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Seul-Gi Oh, Xian Li, Ho Won Lee, Thoudam Debraj Singh, Sang Bong Lee, Hyun Dong Ji, GhilSuk Yoon, Sung Jin Cho, In-Kyu Lee, Shin Young Jeong, Byeong-Cheol Ahn, Jaetae Lee, Hyeun Wook Chang, Sang-Woo Lee, Yong Hyun Jeon
The inability to monitor the in vivo dynamics of mast cells (MCs) limits the better understanding of its role in cancer progression. Here, we report on noninvasive imaging of MC migration to tumor lesions in mice and evaluation of the effects of migrated MCs on tumor progression through reporter gene-based in vivo optical imaging and glucose metabolism monitoring in cancer with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) in vitro and in vivo. Murine MCs (MC-9) and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC) expressing an enhanced firefly luciferase (effluc) gene were established, termed MC-9/effluc and LLC/effluc, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Biomaterials
Søren Ulstrup, Jyoti Katoch, Roland J Koch, Daniel Schwarz, Simranjeet Singh, Kathleen M McCreary, Hyang Keun Yoo, Jinsong Xu, Berend T Jonker, Roland K Kawakami, Aaron Bostwick, Eli Rotenberg, Chris Jozwiak
There is a substantial interest in the heterostructures of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) amongst each other or with arbitrary materials, through which the control of the chemical, structural, electronic, spintronic, and optical properties can lead to a change in device paradigms. A critical need is to understand the interface between TMDCs and insulating substrates, for example high-κ dielectrics, which can strongly impact the electronic properties such as the optical gap. Here we show that the chemical and electronic properties of the single-layer (SL) TMDC, WS2, can be transferred onto high-κ transition metal oxide substrates TiO2 and SrTiO3...
October 21, 2016: ACS Nano
Richard A Manderville, Stacey D Wetmore
The formation of DNA adducts by the attack of intermediates derived from toxic substances at the C8 position of 2-deoxyguanosine (dG) is a common damaging event. Although the majority of studies on C8-dG adducts have focused on lesions containing a C8-N-C tether between the bulky moiety and the nucleobase, the formation of O-linked lesions with a similar tether topology and C-linked adducts involving direct C8-C connectivity have also been uncovered. Several studies have been done to try to better understand the structural impact and mutagenicity of O-linked and C-linked aryl C8-dG adducts, including lesions arising from unsubstituted and chloro substituted phenols, and the food mutagen ochratoxin A (OTA)...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Salma Al-Karmi, Silvia A Albu, Alyssa Vito, Nancy Janzen, Shannon Czorny, Laura Banevicius, Max Nanao, Jon Zubieta, Alfredo Capretta, John F Valliant
Hydrocyanine dyes are sensitive "turn-on" type optical probes that can detect reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have developed a method to prepare an 18F-labeled hydrocyanine dye as a multi-modal PET and optical "turn-on" probe. A commercially available NIR dye was modified with a fluorinated prosthetic group that did not alter its ROS sensing properites in the presence of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The 18F-labeled analogue was produced using a single step terminal fluorination procedure. PET imaging and quantitative in vivo biodistribution studies indicated this novel probe had remarkably different pharmacokinetics compared to the oxidized cyanine analogue...
