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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918539/accelerating-vaccine-development-during-the-2013-2016-west-african-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#1
Elizabeth S Higgs, Sheri A Dubey, Beth A G Coller, Jakub K Simon, Laura Bollinger, Robert A Sorenson, Barthalomew Wilson, Martha C Nason, Lisa E Hensley
The Ebola virus disease outbreak that began in Western Africa in December 2013 was unprecedented in both scope and spread, and the global response was slower and less coherent than was optimal given the scale and pace of the epidemic. Past experience with limited localized outbreaks, lack of licensed medical countermeasures, reluctance by first responders to direct scarce resources to clinical research, community resistance to outside interventions, and lack of local infrastructure were among the factors delaying clinical research during the outbreak...
September 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915377/midwives-%C3%A2-experiences-of-caring-for-pregnant-women-admitted-to-ebola-centres-in-sierra-leone
#2
REVIEW
Elin Erland, Bente Dahl
OBJECTIVE: to explore and describe midwives' experiences of caring for pregnant women admitted to Ebola centres in Sierra Leone. DESIGN: a qualitative interview study with an exploratory and descriptive approach. SETTING: individual semi-structured interviews with midwives who provided care for pregnant woman in eight different Ebola centres in Sierra Leone during the Ebola outbreak in 2014-16. PARTICIPANTS: 11 midwives, Sierra Leoneans and expatriates, who worked for three different humanitarian organisations in Sierra Leone during the Ebola outbreak in 2014-2016...
September 1, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912964/is-the-south-african-triage-scale-valid-for-use-in-afghanistan-haiti-and-sierra-leone
#3
Mohammed Dalwai, Pola Valles, Michele Twomey, Yvonne Nzomukunda, Prince Jonjo, Manoj Sasikumar, Masood Nasim, Abdul Razaaq, Olivia Gayraud, Pierre Ronald Jecrois, Lee Wallis, Katie Tayler-Smith
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of the South African Triage Scale (SATS) in four Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-supported emergency departments (ED, two trauma-only sites, one mixed site (both medical and trauma cases) and one paediatric-only site) in Afghanistan, Haiti and Sierra Leone. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted between June 2013 and June 2014. Validity was assessed by comparing patients' SATS ratings with their final ED outcome (ie, hospital admission, death or discharge)...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892501/implementation-of-a-study-to-examine-the-persistence-of-ebola-virus-in-the-body-fluids-of-ebola-virus-disease-survivors-in-sierra-leone-methodology-and-lessons-learned
#4
Gibrilla Fadlu Deen, Suzanna L R McDonald, Jaclyn E Marrinan, Foday R Sesay, Elizabeth Ervin, Anna E Thorson, Wenbo Xu, Ute Ströher, Patricia Ongpin, Neetu Abad, Archchun Ariyarajah, Tasneem Malik, Hongtu Liu, Christine Ross, Kara N Durski, Philippe Gaillard, Oliver Morgan, Pierre Formenty, Barbara Knust, Nathalie Broutet, Foday Sahr
BACKGROUND: The 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus disease epidemic was unprecedented in terms of the number of cases and survivors. Prior to this epidemic there was limited data available on the persistence of Ebola virus in survivors' body fluids and the potential risk of transmission, including sexual transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Given the urgent need to determine the persistence of Ebola virus in survivors' body fluids, an observational cohort study was designed and implemented during the epidemic response operation in Sierra Leone...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892490/development-of-risk-reduction-behavioral-counseling-for-ebola-virus-disease-survivors-enrolled-in-the-sierra-leone-ebola-virus-persistence-study-2015-2016
#5
Neetu Abad, Tasneem Malik, Archchun Ariyarajah, Patricia Ongpin, Matthew Hogben, Suzanna L R McDonald, Jaclyn Marrinan, Thomas Massaquoi, Anna Thorson, Elizabeth Ervin, Kyle Bernstein, Christine Ross, William J Liu, Karen Kroeger, Kara N Durski, Nathalie Broutet, Barbara Knust, Gibrilla F Deen
BACKGROUND: During the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic, the public health community had concerns that sexual transmission of the Ebola virus (EBOV) from EVD survivors was a risk, due to EBOV persistence in body fluids of EVD survivors, particularly semen. The Sierra Leone Ebola Virus Persistence Study was initiated to investigate this risk by assessing EBOV persistence in numerous body fluids of EVD survivors and providing risk reduction counseling based on test results for semen, vaginal fluid, menstrual blood, urine, rectal fluid, sweat, tears, saliva, and breast milk...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890191/considerations-for-use-of-ebola-vaccine-during-an-emergency-response
