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Biological monitoring

Mohamed Nabil Elnaggar, Kahtan Jbeili, Nik Nik-Hussin, Mohandas Kozhippally, Joseph M Pappachan
Amiodarone is one of the most commonly prescribed antiarrhythmic agents in clinical practice owing to its efficacy, even with high toxicity profile. The high iodine content and the prolonged biological half-life of the drug can result in thyroid dysfunction in a high proportion of patients treated with amiodarone even after cessation of amiodarone. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are common side effects that mandate regular monitoring of patients with thyroid function tests. Amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH) is diagnosed and managed in the same way as a usual case of hypothyroidism...
March 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Dai Long Vu, Karolína Ranglová, Jan Hájek, Pavel Hrouzek
Quantification of selenated amino-acids currently relies on methods employing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Although very accurate, these methods do not allow the simultaneous determination of standard amino-acids, hampering the comparison of the content of selenated versus non-selenated species such as methionine (Met) and selenomethionine (SeMet). This paper reports two approaches for the simultaneous quantification of Met and SeMet. In the first approach, standard enzymatic hydrolysis employing Protease XIV was applied for the preparation of samples...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Viviana Izzo, Bruno Charlier, Elena Bloise, Marine Pingeon, Marianna Romano, Antonietta Finelli, Alfonso Vietri, Valeria Conti, Valentina Manzo, Maria Alfieri, Amelia Filippelli, Fabrizio Dal Piaz
Exposure of healthcare workers to anticancer drugs requires the combined action of environmental and biological monitoring to assess the effective level of exposure to these chemicals, to improve awareness and to avoid adverse health effects on this category of workers. Cancer chemotherapeutic drugs show different mechanisms of action due to diverse chemical structures; consequently, they differ in hydrophobicity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Therefore, the appearance, accumulation and elimination of each of these molecules in body fluids and tissues might be extremely variable; this prompts the need for a rapid and versatile analytical protocol for the biological monitoring of possible exposure of workers involved in the manipulation, administration and disposal of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Michał Romański, Jacek Wachowiak, Franciszek K Główka
Treosulfan is a prodrug that undergoes a highly pH- and temperature-dependent nonenzymatic conversion to the monoepoxide {(2S,3S)-1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol 4-methanesulfonate [S,S-EBDM]} and diepoxide {(2S,3S)-1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane [S,S-DEB]}. Currently, treosulfan is tested in clinical trials as an alternative to busulfan in conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of note, the optimal dosing of the prodrug is still unresolved, especially in infants. In this paper, the pharmacokinetics of treosulfan, together with its biologically active epoxides, is comprehensively reviewed for the first time, with the focus on conditioning prior to HSCT...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Feng Fu, Xiang Zhu, Zhe Qin, Jing-Jing Wang, Chao Xu, Li-Na Wang, Yue Tu, Sai Zhang, Rui-Xin Li, Xiao-Hong Li, Ming-Liang Zhao
Degradation rate is an important index for evaluating biomaterials. The authors' aim was to determine whether the degradation rate of biomaterials is different in distinct tissues and to clarify the underlying mechanism of degradation. The collagen-chitosan (CG-CS) composite scaffolds were prepared using freeze-drying technology. The porosity, water absorption and swelling ratio of the scaffolds were tested in vitro. The scaffolds were implanted into the subcutis, spinal cord and brain tissues of SD rats, the rate of degradation was assessed by continuous monitoring of weight loss, the pathological changes of target areas were observed by histological staining, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and lysozyme were detected at the rapid stage of degradation of the scaffolds...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Gerardo Martin, Carlos Yanez-Arenas, Carla Chen, Raina K Plowright, Rebecca J Webb, Lee F Skerratt
Disease risk mapping is important for predicting and mitigating impacts of bat-borne viruses, including Hendra virus (Paramyxoviridae:Henipavirus), that can spillover to domestic animals and thence to humans. We produced two models to estimate areas at potential risk of HeV spillover explained by the climatic suitability for its flying fox reservoir hosts, Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus. We included additional climatic variables that might affect spillover risk through other biological processes (such as bat or horse behaviour, plant phenology and bat foraging habitat)...
