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Infant fever

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327810/nebulized-hypertonic-saline-in-infants-hospitalized-with-moderately-severe-bronchiolitis-due-to-rsv-infection-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Yoshihiko Morikawa, Masaru Miura, Megumi Y Furuhata, Saeko Morino, Tae Omori, Masahiro Otsuka, Michiko Chiga, Toshimasa Obonai, Hiroshi Hataya, Tetsuji Kaneko, Kenji Ishikura, Masataka Honda, Yukihiro Hasegawa
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) therapy for shortening hospital length of stay (LOS) or improving bronchiolitic symptoms remains controversial. Most studies enrolled small numbers of subjects and did not consider the role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the most common cause of acute bronchiolitis. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nebulized HS therapy for acute bronchiolitis due to RSV in moderately ill hospitalized infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing a nebulized HS treatment group with a normal saline (NS) group...
January 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326825/staphylococcal-scalded-skin-syndrome-a-pediatric-dermatology-case-report
#2
Girish Gulab Meshram, Neeraj Kaur, Kanwaljeet Singh Hura
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is a condition which predominantly affects children and causes a spectrum of skin lesions. We present a case of a 2-month-old infant with complaints of fever and fragile blisters over the body. The mucosal areas were spared. The diagnosis of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome was reached on clinical grounds and culture report. The patient responded well to the treatment, which included an antibiotic (cloxacillin), an analgesic (paracetamol), and hydration with intravenous fluids...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324572/epstein-barr-virus-ebv-induced-b-cell-lymphoproliferative-disorder-mimicking-the-recurrence-of-ebv-associated-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#3
Yuki Yatsushiro, Takuro Nishikawa, Aki Saito, Yozo Nakazawa, Ken-Ichi Imadome, Shunsuke Nakagawa, Yuichi Kodama, Yasuhiro Okamoto, Hirokazu Kanegane, Yoshifumi Kawano
We describe the case of a 23-month-old male infant with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disorder, which mimicked the recurrence of EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Chemotherapy with dexamethasone, etoposide, and cyclosporine resolved fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. However, on day 81 of illness, the patient developed similar symptoms. Plasma EBV-DNA levels markedly increased again, but no T-cell clonality was observed. B cells were identified to be infected with EBV...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315160/preventive-effects-of-vitamin-d-on-seasonal-influenza-a-in-infants-a-multicenter-randomized-open-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Jian Zhou, Juan Du, Leting Huang, Youcheng Wang, Yimei Shi, Hailong Lin
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of vitamin D for preventing influenza A in 400 infants in a multicenter, randomized, open, controlled clinical trial. METHODS: The infants were randomized into low-dose and high-dose vitamin D groups, and serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were detected thrice in 4 months. Infants infected with influenza A were monitored for symptoms including fever, cough, and wheezing...
January 8, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298247/the-effect-of-early-knowledge-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-positivity-on-medical-decision-making-and-throughput-time-within-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#5
Jessica Schnell, Lisa Schroeder, Kelly Sinclair, Lina Patel, Denise Dowd
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early knowledge of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) positivity by rapid triage-based testing protocol improved emergency department (ED) throughput time and decreased ED ancillary testing and antibiotic administration. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed of ED patients aged 2 to 12 months, presenting November 1 to March 31 for the years 2008-2013. Included patients presented with fever and upper respiratory tract symptoms...
January 2, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281750/urine-dipstick-tests-can-aid-decision-making-when-treating-infants-with-unexplained-fever-but-more-research-is-needed
#6
Astha Panghal, Aakash Pandita, Girish Gupta, Kirti Naranje, Anita Singh
A recent paper by Herreros et al in Acta Paediatrica reported, for the first time, that performing a dipstick test on a clean-catch urine sample was an accurate way of diagnosing a urinary tract infection (UTI) in a febrile infant under 90 days of age (1), without the need for invasive procedures. We have a number of comments on this study. It would have been useful to know how old the youngest infants were and the duration of unexplained fever. In addition, they used low-risk Rochester criteria to select the infants and one criterion is normal urinalysis, which may have affected the consistency of the study...