#6
REVIEW
Jenny A Walldorf, Emily A Cloessner, Terri B Hyde, Adam MacNeil
Vaccination against Ebola virus disease is a tool that may limit disease transmission and deaths in future outbreaks, integrated within traditional Ebola outbreak prevention and control measures. Although a licensed Ebolavirus vaccine (EV) is not yet available, the 2014-2016 West African Ebola outbreak has accelerated EV clinical trials and given public health authorities in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone experience with implementation of emergency ring vaccination. As evidence supporting the use of EV during an outbreak response has become available, public health authorities in at-risk countries are considering how to integrate EV into future emergency Ebola responses and for prevention in high-risk groups, such as healthcare workers and frontline workers (HCW/FLWs), even before an EV is licensed...
September 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888279/a-social-ecology-of-civil-conflict-shifting-allegiances-in-the-conflict-in-sierra-leone
#7
Andrew P Davis
Drawing on data from a survey of 1043 ex-combatants who took part in the civil war in Sierra Leone (1991-2002) this paper explores the conditions that predict a key outcome in the conflict literature: defection, or side-switching between the various organizations at war. This paper advances arguments drawn from the organizational ecology school and works to extend key theories related to "Blau Space" to the study of civil war. Using a series of logistic regression procedures, this paper tests various competing hypotheses against key contributions of the organizational ecology school...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887676/learning-curve-characteristics-for-caesarean-section-among-associate-clinicians-a-prospective-study-from-sierra-leone
#8
B P Waalewijn, A van Duinen, A P Koroma, M J Rijken, M Elhassein, H A Bolkan
BACKGROUND: In response to the high maternal mortality ratio, Sierra Leone has adopted an associate clinician postgraduate surgical task-sharing training programme. Little is known about learning curve characteristics for caesarean sections among associate clinicians. The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of caesarean sections needed to be performed by associate clinicians until there is no further significant reduction in operation time. METHODS: This prospective study evaluates the first 50 caesarean sections performed by trainees between January 2011 and June 2016...
September 8, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870228/changes-in-catastrophic-health-expenditure-in-post-conflict-sierra-leone-an-oaxaca-blinder-decomposition-analysis
#9
Ijeoma Edoka, Barbara McPake, Tim Ensor, Rogers Amara, Joseph Edem-Hotah
BACKGROUND: At the end of the eleven-year conflict in Sierra Leone, a wide range of policies were implemented to address both demand- and supply-side constraints within the healthcare system, which had collapsed during the conflict. This study examines the extent to which households' exposure to financial risks associated with seeking healthcare evolved in post-conflict Sierra Leone. METHOD: This study uses the 2003 and 2011 cross-sections of the Sierra Leone Integrated Household Survey to examine changes in catastrophic health expenditure between 2003 and 2011...
September 4, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870202/an-assessment-of-healthcare-professionals-knowledge-about-and-attitude-towards-influenza-vaccination-in-freetown-sierra-leone-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Peter Bai James, Inayat Ur Rehman, Abudulai Jawo Bah, Michael Lahai, Christine Princess Cole, Tahir Mehmood Khan
BACKGROUND: Vaccinating healthcare professionals against influenza is considered an effective infection control measure. However, there is a low uptake of influenza vaccine among healthcare professionals around the globe. Currently, it is unknown whether healthcare professionals in Sierra Leone are aware of, and have been vaccinated against influenza. Also, there is a paucity of research evidence on their level of knowledge and attitude toward influenza vaccination. This study assessed healthcare professionals' current influenza vaccine uptake rate, reasons for not getting vaccinated as well as their awareness, knowledge of, and attitude towards influenza vaccination in Freetown Sierra Leone...
