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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719827/mixed-evidence-for-the-potential-of-non-invasive-transcutaneous-vagal-nerve-stimulation-to-improve-the-extinction-and-retention-of-fear
#1
A M Burger, B Verkuil, H Fenlon, L Thijs, L Cools, H C Miller, B Vervliet, I Van Diest
Extinction memories are fragile and their formation has been proposed to partially rely on vagus nerve activity. We tested whether stimulating the auricular branch of the vagus (transcutaneous VNS; tVNS) accelerates extinction and reduces spontaneous recovery of fear. Forty-two healthy students participated in a 3-day fear conditioning study, where we tested fear acquisition (day 1), fear extinction (day 2) and the retention of the extinction memory (day 3). During extinction, participants were randomly allocated to receive tVNS or sham stimulation concurrently with each CS presentation...
July 8, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719299/conventional-wisdom-versus-actual-outcomes-challenges-in-the-conduct-of-an-ebola-vaccine-trial-in-liberia-during-the-international-public-health-emergency
#2
Gregg S Larson, Beth R Baseler, Marie L Hoover, Jerome F Pierson, Jemee K Tegli, Melvin P Johnson, Mark W S Kieh, Laura A McNay, Wissedi Sio Njoh
Clinical trials are challenging endeavors. Planning and implementing an investigational vaccine trial in Liberia, in the midst of an Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that World Health Organization classified a public health emergency of international concern, presented extraordinary challenges. Normally, years of preparation and a litany of tasks lay the groundwork for a successful, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial focused on safety and efficacy. Difficult research settings, unpredictable events, and other unique circumstances can add complexity...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719137/neocortical-developmental-analysis-of-vasculature-and-their-growth-factors-offer-new-insight-into-fragile-x-syndrome-abnormalities
#3
Amogh P Belagodu, Stephen Fleming, Roberto Galvez
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common single gene cause for Autism Spectrum Disorder and the most prevalent form of inherited mental retardation. Our prior studies have demonstrated that adult FXS mice have abnormal blood vessel density (BVD) and elevated Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A expression (VEGF-A). VEGF-A is one of the most prominent regulators of BVD, and its abnormal expression is the most likely cause for FXS BVD abnormalities. We have demonstrated that attenuating elevated VEGF-A expression can ameliorate many non-vascular FXS abnormalities(Belagodu et al...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719003/mutation-intolerant-genes-and-targets-of-fmrp-are-enriched-for-nonsynonymous-alleles-in-schizophrenia
#4
Ganna Leonenko, Alexander L Richards, James T Walters, Andrew Pocklington, Kimberly Chambert, Mariam M Al Eissa, Sally I Sharp, Niamh L O'Brien, David Curtis, Nicholas J Bass, Andrew McQuillin, Christina Hultman, Jennifer L Moran, Steven A McCarroll, Pamela Sklar, Benjamin M Neale, Peter A Holmans, Michael J Owen, Patrick F Sullivan, Michael C O'Donovan
Risk of schizophrenia is conferred by alleles occurring across the full spectrum of frequencies from common SNPs of weak effect through to ultra rare alleles, some of which may be moderately to highly penetrant. Previous studies have suggested that some of the risk of schizophrenia is attributable to uncommon alleles represented on Illumina exome arrays. Here, we present the largest study of exomic variation in schizophrenia to date, using samples from the United Kingdom and Sweden (10,011 schizophrenia cases and 13,791 controls)...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718587/-drugs-induced-osteopathies
#5
Bérengère Aubry-Rozier
Drug induced bone diseases concerns : induced osteoporosis, induced osteomalacia (by loss of calcium, phosphate or vitamin D) and induced sarcopenia. Some of these drugs are well known, such as anti-hormones, corticotherapy (which could induce all of osteoporosis, osteomalacia and sarcopenia). In the present article, we will focus on 3 others less known but frequently used drugs : iron replacement, proton pump inhibitors therapy, and serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants treatment. For each of them we will discuss the pathophysiological mechanism leading to bone fragility as well as the recommendations of prevention / management to be proposed in case of absolute necessity of the treatment...
March 8, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718415/aging-fewer-obstacles-to-dna-replication
#6
Andreas S Ivessa
Many cancers are initiated by loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) events that lead to the replacement of single, functional tumor suppressor genes by the mutant alleles. The underlying mechanisms, of why LOH rates increase with age, are not well understood. We discuss the possible involvement of difficult-to-replicate (fragile) chromosomal sites in this process.
June 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718166/can-long-term-luts-bph-pharmacological-treatment-alter-the-outcomes-of-surgical-intervention
#7
REVIEW
Fabrizio Presicce, Cosimo De Nunzio, Andrea Tubaro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We have reviewed the available evidence on the impact of long-term pharmacological treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms on the outcomes of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic literature search from January 1990 to May 2017 was performed. Only references in the English language and peer-reviewed manuscripts were considered. RECENT FINDINGS: Over time, the ever-increasing use of long-term pharmaceutical treatments has considerably reduced the rate of BPH surgery in most countries...