March 19, 2018: EcoHealth
Zacharenia Nikitaki, Marcela Holá, Mattia Donà, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Ioannis Michalopoulos, Karel J Angelis, Alexandros G Georgakilas, Anca Macovei, Alma Balestrazzi
Eukaryotic genome surveillance is dependent on the multiple, highly coordinated network functions of the DNA damage response (DDR). Highlighted conserved features of DDR in plants and animals represent a challenging opportunity to develop novel interdisciplinary investigations aimed at expanding the sets of DNA damage biomarkers currently available for radiation exposure monitoring (REM) in environmental and biomedical applications. In this review, common and divergent features of the most relevant DDR players in animals and plants are described, including the intriguing example of the plant and animal kingdom-specific master regulators SOG1 (suppressor of gamma response) and p53...
January 2018: Mutation Research
P Scott Pine, Steven P Lund, Sanford A Stass, Debra Kukuruga, Feng Jiang, Lynn Sorbara, Sudhir Srivastava, Marc Salit
BACKGROUND: We demonstrate the feasibility of creating a pair of reference samples to be used as surrogates for clinical samples measured in either a research or clinical laboratory setting. The reference sample paradigm presented and evaluated here is designed to assess the capability of a measurement process to detect true differences between two biological samples. Cell-based reference samples can be created with a biomarker signature pattern designed in silico. Clinical laboratories working in regulated applications are required to participate in proficiency testing programs; research laboratories doing discovery typically do not...
March 20, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Albert Herrero, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Olga Vigiak, Stefanie Lutz, Rohini Kumar, David Gampe, Verena Huber-García, Ralf Ludwig, Ramon Batalla, Sergi Sabater
Multiple abiotic stressors affect the ecological status of water bodies. The status of waterbodies in the Ebro catchment (NE Spain) is evaluated using the biological quality elements (BQEs) of diatoms, invertebrates and macrophytes. The multi-stressor influence on the three BQEs was evaluated using the monitoring dataset available from the catchment water authority. Nutrient concentrations, especially total phosphorus (TP), affected most of the analyzed BQEs, while changes in mean discharge, water temperature, or river morphology did not show significant influences...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nina Henning, Uwe Kunkel, Arne Wick, Thomas A Ternes
Laboratory-scale incubation experiments in water/sediment systems were conducted to test the transformation behavior of the anticonvulsant gabapentin (GBP) under different environmental conditions (aerobic, anaerobic, with abiotic controls). GBP was transformed by biological processes as it was eliminated quickly under aerobic conditions (dissipation time 50% of initial concentration (DT50 ): 2-7 days) whereas no decrease was observed under anaerobic conditions. Measurements via high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap-MS) revealed eight biological transformation products (TPs)...
February 3, 2018: Water Research
Alan J Bergmann, Gary L Points, Richard P Scott, Glenn Wilson, Kim A Anderson
With hundreds of thousands of chemicals in the environment, effective monitoring requires high-throughput analytical techniques. This paper presents a quantitative screening method for 1550 chemicals based on statistical modeling of responses with identification and integration performed using deconvolution reporting software. The method was evaluated with representative environmental samples. We tested biological extracts, low-density polyethylene, and silicone passive sampling devices spiked with known concentrations of 196 representative chemicals...
March 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Arash Ahmadivand, Burak Gerislioglu, Asahi Tomitaka, Pandiaraj Manickam, Ajeet Kaushik, Shekhar Bhansali, Madhavan Nair, Nezih Pala
Engineered terahertz (THz) plasmonic metamaterials have emerged as promising platforms for quick infection diagnosis, cost-effective and real-time pharmacology applications owing to their non-destructive and harmless interaction with biological tissues in both in vivo and in vitro assays. As a recent member of THz metamaterials family, toroidal metamaterials have been demonstrated to be supporting high-quality sharp resonance modes. Here we introduce a THz metasensor based on a plasmonic surface consisting of metamolecules that support ultra-narrow toroidal resonances excited by the incident radiation and demonstrate detection of an ultralow concertation targeted biomarker...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Dale A Halbritter, Nicholas M Teets, Caroline M Williams, Jaret C Daniels
Predicting how rapid climate change will affect terrestrial biota depends on a thorough understanding of an organism's biology and evolutionary history. Organisms at their range boundaries are particularly sensitive to climate change. As predominantly terrestrial poikilotherms, insects are often geographically limited by extremes in ambient temperatures. We compared the cold hardiness strategies of two geographically widespread butterflies, the pine white, Neophasia menapia, and the Mexican pine white, N. terlooii (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), at the near-contact zone of their range boundaries...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jana Amlerova, Ibrahim Bitar, Jaroslav Hrabak
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered one of the most serious infectious diseases worldwide. Effective control of tuberculosis infection involves multiple steps, such as reliable detection, treatment, an epidemiological control as a part of case management, and further surveillance and monitoring of TB spread in the human population. Due to the accelerating advances in molecular biology, especially in DNA sequencing, in the past decade, the application of these methods has become crucial for TB evolution studies, differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes, and their distribution...
