keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Optics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549306/pretreatment-of-corn-stover-by-solid-acid-for-d-lactic-acid-fermentation
#1
Xiqing Wang, Gang Wang, Xiaoxiao Yu, Huan Chen, Yang Sun, Guang Chen
Solid acid is a new acid that is safe and green, which has been widely used in the fields of acid pickling. In this study, we adopted solid acid to pretreat corn stover and used the pretreated corn stover in the fermentation of d-lactic acid. Finally, we obtained optimal conditions for the pretreatment of corn stover by solid acid: digestion temperature of 120°C, digestion time of 80min, and solid acid concentration of 1.5%. Then adding cellulase of 30FPU/g, the conversion rate of glucose reached 71.06% after enzymatic hydrolysis for 72h...
April 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549295/structural-characterization-of-astaxanthin-aggregates-as-revealed-by-analysis-and-simulation-of-optical-spectra
#2
Liping Lu, Taoping Hu, Zhigang Xu
Carotenoids can self-assemble in hydrated polar solvents to form J- or H-type aggregates, inducing dramatic changes in photophysical properties. Here, we measured absorption and emission spectra of astaxanthin in ethanol-water solution using ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectrometers. Two types of aggregates were distinguished in mixed solution at different water contents by absorption spectra. After addition of water, all probed samples immediately formed H-aggregates with maximum blue shift of 31nm...
May 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549289/identifying-the-source-of-zn-in-soils-around-a-zn-smelter-using-pb-isotope-ratios-and-mineralogical-analysis
#3
Soo-Kyung Jeon, Man Jae Kwon, Jung-Seok Yang, Seunghak Lee
The contribution by anthropogenic sources to abnormally high Zn concentrations in soils with naturally abundant Zn was investigated at a contaminated site surrounding a Zn smelter in eastern Korea. Nineteen soil samples were collected within a 2km radius of the smelter, and analyzed for metal concentrations and Pb isotope ratios using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and -mass spectrometer, respectively. Higher Zn concentrations in locations closer to the smelter implied that the smelter was the source of the Zn pollution...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549265/facile-screening-of-potential-xenoestrogens-by-an-estrogen-receptor-based-reusable-optical-biosensor
#4
Lanhua Liu, Xiaohong Zhou, Yun Lu, Didi Shan, Bi Xu, Miao He, Hanchang Shi, Yi Qian
The apparent increase in hormone-induced cancers and disorders of the reproductive tract has led to a growing demand for new technologies capable of screening xenoestrogens. We reported an estrogen receptor (ER)-based reusable fiber biosensor for facile screening estrogenic compounds in environment. The bioassay is based on the competition of xenoestrogens with 17β-estradiol (E2) for binding to the recombinant receptor of human estrogen receptor α (hERα) protein, leaving E2 free to bind to fluorophore-labeled anti-E2 monoclonal antibody...
May 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549215/nanowire-mesh-templated-growth-of-out-of-plane-three-dimensional-fuzzy-graphene
#5
Raghav Garg, Sahil Kumar Rastogi, Michael Lamparski, Sergio de la Barrera, Gordon T Pace, Noel T Nuhfer, Benjamin Matthew Hunt, Vincent Meunier, Tzahi Cohen-Karni
Graphene, a honeycomb sp(2) hybridized carbon lattice, is a promising building block for hybrid-nanomaterials due to its electrical, mechanical, and optical properties. Graphene can be readily obtained through mechanical exfoliation, solution-based deposition of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The resulting graphene films' topology is two-dimensional (2D) surface. Recently a three-dimensional (3D) graphene topology has been demonstrated by various approaches. However, the resulting graphene films are lying flat on the surface hence still exposing a 2D surface topology...
