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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938749/the-testicular-transcriptome-associated-with-spermatogonia-differentiation-initiated-by-gonadotrophin-stimulation-in-the-juvenile-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta
#1
Suresh Ramaswamy, William H Walker, Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Gary R Marshall, Alyxzandria Smith, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Mark P Hedger, Tony M Plant
STUDY QUESTION: What is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Forty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to membrane receptors, and from juxtacrine and paracrine factors to transcriptional factors governing spermatogonial stem cell fate...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937947/wastewater-treatment-by-means-of-thermophilic-aerobic-membrane-reactors-respirometric-tests-and-numerical-models-for-determination-of-stoichiometric-kinetic-parameters
#2
Maria Cristina Collivignarelli, Giorgio Bertanza, Alessandro Abbà, Vincenzo Torretta, Ioannis Anastasios Katsoyiannis
The present work considers the pollution abatement of wastewaters, the efficiency of which is depending on stringent verification of the performance of wastewater treatment plants. This is very important especially given that eExisting wastewater/aqueous waste treatment plants often need to be upgraded in order to improve their performance. The satisfactory operation of biological treatment plants requires appropriate monitoring, and respirometric techniques are needed to determine the kinetic parameters that regulate biological processes...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937880/detection-of-free-microcystins-in-the-liver-and-muscle-of-freshwater-fish-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#3
Xiaobin Hu, Jinyun Ye, Rongfei Zhang, Xiang Wu, Yixiang Zhang, Chenglong Wu
MC analysis of biological tissue is considered to be very difficult due to the lack of validated methods. This is the primary limiting factor for monitoring potential risks in both the flesh of aquatic organisms and the aquatic ecosystem. In this study, an effective method to determine free MCs (MC-LR and MC-RR) in the muscle and liver tissues of freshwater cultured fish was developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). The extraction solvent, time of extraction, eluent and purification of the extract were optimized...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937869/effect-of-microtubule-disruption-on-dynamics-of-acidic-organelles-in-the-axons-of-primary-cultured-retinal-ganglion-cells
#4
Seiji Miyake, Yuji Takihara, Satoshi Yokota, Yoshihiro Takamura, Masaru Inatani
PURPOSE: Axonal transport is fundamental to autophagy in neuronal cells. To understand its biological significance in various conditions, it is necessary to monitor the process of autophagy. However, monitoring methods are often limited to static analyses, such as protein expression and histological observations. Autophagy has multistep process and is highly dynamic; therefore, additional techniques are necessary to study autophagy. In this study, we quantified the dynamics of autophagy-related organelle transport under conditions of dynamic instability and catastrophic disruption of microtubules using in vitro live imaging...
September 22, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937611/hcg-biological-functions-and-clinical-applications
#5
REVIEW
Chinedu Nwabuobi, Sefa Arlier, Frederick Schatz, Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Charles Joseph Lockwood, Umit Ali Kayisli
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is produced primarily by differentiated syncytiotrophoblasts, and represents a key embryonic signal that is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. hCG can activate various signaling cascades including mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (Smad2), protein kinase C (PKC), and/or protein kinase A (PKA) in several cells types by binding to luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) or potentially by direct/indirect interaction with transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGFβR)...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936651/in-vivo-ploidy-determination-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-male-and-female-gametophytes
#6
Burcu Nur Keçeli, Nico De Storme, Danny Geelen
Organ- or tissue-specific ploidy level determination is often used for answering biological, molecular, genetic, or evolutionary questions in plant sciences. However, current techniques for ploidy determination either cannot provide information on single cell level, require destructive sample preparation, or are laborious and time-consuming. Here, we present a new approach developed in Arabidopsis thaliana, which is not only less labor intensive but also allows in vivo ploidy determination on single cell level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936518/microscopic-time-resolved-imaging-of-singlet-oxygen-by-delayed-fluorescence-in-living-cells
#7
Marek Scholz, Roman Dědic, Jan Hála
Singlet oxygen is a highly reactive species which is involved in a number of processes, including photodynamic therapy of cancer. Its very weak near-infrared emission makes imaging of singlet oxygen in biological systems a long-term challenge. We address this challenge by introducing Singlet Oxygen Feedback Delayed Fluorescence (SOFDF) as a novel modality for semi-direct microscopic time-resolved wide-field imaging of singlet oxygen in biological systems. SOFDF has been investigated in individual fibroblast cells incubated with a well-known photosensitizer aluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate...