September 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855283/a-comparative-analysis-of-genetic-ancestry-and-admixture-in-the-colombian-populations-of-choc%C3%A3-and-medell%C3%A3-n
#11
Andrew B Conley, Lavanya Rishishwar, Emily T Norris, Augusto Valderrama-Aguirre, Leonardo Mariño-Ramírez, Miguel A Medina-Rivas, I King Jordan
At least twenty percent of Colombians identify as having African ancestry, yielding the second largest population of Afro-descendants in Latin America. To date, there have been relatively few studies focused on the genetic ancestry of Afro-Latino populations. We report a comparative analysis of the genetic ancestry of Chocó, a state located on Colombia's Pacific coast with a population that is >80% Afro-Colombian. We compared genome-wide patterns of genetic ancestry and admixture for Chocó to six other admixed American populations, with an emphasis on a Mestizo population from the nearby Colombian city of Medellín...
August 29, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854896/acute-rhabdomyolysis-and-delayed-pericardial-effusion-in-an-italian-patient-with-ebola-virus-disease-a-case-report
#12
Emanuele Nicastri, Antonio Brucato, Nicola Petrosillo, Gianluigi Biava, Timothy M Uyeki, Giuseppe Ippolito
BACKGROUND: During the 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic, some EVD patients, mostly health care workers, were evacuated to Europe and the USA. CASE PRESENTATION: In May 2015, a 37-year old male nurse contracted Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone. After Ebola virus detection in plasma, he was medically-evacuated to Italy. At admission, rhabdomyolysis was clinically and laboratory-diagnosed and was treated with aggressive hydration, oral favipiravir and intravenous investigational monoclonal antibodies against Ebola virus...
August 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854139/treatment-seeking-and-ebola-community-care-centers-in-sierra-leone-a-qualitative-study
#13
Simone E Carter, Marion O'Reilly, Jack Frith-Powell, Alpha Umar Kargbo, Daniel Byrne, Eva Niederberger
Ebola Treatment Units were able to provide only 60% of necessary treatment beds in Sierra Leone. As a result, the Government of Sierra Leone decided to construct Community Care Centers. These were intended to increase treatment-seeking behavior and reduce the community-level spread of Ebola by facilitating access to care closer to communities. Through qualitative data collection in 3 districts, this study seeks to understand the perceived impact that proximity to such Centers had on treatment-seeking behavior...
2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854138/health-communication-in-the-time-of-ebola-a-culture-centered-interrogation
#14
Shaunak Sastry, Mohan J Dutta
This brief essay is a commentary on how critical health communication theory can contribute to an understanding of the cultural dynamics of infectious disease pandemics. In particular, we focus on a specific trajectory of health communication theorizing-the culture-centered approach-and its heuristic and pragmatic utility in enhancing knowledge about public health crises like infectious disease outbreaks. In the backdrop of the mobilizations against the 2014 Ebola virus disease epidemic in the 3 West African nations of Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, indigenous cultural practices were construed as pathogenic and local agency of affected communities disregarded, even as the global risks of the epidemic were highlighted...
2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854137/the-development-of-standard-operating-procedures-for-social-mobilization-and-community-engagement-in-sierra-leone-during-the-west-africa-ebola-outbreak-of-2014-2015
#15
Danielle Pedi, Amaya Gillespie, Jamie Bedson, Mohamed F Jalloh, Mohammad B Jalloh, Alusine Kamara, Kathryn Bertram, Katharine Owen, Mohamed A Jalloh, Lansana Conte
This article describes the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for social mobilization and community engagement (SM/CE) in Sierra Leone during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015. It aims to (a) explain the rationale for a standardized approach, (b) describe the methodology used to develop the resulting SOPs, and (c) discuss the implications of the SOPs for future outbreak responses. Mixed methodologies were applied, including analysis of data on Ebola-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices; consultation through a national forum; and a series of workshops with more than 250 participants active in SM/CE in seven districts with recent confirmed cases...