December 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279647/influenza-b-virus-triggering-macrophage-activation-syndrome-in-an-infant
#7
K Jayashree, Suchetha Rao, Nutan Kamath
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially fatal complication caused by excessive activation and expansion of macrophages and T lymphocytes. It can be triggered by various infections and is characterized by the development of cytopenias, hyperferritinemia, liver dysfunction, and coagulopathy. We report a 10-month-old female infant with fever, convulsions, and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory data of bicytopenia, low erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and elevated liver enzymes suggested MAS. This was supported by the presence of hyperferritinemia with hypertriglyceridemia...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279439/ventriculitis-unexpectedly-complicating-neonatal-meningitis-caused-by-streptococcus-gallolyticus-subsp-pasteurianus-a-case-report
#8
Yoshiko Yamamura, Yuka Mihara, Keigo Nakatani, Toshihiro Nishiguchi, Tadayoshi Ikebe
Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, previously recognized as S. bovis biotype II/2, is an uncommon but important cause of invasive infection in young infants. Here, we report the first case of ventriculitis unexpectedly found in the course of neonatal meningitis due to S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and review the literature. A 28-day-old Japanese boy presented with fever, lethargy, and irritability. S. bovis was isolated from blood and the cerebrospinal fluid culture and then was identified as S...
December 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246475/estimating-primary-care-attendance-rates-for-fever-in-infants-after-meningococcal-b-vaccination-in-england-using-national-syndromic-surveillance-data
#9
Sally Harcourt, Roger A Morbey, Chris Bates, Helen Carter, Shamez N Ladhani, Simon de Lusignan, Gillian E Smith, Alex J Elliot
BACKGROUND: In September 2015, the United Kingdom became the first country to introduce the multicomponent group B meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) into a national infant immunisation programme. In early clinical trials 51-61% of infants developed a fever when 4CMenB was administered with other routine vaccines. Whilst administration of prophylactic paracetamol is advised, up to 3% of parents may seek medical advice for fever following vaccination. We used research-level general practitioner consultations to identify any increase in attendances for all-cause fever in vaccine-eligible infants following 4CMenB introduction in England...
December 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242012/outcomes-of-immunocompetent-children-presenting-with-fever-and-neutropenia
#10
Osnat Wittmann, Ayelet Rimon, Dennis Scolnik, Miguel Glatstein
BACKGROUND: Neutropenia may alarm clinicians and prompt extensive evaluation in children with fever, even in immunocompetent patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine outcomes in previously healthy febrile children presenting to the emergency department with severe neutropenia. METHODS: We reviewed data from infants and children aged 3-36 months with fever and severe neutropenia, defined as a peripheral neutrophil count <500 × 103/μL, at our institution between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241647/safety-of-currently-licensed-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-vaccines-in-the-united-states-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-vaers-2005-2015
#11
Penina Haber, Pedro L Moro, Carmen Ng, Paige W Lewis, Beth Hibbs, Sarah F Schillie, Noele P Nelson, Rongxia Li, Brock Stewart, Maria V Cano
INTRODUCTION: Currently four recombinant hepatitis B (HepB) vaccines are in use in the United States. HepB vaccines are recommended for infants, children and adults. We assessed adverse events (AEs) following HepB vaccines reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system. METHODS: We searched VAERS for reports of AEs following single antigen HepB vaccine and HepB-containing vaccines (either given alone or with other vaccines), from January 2005 - December 2015...
December 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226974/acute-bronchiolitis-influence-of-viral-co-infection-in-infants-hospitalized-over-12-consecutive-epidemic-seasons
#12
Laura Petrarca, Raffaella Nenna, Antonella Frassanito, Alessandra Pierangeli, Salvatore Leonardi, Carolina Scagnolari, Guido Antonelli, Paola Papoff, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
Bronchiolitis is the first lower respiratory tract viral infection manifesting in infants younger than 12 months of age. Our aim was to evaluate clinical and serological differences in infants with bronchiolitis from a single or from multiple viruses. Our secondary aim was to investigate differences in recurrent wheezing episodes after 12-24-36 months of follow-up. We reviewed the clinical records for 486 full-term infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis with at least one virus detected in the nasopharyngeal aspirate...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221468/fever-in-pregnancy-and-the-risk-of-congenital-malformations-a-cohort-study
#13
L Sass, S K Urhoj, J Kjærgaard, J W Dreier, K Strandberg-Larsen, A-M Nybo Andersen
BACKGROUND: In a variety of animal species, hyperthermia in pregnancy has been recognized as teratogenic. Hyperthermia interferes with protein synthesis via heat-shock proteins, which can entail membrane disruption, cell death, vascular disruption, and placental infarction. This can induce severe fetal malformations or death. Fever during pregnancy, especially during embryogenesis, has also been associated with congenital malformations in human offspring. The purpose of this large cohort study of clinically recognized pregnancies was to investigate whether fever during first trimester was associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations in the offspring...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205679/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-human-parechovirus-and-enterovirus-infections-in-febrile-infants
#14
Kentaro Sano, Hiromichi Hamada, Shoko Hirose, Kenta Sugiura, Satoko Harada, Mai Koizumi, Mayumi Hara, Haruna Nishijima, Masakatsu Taira, Atsushi Ogura, Tomoko Ogawa, Jun-Ichi Takanashi
BACKGROUND: Human parechovirus (HPeV) and human non-polio enterovirus (EV) are important causes of fever without sources (FWS) in young infants. Their prevalence and clinical characteristics are largely unknown in Asian countries. This study was conducted to elucidate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HPeV and EV infections in febrile young infants in Japan. METHODS: During February 2010 - August 2015, we obtained 53 stool, 44 throat swab, and 20 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 56 infants (<3 months) with FWS at a single hospital...