September 22, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934853/responsive-photonic-crystal-carbohydrate-hydrogel-sensor-materials-for-selective-and-sensitive-lectin-protein-detection
#8
Zhongyu Cai, Aniruddha Sasmal, Xinyu Liu, Sanford A Asher
Lectin proteins, such as the highly toxic lectin protein, ricin, and the immunochemically important lectin, jacalin, play significant roles in many biological functions. It is highly desirable to develop a simple but efficient method to selectively detect lectin proteins. Here we report the development of carbohydrate containing responsive hydrogel sensing materials for the selective detection of lectin proteins. The copolymerization of a vinyl linked carbohydrate monomer with acrylamide and acrylic acid forms a carbohydrate hydrogel that shows specific "multivalent" binding to lectin proteins...
September 22, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934730/dihydroartemisinin-and-curcumin-synergistically-induce-apoptosis-in-skov3-cells-via-upregulation-of-mir-124-targeting-midkine
#9
Jiaojiao Zhao, Yuchen Pan, Xiujun Li, Xuefang Zhang, Yaxian Xue, Tingting Wang, Shuli Zhao, Yayi Hou
BACKGROUND/AIM: Women with advanced ovarian carcinoma are less likely to receive platinum-based chemotherapy and surgery due to a greater risk of cytotoxicity and poorer outcomes. We attempted to improve a promising therapy against ovarian cancer by using a combination of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and curcumin (Cur). METHODS: Human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells were treated with DHA, Cur alone, or a combination of both. The viability of SKOV3 cells was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and a colony formation assay...
September 21, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934609/quantitative-measurement-of-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate-adsorption-onto-ctab-capped-gold-nanoparticles-reveals-hard-and-soft-coronas
#10
Celina M Harris, Savannah G Miller, Kurt Andresen, Lucas B Thompson
Accumulated evidence indicates that nanoparticle behavior in complex biological environments strongly depends on the nanoparticles' surface chemistry. A common way to modify nanoparticles is to deposit oppositely charged molecules on the surfaces in a Layer-by-Layer fashion to build up thin films of polymers. While this polymer coating is a well-developed technique, the quantification of polymers deposited and physical mechanism of polymer deposition remain relatively unstudied. In this work CTAB capped gold nanoparticles, synthesized in a flow reactor, are coated with sodium polystyrene sulfonate and purified through a series of equilibrium dialysis steps...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934028/toward-neuroproteomics-in-biological-psychiatry-a-systems-approach-unravels-okadaic-acid-induced-alterations-in-the-neuronal-phosphoproteome
#11
Joana Machado Oliveira, Cristóvão B da Cruz E Silva, Thorsten Müller, Tânia Soares Martins, Marta Cova, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva, Ana Gabriela Henriques
Neuroproteomics is an evolving field of postgenomic medicine, highlighting the convergence of psychiatry/neurology and proteomics, yet compared with neurogenetics, it has received little attention. This study in rat primary neuronal cultures provides an example of a neuroproteomic approach relevant to the study of psychiatric disease pathophysiology, focusing on Alzheimer's disease. In this context, okadaic acid (OA) is routinely used in experimental designs to investigate phosphorylation-mediated events. It is a potent protein phosphatase (PP) inhibitor, particularly of PP1 and PP2A...
September 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933418/biomarkers-in-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Joaquin Bobillo Lobato, Maria Jiménez Hidalgo, Luis M Jiménez Jiménez
A biomarker is generally an analyte that indicates the presence and/or extent of a biological process, which is in itself usually directly linked to the clinical manifestations and outcome of a particular disease. The biomarkers in the field of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) have particular relevance where spectacular therapeutic initiatives have been achieved, most notably with the introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). There are two main types of biomarkers. The first group is comprised of those molecules whose accumulation is directly enhanced as a result of defective lysosomal function...
December 17, 2016: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933283/organic-nanotheranostics-for-photoacoustic-imaging-guided-phototherapy
#13
Houjuan Zhu, Chen Xie, Peng Chen, Kanyi Pu
Phototherapies including photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have emerged as one of the avant-garde strategies for cancer treatment. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a new hybrid imaging modality that shows great promise for real-time in vivo monitoring of biological processes with deep tissue penetration and high spatial resolution. To enhance therapeutic efficiency and reduce side effects, it is necessary to explore the combination of cancer therapy and diagnosis. Nanotheranostics composed of PTT/PDT and PA imaging are emerging to provide unprecedented advantages in accelerating cancer theranostics...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932829/exploring-coherent-electron-excitation-and-migration-dynamics-by-electron-diffraction-with-ultrashort-x-ray-pulses
#14
Kai-Jun Yuan, André D Bandrauk
Exploring ultrafast charge migration is of great importance in biological and chemical reactions. We present a scheme to monitor attosecond charge migration in molecules by electron diffraction with spatial and temporal resolutions from ab initio numerical simulations. An ultraviolet pulse creates a coherent superposition of electronic states, after which a time-delayed attosecond X-ray pulse is used to ionize the molecule. It is found that diffraction patterns in the X-ray photoelectron spectra show an asymmetric structure, which is dependent on the time delay between the pump-probe pulses, encoding the information of molecular orbital symmetry and chemical bonding...