March 17, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Xun Liu, Shang-Qing Zhang, Xing Wei, Ting Yang, Ming-Li Chen, Jian-Hua Wang
A novel core-shell structure optical pH sensor is developed with upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) serving as the core and silica as the shell, followed by grafting bovineserumalbumin (BSA) as another shell via glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The obtained core-shell-shell structure is shortly termed as UCNPs@SiO2 @BSA, and its surface provides a platform for loading various pH sensitive dyes, which are alike "modules" to make it feasible for measuring pHs within different pH ranges by simply regulating the type of dyes...
March 6, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Masoud Ghader, Nader Shokoufi, Ali Es-Haghi, Kazem Kargosha
Vaccine production is a biological process in which variation in time and output is inevitable. Thus, the application of Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) will be important in this regard. Headspace solid - phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with GC-MS can be used as a PAT for process monitoring. This method is suitable to chemical profiling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from microorganisms. Tetanus is a lethal disease caused by Clostridium tetani (C. tetani) bacterium and vaccination is an ultimate way to prevent this disease...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Ahmed Ma'mun, Mohamed K Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed Abd El-Kawy
In recent years, the whole field of ion-selective electrodes(ISEs) in pharmaceutical sciences has expanded far beyond its original roots. The diverse range of opportunities offered by ISEs was broadly used in a number of pharmaceutical applications, with topics presented ranging from bioanalysis of drugs and metabolites, to protein binding studies, green analytical chemistry, impurity profiling, and drug dissolution in biorelevant media. Inspired from these advances and with the aim of extending the functional capabilities of ISEs, the primary focus of the present paper is the utilization of ISE as a tool in personalized medicine...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Alireza Alikhani, Milad Gharooni, Hamed Abiri, Fatemeh Farokhmanesh, Mohammad Abdolahad
Monitoring the pH dependent behavior of normal and cancer cells by impedimetric biosensor based on Silicon Nanowires (SiNWs) was introduced to diagnose the invasive cancer cells. Autophagy as a biologically activated process in invasive cancer cells during acidosis, protect them from apoptosis in lower pH which presented in our work. As the autophagy is the only activated pathways which can maintain cellular proliferation in acidic media, responses of SiNW-ECIS in acidified cells could be correlated to the probability of autophagy activation in normal or cancer cells...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Huagang Hou, Nadeem Khan, Sangeeta Gohain, M Lakshmi Kuppusamy, Periannan Kuppusamy
Tissue oxygenation is a critical parameter in various pathophysiological situations including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Hypoxia can significantly influence the prognosis of solid malignancies and the efficacy of their treatment by radiation or chemotherapy. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry is a reliable method for repeatedly assessing and monitoring oxygen levels in tissues. Lithium octa-n-butoxynaphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO) has been developed as a probe for biological EPR oximetry, especially for clinical use...
March 16, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Elzbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska, Idalia Kasprzyk, Malgorzata Nowak, Aneta Sulborska, Joanna Kaczmarek, Agata Szymanska, Weronika Haratym, Miroslaw Gilski, Malgorzata Jedryczka
The spores of Cladosporium Link. are often present in the air in high quantities and produce many allergenic proteins, which may lead to asthma. An aerobiological spore monitoring program can inform patients about the current spore concentration in air and help their physicians determine the spore dose that is harmful for a given individual. This makes it possible to develop optimized responses and propose personalized therapy for a particular sensitive patient. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of the human health hazard posed by the fungal genus Cladosporium...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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