aids-a-multi-sited-ethnography
#18
Adia Benton, Thurka Sangaramoorthy, Ippolytos Kalofonos
Drawing on comparative ethnographic fieldwork conducted in urban Mozambique, United States, and Sierra Leone, the article is broadly concerned with the globalization of temporal logics and how specific ideologies of time and temporality accompany health interventions like those for HIV/AIDS. More specifically, we explore how HIV-positive individuals have been increasingly encouraged to pursue healthier and more fulfilling lives through a set of moral, physical, and social practices called "positive living" since the advent of antiretroviral therapies...
August 2017: Current Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058968/reporting-of-false-data-during-ebola-virus-disease-active-monitoring-new-york-city-january-1-2015-december-29-2015
#19
Anna Tate, Ifeoma Ezeoke, David E Lucero, Chaorui C Huang, Alhaji Saffa, Jay K Varma, Neil M Vora
The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) began to actively monitor people potentially exposed to Ebola virus on October 25, 2014. Active monitoring was critical to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) response and mitigated risk without restricting individual liberties. Noncompliance with active monitoring procedures has been reported. We conducted a survey of 4,075 eligible persons to evaluate (1) the frequency of reporting of false data during active monitoring, and (2) factors associated with reporting of false temperature data...
September 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049274/reporting-deaths-among-children-aged-5-years-after-the-ebola-virus-disease-epidemic-bombali-district-sierra-leone-2015-2016
#20
Amanda L Wilkinson, Reinhard Kaiser, Mohamed F Jalloh, Mamudi Kamara, Dianna M Blau, Pratima L Raghunathan, Alpha Kamara, Umaru Kamara, Nathaniel Houston-Suluku, Kevin Clarke, Amara Jambai, John T Redd, Sara Hersey, Brima Osaio-Kamara
Mortality surveillance and vital registration are limited in Sierra Leone, a country with one of the highest mortality rates among children aged <5 years worldwide, approximately 120 deaths per 1,000 live births (1,2). To inform efforts to strengthen surveillance, stillbirths and deaths in children aged <5 years from multiple surveillance streams in Bombali Sebora chiefdom were retrospectively reviewed. In total, during January 2015-November 2016, 930 deaths in children aged <5 years were identified, representing 73...
October 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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