October 21, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yasushi Wada, Tomomi Higashide, Atsushi Nagata, Kazuhisa Sugiyama
Purpose: To investigate longitudinal changes in mean blur rate (MBR) measured by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) in the rat optic nerve head (ONH), and the reproducibility of MBR. Methods: Rats were dilated under general anesthesia. Intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure, ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), heart rate, and LSFG were measured 30 minutes later. Mean blur rate in the ONH was determined using LSFG-Micro and was subdivided into MBR of the total area (MA), vessel region (MV), and tissue region (MT)...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Xin Zhong, Bogale Aredo, Yi Ding, Kaiyan Zhang, Cynthia X Zhao, Rafael L Ufret-Vincenty
Purpose: Oxidative stress, partly due to light, has an important role in many retinal diseases, including macular degeneration and retinal dystrophies. The Leu450Met variant of RPE65 is expressed in C57BL/6 and in many genetically modified mice. It confers significant resistance to light induced retinal degeneration (LIRD). Our goal was to develop an effective and efficient method to induce LIRD in resistant mice that would recapitulate mechanisms seen in known models of LIRD. Methods: The retinas of C57BL/6J mice were exposed to light using a murine fundus camera...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Anthony E Felder, Justin Wanek, Norman P Blair, Charlotte E Joslin, Katherine C Brewer, Felix Y Chau, Jennifer I Lim, Yannek I Leiderman, Mahnaz Shahidi
Purpose: We determined the effects of light flicker and diabetic retinopathy (DR) stage on retinal vascular diameter (D), oxygen saturation (SO2), and inner retinal oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Methods: Subjects were categorized as nondiabetic control (NC, n = 42), diabetic with no clinical DR (NDR; n = 32), nonproliferative DR (NPDR; n = 42), or proliferative DR (PDR; n = 14). Our customized optical imaging system simultaneously measured arterial and venous D (DA, DV) and SO2 (SO2A, SO2V) before and during light flicker...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Swarupa Kancherla, William J Kohler, Yolandi van der Merwe, Kevin C Chan
Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0...
2016: PloS One
Anita Barikian, Haytham Salti, Ammar Safar, Ziyad R Mahfoud, Ziad F Bashshur
PURPOSE: To study the benefit of intravitreal dexamethasone implant in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration resistant to bevacizumab and ranibizumab. METHODS: Patients with persistent macular fluid on optical coherence tomography despite monthly treatment with at least three consecutive bevacizumab injections followed by at least three ranibizumab injections were prospectively enrolled. A single dexamethasone implant was administered followed by intravitreal ranibizumab 1 week later...
October 20, 2016: Retina
Mohammad Yaser Kiarudi, Kaveh Fadakar, Ebrahim Mousavi
PURPOSE: To describe a case of bilateral choroidal neovascularization in a patient with beta-thalassemia major and an interventional therapeutic attempt. METHOD: Retrospective case report. RESULT: A known case of beta-thalassemia major presented with gradual vision loss. Fundoscopy revealed bilateral macular edema accompanied by intraretinal hemorrhages. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were compatible with the diagnosis of choroidal neovascularization...
October 20, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Richard Bergholz, Mirjam Rossel, Jan Schroeter, Ralf M Dutescu, Daniel J Salchow
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Toxic maculopathy is a rare but severe complication of chloroquine intake. Although the phenotype of established maculopathy was analyzed in detail, few data exist on the ophthalmologic findings in the early stage. METHODS: The authors present 4 female patients with unequivocal signs of chloroquine maculopathy (bilateral [peri-]central scotoma in the visual fields, structural alterations of the macula in the optical coherence tomography) but normal or atypical findings as to fundus autofluorescence imaging...
October 20, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Beatriz de Luis Eguileor, Jaime Etxebarria Ecenarro, Alaitz Santamaria Carro, Raquel Feijoo Lera
OBJECTIVES: To assess visual function in patients with irregular cornea who do not tolerate gas permeable (GP) corneal contact lenses and are fitted with GP scleral contact lenses (Rose K2 XL). METHODS: In this prospective study, we analyzed 15 eyes of 15 patients who did not tolerate GP corneal contact lenses and were fitted with scleral contact lenses (Rose K2 XL). We assessed visual function using visual acuity and the visual function index (VF-14); we used the VF-14 as an indicator of patient satisfaction...