May 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549104/near-infrared-image-guided-lymphatic-mapping-in-minimally-invasive-oesophagectomy-of-distal-oesophageal-cancer
#6
Olli Helminen, Johanna Mrena, Eero Sihvo
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the potential of near-infrared (NIR) imaging during minimally invasive oesophagectomy in patients with distal oesophageal cancer for detection of nodal metastases inside and outside the standard en bloc surgical field. METHODS: We enrolled 6 patients diagnosed with distal oesophageal cancer for intraoperative lymphatic mapping with NIR imaging. Indocyanine green dye was injected endoscopically in 8 corners of the primary tumour at the start of the operation...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549092/the-effect-of-spectacle-lenses-containing-peripheral-defocus-on-refractive-error-and-horizontal-eye-shape-in-the-guinea-pig
#7
Hannah E Bowrey, Guang Zeng, Dennis Y Tse, Amelia J Leotta, Yi Wu, Chi-Ho To, Christine F Wildsoet, Sally A McFadden
Purpose: It has been proposed that the peripheral retina, responding to local optical defocus, contributes to myopia and associated altered eye growth in humans. To test this hypothesis, we measured the changes in central (on-axis) and peripheral ocular dimensions in guinea pigs wearing a concentric bifocal spectacle lens design with power restricted to the periphery. Methods: Five groups of guinea pigs (n = 83) wore either a unifocal (UF) spectacle lens (-4, 0, or +4 Diopters [D]), or a peripheral defocus (PF) spectacle lens that had a plano center (diameter of 5 mm) with either -4 or +4 D in the surround (-4/0 or +4/0 D)...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549091/regional-retinal-ganglion-cell-axon-loss-in-a-murine-glaucoma-model
#8
Julie A Schaub, Elizabeth C Kimball, Matthew R Steinhart, Cathy Nguyen, Mary E Pease, Ericka N Oglesby, Joan L Jefferys, Harry A Quigley
Purpose: To determine if retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon loss in experimental mouse glaucoma is uniform in the optic nerve. Methods: Experimental glaucoma was induced for 6 weeks with a microbead injection model in CD1 (n = 78) and C57BL/6 (B6, n = 68) mice. From epoxy-embedded sections of optic nerve 1 to 2 mm posterior to the globe, total nerve area and regional axon density (axons/1600 μm2) were measured in superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal zones. Results: Control eyes of CD1 mice have higher axon density and more total RGCs than control B6 mice eyes...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549088/quantitative-association-between-peripapillary-bruch-s-membrane-shape-and-intracranial-pressure
#9
Amulya Gampa, Gautam Vangipuram, Zainab Shirazi, Heather E Moss
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a quantitative relationship between chronic intracranial pressure (ICP) and peripapillary Bruch's membrane (pp-BM) shape and to determine whether change in pp-BM shape can be detected within 1 hour after ICP lowering by lumbar puncture (LP). Methods: In this study, 30° nasal-temporal optical coherence tomography B-scans were obtained within 1 hour before and after LP in 39 eyes from 20 patients (age = 23-86 years, 75% female, ICP [opening pressure] = 10-55 cm H2O)...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549084/en-face-time-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-with-dynamic-focus-for-high-resolution-imaging
#10
Mohammad R N Avanaki, Adrian Podoleanu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548907/evaluation-of-thermal-optical-analysis-method-of-elemental-carbon-for-marine-fuel-exhaust
#11
Maija K Lappi, Jyrki P Ristimäki
The awareness of black carbon (BC) as the second largest anthropogenic contributor in global warming and an ice melting enhancer has increased. Due to prospected increase in shipping especially in the Arctic reliability of BC emissions and their invented amounts from ships is gaining more attention. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is actively working towards estimation of quantities and effects of BC especially in the Arctic. IMO has launched work towards constituting a definition for BC and agreeing appropriate methods for its determination from shipping emission sources...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548861/emergent-optical-phononic-modes-upon-nanoscale-mesogenic-phase-transitions
#12
Dima Bolmatov, Mikhail Zhernenkov, Lewis Sharpnack, Dena M Agra-Kooijman, Satyendra Kumar, Alexey Suvorov, Ronald Pindak, Yong Q Cai, Alessandro Cunsolo
The investigation of phononic collective excitations in soft matter systems at the molecular scale has always been challenging due to limitations of experimental techniques in resolving low-energy modes. Recent advances in Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS) enabled the study of such systems with unprecedented spectral contrast at meV excitation energies. In particular, it has become possible to shed light on the low-energy collective motions in materials whose morphology and phase behavior can easily be manipulated, such as mesogenic systems...
May 26, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548820/preparation-of-microcapsules-containing-benzoyl-peroxide-initiator-with-gelatin-gum-arabic-polyurea-formaldehyde-shell-and-evaluating-their-storage-stability
#13
Maryam Raeesi, S Mojtaba Mirabedini, Ramin R Farnood
This work involves the optimized preparation and characterization of microcapsules which contain benzoyl peroxide (BPO) dispersed in dibutyl phthalate (DBP) with gelatin-gum arabic (Gel-GA)/Polyurea-formaldehyde (PUF) shell. The microcapsules were prepared in two steps using complex coacervation and in situ polymerization techniques, respectively, at various mixing speeds and different core:shell ratios. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used for characterization of prepared microcapsules...