December 5, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205494/acral-accentuated-exanthem-in-an-infant-with-parechovirus-meningitis
#15
Dawn Lee, Sin Wee Loh, Juliet Tan, Jinho Chong
We report a case of an infant who had presented with fever and an acral-accentuated rash, for which his cerebrospinal fluid returned positive for parechovirus. He was treated symptomatically and discharged well, with no long-term complications.
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198212/rubella-vaccination-in-india-identifying-broad-consequences-of-vaccine-introduction-and-key-knowledge-gaps
#16
A K Winter, S Pramanik, J Lessler, M Ferrari, B T Grenfell, C J E Metcalf
Rubella virus infection typically presents as a mild illness in children; however, infection during pregnancy may cause the birth of an infant with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). As of February 2017, India began introducing rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) into the public-sector childhood vaccination programme. Low-level RCV coverage among children over several years can result in an increase in CRS incidence by increasing the average age of infection without sufficiently reducing rubella incidence. We evaluated the impact of RCV introduction on CRS incidence across India's heterogeneous demographic and epidemiological contexts...
December 4, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198174/intracranial-complications-of-midline-nasal-dermoid-cysts
#17
Dries Opsomer, Toon Allaeys, Ann-Sofie Alderweireldt, Edward Baert, Nathalie Roche
BACKGROUND: Nasal dermoid cysts are common tumors in children. Due to anomalies in embryologic development of the nasal complex, sometimes an intracranial extension exists. When these cysts become infected they can lead to meningitis, brain abscess and death. METHODS: We report the case of a 1.5-year-old girl admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit after infection of a nasal dermoid cyst. RESULTS: The infant had a spiking fever and epileptic seizures...
December 4, 2017: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185625/unusual-warfarin-dose-to-achieve-therapeutic-inr-in-a-4-month-old-child-non-genetics-risk-factors-are-still-a-challenge
#18
Lucas Miyake Okumura, Giovanna Webster Negretto, Clarissa Gutiérrez Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a 4-month old girl that required 0.7 mg/kg/day (5 mg) of warfarin and discuss relevant risk factors for requiring higher doses. CASE DESCRIPTION: In November 2015, a 5 kg female infant (36-week preterm) was admitted to the hospital due to status epilepticus and fever. Diazepam, phenytoin and ceftriaxone were prescribed. Cerebrospinal fluid contained 7 leukocytes, 150 mg/dL proteins, 1 mg/dL glucose and gram positive cocci were observed...
October 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181745/salicylate-intoxication-in-an-infant-a-case-report
#19
Rita Espírito Santo, Sara Vaz, Filipa Jalles, Leonor Boto, Francisco Abecasis
In children, the most common cause of an elevated anion gap (AG) with ketonemia, ketonuria, hyperglycemia, and glycosuria is diabetic ketoacidosis. However, when the clinical history is not clear, other causes must be considered. A 9-month-old girl was transferred to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) because of severe metabolic acidosis. On admission, she presented with Kussmaul breathing, tachycardia, irritability, and fever. Blood gasses revealed metabolic acidosis with superimposed respiratory alkalosis and elevated AG...
November 27, 2017: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180840/candida-chorioamnionitis-leads-to-preterm-birth-and-adverse-fetal-neonatal-outcome
#20
REVIEW
Yohei Maki, Midori Fujisaki, Yuichiro Sato, Hiroshi Sameshima
Candida chorioamnionitis is rare but can lead to neonatal infection, high mortality, and neurodevelopmental impairment. We aimed to investigate maternal clinical features and perinatal outcomes and discuss future management strategies. We reviewed the medical records of women with Candida chorioamnionitis at our hospital over a 10-year period (n = 9) and previous published case reports and case series. The most prevalent Candida species was C. albicans (71.3% of the all cases). The most prevalent predisposing condition was preterm premature rupture of membranes (31/123, 25...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
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