October 20, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Leandro R F Lima, Alexis R Hernández, Felipe A Pinheiro, Caio Lewenkopf
Based on the investigation of the multi-terminal conductance of a system composed of two graphene nanoribbons, in which one is on top of the other and rotated by [Formula: see text], we propose a setup for a 50/50 electronic beam splitter that neither requires large magnetic fields nor ultra low temperatures. Our findings are based on an atomistic tight-binding description of the system and on the Green function method to compute the Landauer conductance. We demonstrate that this system acts as a perfect 50/50 electronic beam splitter, in which its operation can be switched on and off by varying the doping (Fermi energy)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Takeshi Suzuki, Rohan Singh, Manfred Bayer, Arne Ludwig, Andreas D Wieck, Steven T Cundiff
Coherent control of a strongly inhomogeneously broadened system, namely, InAs self-assembled quantum dots, is demonstrated. To circumvent the deleterious effects of the inhomogeneous broadening, which usually masks the results of coherent manipulation, we use prepulse two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to provide a size-selective readout of the ground, exciton, and biexciton states. The dependence on the timing of the prepulse is due to the dynamics of the coherently generated populations. To further validate the results, we performed prepulse polarization dependent measurements and confirmed the behavior expected from selection rules...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Xiao-Feng Qian, Tanya Malhotra, A Nick Vamivakas, Joseph H Eberly
We have discovered a new domain of optical coherence, and show that it is the third and last member of a previously unreported fundamental triad of coherences. These are unified by our derivation of a parallel triad of coherence constraints that take the form of complementarity relations. We have been able to enter this new coherence domain experimentally and we describe the novel tomographic approach devised for that purpose.
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
A W Carr, M Saffman
We analyze doubly magic trapping of Cs hyperfine transitions including previously neglected contributions from the ground state hyperpolarizability and the interaction of the laser light and a static magnetic field. Extensive numerical searches do not reveal any doubly magic trapping conditions for any pair of hyperfine states. However, including the hyperpolarizability reveals light intensity insensitive traps for a wide range of wavelengths at specific intensities. We then investigate the use of bichromatic trapping light fields...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Jino George, Thibault Chervy, Atef Shalabney, Eloïse Devaux, Hidefumi Hiura, Cyriaque Genet, Thomas W Ebbesen
From the high vibrational dipolar strength offered by molecular liquids, we demonstrate that a molecular vibration can be ultrastrongly coupled to multiple IR cavity modes, with Rabi splittings reaching 24% of the vibration frequencies. As a proof of the ultrastrong coupling regime, our experimental data unambiguously reveal the contributions to the polaritonic dynamics coming from the antiresonant terms in the interaction energy and from the dipolar self-energy of the molecular vibrations themselves. In particular, we measure the opening of a genuine vibrational polaritonic band gap of ca...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
R Stannarius, K Harth
Disclinations in liquid crystals bear striking analogies to defect structures in a wide variety of physical systems, and their straightforward optical observability makes them excellent models to study fundamental properties of defect interactions. We employ freely suspended smectic-C films, which behave as quasi-two-dimensional polar nematics. A procedure to capture high-strength disclinations in localized spots is introduced. These disclinations are released in a controlled way, and the motion of the mutually repelling topological charges with strength +1 is studied quantitatively...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
M Buchner, P Högl, S Putz, M Gmitra, S Günther, M A W Schoen, M Kronseder, D Schuh, D Bougeard, J Fabian, C H Back
We report the observation of the anisotropic polar magneto-optical Kerr effect in thin layers of epitaxial Fe/GaAs(001) at room temperature. A clear twofold symmetry of the Kerr rotation angle depending on the orientation of the linear polarization of the probing laser beam with respect to the crystallographic directions of the sample is detected for ultrathin magnetic films saturated out of the film plane. The amplitude of the anisotropy decreases with increasing Fe film thickness, suggesting that the interfacial region is the origin of the anisotropy...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Fengjiao Chen, Qishan Zhu, Yeyun Wang, Wei Cui, Xiaodong Su, Yanguang Li
Increasing attention has now been focused on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen evolution as a promising route to transform solar energy into chemical fuels. Silicon is one of the most studied PEC electrode materials, but its performance is still limited by its inherent PEC instability and electrochemical inertness toward water splitting. To achieve significant PEC activities, silicon-based photoelectrodes usually have to be coupled with proper cocatalysts, and thus formed semiconductor/cocatalyst interface represents a critical structural parameter in the rational design of efficient PEC devices...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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