September 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718019/neonatal-placental-and-umbilical-cord-blood-parameters-in-pregnant-women-residing-in-areas-with-intensive-pesticide-application
#8
María Martha Quintana, Berta Vera, Gladis Magnarelli, Natalia Guiñazú, María Gabriela Rovedatti
In rural populations, the proximity to areas with intensive pesticide application represents a risk factor of xenobiotic exposure. Here, we investigated whether newborns born to mothers residing in an area with intensive pesticide application show alterations in placental and neonatal morphometric standards, umbilical cord blood (UCB) biochemical parameters, and/or biomarkers related to oxidative stress and oxidative damage. Samples were collected from 151 healthy pregnant women residing in a rural area (rural group; RG) during the pesticide spraying (SS) and nonspraying (NSS) seasons, as well as from women from an urban population (control group; CG), and grouped according to the delivery type (vaginal or cesarean)...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716975/metabolic-phenotype-in-the-mouse-model-of-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#9
Iris Boraschi-Diaz, Josephine T Tauer, Omar El Rifai, Delphine Guillemette, Geneviève Lefebvre, Frank Rauch, Mathieu Ferron, Svetlana V Komarova
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is the most common heritable bone fragility disorder, usually caused by dominant mutations in genes coding for collagen type I alpha chains, COL1A1 or COL1A2. Osteocalcin is now recognized as a bone-derived regulator of insulin secretion and sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Since OI is associated with increased rates of bone formation and resorption, we hypothesized that the levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin are increased in OI. The objective of this study was to determine changes in osteocalcin and to elucidate the metabolic phenotype in the Col1a1Jrt/+ mouse, a model of dominant OI caused by a Col1a1 mutation...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716945/evaluating-optimal-therapy-robustness-by-virtual-expansion-of-a-sample-population-with-a-case-study-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#10
Syndi Barish, Michael F Ochs, Eduardo D Sontag, Jana L Gevertz
Cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease, exhibiting spatial and temporal variations that pose challenges for designing robust therapies. Here, we propose the VEPART (Virtual Expansion of Populations for Analyzing Robustness of Therapies) technique as a platform that integrates experimental data, mathematical modeling, and statistical analyses for identifying robust optimal treatment protocols. VEPART begins with time course experimental data for a sample population, and a mathematical model fit to aggregate data from that sample population...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716823/father-loss-and-child-telomere-length
#11
Colter Mitchell, Sara McLanahan, Lisa Schneper, Irv Garfinkel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Daniel Notterman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Father loss during childhood has negative health and behavioral consequences, but the biological consequences are unknown. Our goal was to examine how father loss (because of separation and/or divorce, death, or incarceration) is associated with cellular function as estimated by telomere length. METHODS: Data come from the 9-year follow-up of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of children in 20 large American cities (N = 2420)...
July 18, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716616/relationship-between-spirituality-meaning-in-life-psychological-distress-wish-for-hastened-death-and-their-influence-on-quality-of-life-in-palliative-care-patients
#12
Mathieu Bernard, Florian Strasser, Claudia Gamondi, Giliane Braunschweig, Michaela Forster, Karin Kaspers-Elekes, Silvia Walther Veri, Gian Domenico Borasio
CONTEXT: Spiritual, existential, and psychological issues represent central components of quality of life (QOL) in palliative care. A better understanding of the dynamic underlying these components is essential for the development of interventions tailored to the palliative context. OBJECTIVES: The aims were to explore (i) the relationship between spirituality, meaning in life, wishes for hastened death and psychological distress in palliative patients, and (ii) the extent to which these non-physical determinants influence QOL...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716499/fracture-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Catalina Poiana, Cristina Capatina
Diabetes mellitus, both type 1 and type 2 (T2DM), is associated with decreased bone strength as well as increased fracture risk. Bone mineral density is decreased in type 1 diabetes but increased in T2DM, compared with controls. This suggests alterations in bone quality are a major player in the pathogenesis of fragility fractures in patients with diabetes. The link between diabetes and bone appears to be mediated by complex pathways, including the insulin-insulin growth factors system, accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in bone collagen, microangiopathy, and increased bone marrow fat content...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715395/expansion-and-adipogenesis-induction-of-adipocyte-progenitors-from-perivascular-adipose-tissue-isolated-by-magnetic-activated-cell-sorting
#14
Kyan Thelen, Nadia Ayala-Lopez, Stephanie W Watts, G Andres Contreras