2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854136/a-theory-based-socioecological-model-of-communication-and-behavior-for-the-containment-of-the-ebola-epidemic-in-liberia
#16
Maria Elena Figueroa
The Ebola virus disease that emerged in the West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea in 2014 created an unprecedented public health emergency that caught national and international organizations off guard. Despite available guidelines to respond to public health emergencies, coordinated action to control the disease only came almost 6 months after what is now considered the first human contact with the virus. Theory-based frameworks, like the ideation model and the pathways framework, are important tools for guiding research and the design of communication activities and strategies to effectively impact on the more likely determinants of the intended behavior...
2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854134/barriers-and-enablers-to-treatment-seeking-behavior-and-causes-of-high-risk-practices-in-ebola-a-case-study-from-sierra-leone
#17
Simone E Carter, Marion O'Reilly, Vivien Walden, Jack Frith-Powell, Alpha Umar Kargbo, Eva Niederberger
Nine months after the start of the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone in May 2014, communities in Port Loko continued to engage in high-risk practices; many remained unwilling to seek treatment. In the face of such behaviors, Oxfam Community Outreach teams conducted qualitative research using in-depth interviews, focus groups, and questionnaires to better understand the barriers and enablers affecting treatment-seeking behavior. Analysis of their results highlights 3 primary barriers to treatment seeking: fear and limited information, concern about unknown outsiders, and the often prohibitive distance and limited accessibility of treatment...
2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854130/facilitators-and-barriers-to-community-acceptance-of-safe-dignified-medical-burials-in-the-context-of-an-ebola-epidemic-sierra-leone-2014
#18
Seung Hee Lee-Kwan, Nickolas DeLuca, Rebecca Bunnell, Heather B Clayton, Alhaji Sayui Turay, Yayah Mansaray
Sierra Leone was heavily affected by the Ebola epidemic, with over 14,000 total cases. Given that corpses of people who have died from Ebola are highly infectious and given the extremely high risk of Ebola transmission associated with direct contact with bodies of people who have died of Ebola, community acceptance of safe, dignified medical burials was one of the important components of efforts to stop the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone. Information on barriers and facilitators for community acceptance of safe, dignified medical burials is limited...
2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840040/predictors-of-hypertension-in-a-population-of-undergraduate-students-in-sierra-leone
#19
Aiah Lebbie, Richard Wadsworth, Janette Saidu, Camilla Bangura
We report on the first survey of hypertension in undergraduates in Sierra Leone. Levels of hypertension (12%) and obesity (4%) appear low compared to the general population but given the rapid increase of both and the expectation that many graduates will enter the formal employment sector and a sedentary lifestyle, there is still cause for concern. We measured their BMI (body mass index) and used a questionnaire to investigate demographic and lifestyle choices. In agreement with most authorities, we found that BMI and age were statistically significant predictors of systolic and diastolic blood pressure but that the explanatory power was low (r = 0...
2017: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827211/development-and-deployment-of-the-openmrs-ebola-electronic-health-record-system-for-an-ebola-treatment-center-in-sierra-leone
#20
Shefali Oza, Darius Jazayeri, Jonathan M Teich, Ellen Ball, Patricia Alexandra Nankubuge, Job Rwebembera, Kevin Wing, Alieu Amara Sesay, Andrew S Kanter, Glauber D Ramos, David Walton, Rachael Cummings, Francesco Checchi, Hamish S Fraser
BACKGROUND: Stringent infection control requirements at Ebola treatment centers (ETCs), which are specialized facilities for isolating and treating Ebola patients, create substantial challenges for recording and reviewing patient information. During the 2014-2016 West African Ebola epidemic, paper-based data collection systems at ETCs compromised the quality, quantity, and confidentiality of patient data. Electronic health record (EHR) systems have the potential to address such problems, with benefits for patient care, surveillance, and research...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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