May 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548627/combined-single-molecule-experimental-and-computational-approaches-for-understanding-the-unfolding-pathway-of-a-viral-translation-enhancer-that-participates-in-a-conformational-switch
#14
My-Tra Le, Wojciech K Kasprzak, Bruce A Shapiro, Anne E Simon
How plus-strand [+]RNA virus genomes transition from translation templates to replication templates is a matter of much speculation. We have previously proposed that, for Turnip crinkle virus, binding of the encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) to the 3'UTR of the [+]RNA template promotes a regional wide-spread conformational switch to an alternative structure that disassembles the cap-independent translation element (CITE) in the 3'UTR. The active 3'CITE folds into a tRNA-like T-shaped structure (TSS) that binds to 80S ribosomes and 60S subunits in the P-site...
May 26, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548509/ultrafast-reversal-of-the-ferroelectric-polarization
#15
R Mankowsky, A von Hoegen, M Först, A Cavalleri
We report on the demonstration of ultrafast optical reversal of the ferroelectric polarization in LiNbO_{3}. Rather than driving the ferroelectric mode directly, we couple to it indirectly by resonant excitation of an auxiliary high-frequency phonon mode with femtosecond midinfrared pulses. Because of strong anharmonic coupling between these modes, the atoms are directionally displaced along the ferroelectric mode and the polarization is transiently reversed, as revealed by time-resolved, phase-sensitive, second-harmonic generation...
May 12, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548495/pressure-induced-effects-in-organic-inorganic-hybrid-perovskites
#16
Paolo Postorino, Lorenzo Malavasi
In this perspective it is provided an overview of the pressure-induced effects on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite for photovoltaics applications. It is shown that a fine-tuning of the most relevant photovoltaic properties, including band gap and carrier lifetime, is indeed possible by applying pressure over a rather small range and that such phenomena closely correlate with pressure-induced structural changes. High-pressure research can be used to search for new materials since the high-pressure structural configuration can be used as a model for tailoring ambient pressure compounds under proper chemical substitution, and the band-gap tuning and enhancement of carrier lifetime with applied pressures can be a guide to design new hybrid perovskites with desired optical properties as a function of structural parameters...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548465/assessment-of-infantile-hemangiomas-using-a-handheld-wireless-diffuse-optical-spectroscopic-device
#17
Christopher J Fong, Maria C Garzon, Jennifer W Hoi, Hyun K Kim, Christine T Lauren, Kimberly Morel, Lauren Geller, Nina Antonov, Nicole Weitz, June Wu, Andreas H Hielscher
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are vascular tumors with the potential for significant morbidity. There is a lack of validated objective tools to assess IH severity and response to treatment. Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS), a noninvasive, nonionizing imaging modality, can measure total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue to assess IH vascularity and response to treatment. Our objective was to evaluate the utility of a wireless, handheld DOS system to assess IH characteristics at selected points during their clinical course...
May 26, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548293/local-photocurrent-mapping-and-cell-performance-behaviour-on-a-nanometre-scale-for-monolithically-interconnected-cu-in-ga-se2-solar-cells
#18
M Haggui, B Reinhold, P Andrae, D Greiner, M Schmid, P Fumagalli
The local efficiency of lamellar shaped Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells has been investigated using scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Topographic and photocurrent measurements have been performed simultaneously with a 100 nm tip aperture. The lamellar shaped solar cell with monolithic interconnects (P scribe) has been investigated on a nanometre scale for the first time at different regions using SNOM. It was found that, the cell region between P1 and P2 significantly contributes to the solar cells overall photocurrent generation...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548280/air-core-detectors-for-cerenkov-free-scintillation-dosimetry-of-brachytherapy-%C3%AE-sources
#19
Marion Eichmann, Benedikt Thomann
PURPOSE: Plastic scintillation detectors are used for dosimetry in small radiation fields with high dose gradients, green e.g. provided by β-emitting sources like (106) Ru/(106) Rh eye plaques. A drawback is a background signal caused by Cerenkov radiation generated by electrons passing the optical fibers (light guides) of this dosimetry system. Common approaches to correct for the Cerenkov signal are influenced by uncertainties resulting from detector positioning and calibration procedures...
May 26, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548180/efficient-all-p-type-heterojunction-photocathodes-for-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting
#20
Xue Lu, Zhifeng Liu
In this paper, Co3O4 nanostructures with different morphologies (nanoparticles (NPs), nanosheets (NSs) and nanocubes (NCs)) are directly grown on an ITO substrate using a hydrothermal method. Sb2S3 is loaded onto Co3O4 to construct a Co3O4/Sb2S3 heterojunction, which is used as an all p-type photocathode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting for the first time. The specific morphologies of Co3O4 have been discussed in detail. The improved PEC properties of the Co3O4/Sb2S3 heterojunction are characterized...
May 26, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
keyword
keyword
112894
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"