Expansion of Perivascular Adipose Tissue (PVAT), a major regulator of vascular function through paracrine signaling, is directly related to the development of hypertension during obesity. The extent of hypertrophy and hyperplasia depends on depot location, sex, and the type of Adipocyte Progenitor Cell (APC) phenotypes present. Techniques used for APC and preadipocytes isolation in the last 10 years have drastically improved the accuracy at which individual cells can be identified based on specific cell surface markers...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714284/egg-albumen-as-a-fast-and-strong-medical-adhesive-glue
#15
Kaige Xu, Yuqing Liu, Shousan Bu, Tianyi Wu, Qiang Chang, Gurankit Singh, Xiaojian Cao, Chuang Deng, Bingyun Li, Gaoxing Luo, Malcolm Xing
Sutures penetrate tissues to close wounds. This process leads to inflammatory responses, prolongs healing time, and increases operation complexity. It becomes even worse when sutures are applied to stress-sensitive and fragile tissues. By bonding tissues via forming covalent bonds, some medical adhesives are not convenient to be used by surgeons and have side effects to the tissues. Here egg albumen adhesive (EAA) is reported with ultrahigh adhesive strength to bond various types of materials and can be easily used without any chemical and physical modifications...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712678/impact-of-the-18th-birthday-on-waitlist-outcomes-among-young-adults-listed-for-heart-transplant-a-regression-discontinuity-analysis
#16
David M Peng, Qiuying Qu, Nancy McDonald, Seth A Hollander, Daniel Bernstein, Katsuhide Maeda, Beth D Kaufman, David N Rosenthal, Doff B McElhinney, Christopher S Almond
BACKGROUND: Patients listed for heart transplant after their 18th birthday purportedly wait longer to receive a donor heart compared with patients listed before their 18th birthday. It is unclear whether there is an actual difference in wait times and whether any difference in wait time is associated with lower likelihood of transplant and/or higher risk of mortality. METHODS: Organ procurement and transplant network data were used to identify all patients listed for heart transplant between 2006 and 2014 within a 1-year period before and after their 18th birthday...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711039/determination-of-onset-temperature-from-the-entropy-for-fragile-to-strong-liquids
#17
Atreyee Banerjee, Manoj Kumar Nandi, Srikanth Sastry, Sarika Maitra Bhattacharyya
In this paper, we establish a connection between the onset temperature of glassy dynamics with the change in the entropy for a wide range of model systems. We identify the crossing temperature of pair and excess entropies as the onset temperature. Below the onset temperature, the residual multiparticle entropy, the difference between excess and pair entropies, becomes positive. The positive entropy can be viewed as equivalent to the larger phase space exploration of the system. The new method of onset temperature prediction from entropy is less ambiguous, as it does not depend on any fitting parameter like the existing methods...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710936/leadership-mentoring-in-nursing-research-career-development-and-scholarly-productivity-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Thóra B Hafsteinsdóttir, Angeli M van der Zwaag, Marieke J Schuurmans
BACKGROUND: Although nursing has been an academic discipline for decades, the infrastructure for nursing research in many countries is still fragile and struggling. Postdoctoral nurses have difficulties developing sustaining careers in nursing research due to lack of career opportunities. Considerable research has been conducted on leadership and mentoring in various areas of nursing. We aimed to systematically review the literature investigating leadership programs and mentoring for postdoctoral nurse researchers, as well as the influence of leadership and mentoring on research productivity, research career development, leadership knowledge and skills, the nurses' health and well-being, staff relationships, work culture and collaboration, salaries and postdoctoral nurses' experiences...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710719/fragility-fractures-at-auckland-city-hospital-we-can-do-better
#19
Geoffrey Braatvedt, Susan Wilkinson, Marilyn Scott, Paul Mitchell, Roger Harris
This study describes in detail the burden of caring for patients aged ≥ 50 years seen in one year with a fragility fracture in a large urban environment and shows that these fractures result in a long length of stay and significant mortality. Intervention to prevent further fracture was poorly done. PURPOSE: To examine the epidemiology of fragility fracture in patients over age 50 years and record the number who received appropriate secondary prevention treatment. METHODS: All patients aged ≥ 50 years presenting with a fracture during the 12 months following July 1(st) 2011, to Auckland City Hospital or residing in central Auckland at the time of their fracture, were identified from hospital and Accident Compensation Corporation records...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710420/the-resilience-of-life-to-astrophysical-events
#20
David Sloan, Rafael Alves Batista, Abraham Loeb
Much attention has been given in the literature to the effects of astrophysical events on human and land-based life. However, little has been discussed on the resilience of life itself. Here we instead explore the statistics of events that completely sterilise an Earth-like planet with planet radii in the range 0.5-1.5R ⊕ and temperatures of ∼300 K, eradicating all forms of life. We consider the relative likelihood of complete global sterilisation events from three astrophysical sources - supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, large asteroid impacts, and passing-by stars...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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