September 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932268/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-ct-p13-a-comparison-of-four-different-immunoassays
#15
Joana Afonso, Helena Tavares de Sousa, Isadora Rosa, João Carvalho, Cláudia Camila Dias, Fernando Magro
BACKGROUND: The commercialization of CT-P13, an infliximab (IFX) biosimilar, has the potential to decrease health-related costs and enhance access to biological therapies. This study aimed to address the accuracy and inter-assay agreement of the CT-P13 quantification using four different assays initially developed to assess IFX. METHODS: The four different methods, one in-house method and three commercially available kits, were used to quantify exogenously-spiked samples and the sera from 185 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients on CT-P13 therapy...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931938/dynamic-transcriptome-and-phytohormone-profiling-along-the-time-of-light-exposure-in-the-mesocotyl-of-rice-seedling
#16
Fangjun Feng, Hanwei Mei, Peiqing Fan, Yanan Li, Xiaoyan Xu, Haibin Wei, Ming Yan, Lijun Luo
Mesocotyl elongation is an important trait influencing seedling emergence and establishment in rice direct-seeding cultivation and is immediately inhibited after light exposure. Detailed researches on the molecular basis and biological processes underlying light repression of mesocotyl growth could probably provide useful information for key factors controlling this trait. Here we monitored the transcriptome and endogenous phytohormone changes specifically in the elongating mesocotyl in response to light exposure with a time-course...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931472/pharmaceutical-cocrystals-salts-and-polymorphs-advanced-characterization-techniques
#17
Edyta Pindelska, Agnieszka Sokal, Waclaw Kolodziejski
The main goal of a novel drug development is to obtain it with optimal physiochemical, pharmaceutical and biological properties. Pharmaceutical companies and scientists modify active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), which often are cocrystals, salts or carefully selected polymorphs, to improve the properties of a parent drug. To find the best form of a drug, various advanced characterization methods should be used. In this review, we have described such analytical methods, dedicated to solid drug forms. Thus, diffraction, spectroscopic, thermal and also pharmaceutical characterization methods are discussed...
September 17, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930988/application-of-laser-micro-irradiation-for-examination-of-single-and-double-strand-break-repair-in-mammalian-cells
#18
Nathaniel W Holton, Joel F Andrews, Natalie R Gassman
Highly coordinated DNA repair pathways exist to detect, excise and replace damaged DNA bases, and coordinate repair of DNA strand breaks. While molecular biology techniques have clarified structure, enzymatic functions, and kinetics of repair proteins, there is still a need to understand how repair is coordinated within the nucleus. Laser micro-irradiation offers a powerful tool for inducing DNA damage and monitoring the recruitment of repair proteins. Induction of DNA damage by laser micro-irradiation can occur with a range of wavelengths, and users can reliably induce single strand breaks, base lesions and double strand breaks with a range of doses...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930984/high-fat-diet-feeding-and-high-throughput-triacylglyceride-assay-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Soda Balla Diop, Ryan T Birse, Rolf Bodmer
Heart disease is the number one cause of human death worldwide. Numerous studies have shown strong connections between obesity and cardiac malfunction in humans, but more tools and research efforts are needed to better elucidate the mechanisms involved. For over a century, the genetically highly tractable model of Drosophila has been instrumental in the discovery of key genes and molecular pathways that proved to be highly conserved across species. Many biological processes and disease mechanisms are functionally conserved in the fly, such as development (e...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930182/microbial-community-structure-and-functions-in-ethanol-fed-sulfate-removal-bioreactors-for-treatment-of-mine-water
#20
Malin Bomberg, Jarno Mäkinen, Marja Salo, Mona Arnold
Sulfate-rich mine water must be treated before it is released into natural water bodies. We tested ethanol as substrate in bioreactors designed for biological sulfate removal from mine water containing up to 9 g L(-1) sulfate, using granular sludge from an industrial waste water treatment plant as inoculum. The pH, redox potential, and sulfate and sulfide concentrations were measured twice a week over a maximum of 171 days. The microbial communities in the bioreactors were characterized by qPCR and high throughput amplicon sequencing...
September 20, 2017: Microorganisms
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