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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334648/using-mass-struvite-precipitation-to-remove-recalcitrant-nutrients-and-micropollutants-from-anaerobic-digestion-dewatering-centrate
#1
M Abel-Denee, T Abbott, C Eskicioglu
The primary objective of this research was to remove recalcitrant nutrients from anaerobically digested sludge dewatering centrate. A struvite precipitation methodology is proposed where salt crystals are encouraged to ballast colloidal particles through heterogeneous nucleation and subsequent crystal growth. The secondary objective was to assess presence of micropollutants in precipitates. Four biologically unique dewatering centrates were used to test the precipitation methodology on the variety of anaerobic digester configurations that can be expected from municipal wastewater treatment plant...
January 5, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334302/mirnas-as-potential-regulators-of-mtor-pathway-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#2
Inês Nogueira, Francisca Dias, Ana Luísa Teixeira, Rui Medeiros
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most commonly occurring solid cancer of the adult kidney with the majority of RCC cases being detected accidentally. The most aggressive subtype is clear cell RCC (ccRCC). miRNAs, a family of small noncoding RNAs regulating gene expression have been identified as key biological modulators. The von Hippel-Lindau pathway is one of the signaling pathways involved in the pathophysiology of ccRCC. Another oncogenic mechanism involves the activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling and serves as a central regulator of cell metabolism, proliferation and survival...
January 15, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333863/principles-of-vaccine-potency-assays
#3
Thorsten Verch, Jeremiah J Trausch, Mary Shank-Retzlaff
Compared with biologics, vaccine potency assays represent a special challenge due to their unique compositions, multivalency, long life cycles and global distribution. Historically, vaccines were released using in vivo potency assays requiring immunization of dozens of animals. Modern vaccines use a variety of newer analytical tools including biochemical, cell-based and immunochemical methods to measure potency. The choice of analytics largely depends on the mechanism of action and ability to ensure lot-to-lot consistency...
January 15, 2018: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332793/label-free-detection-of-histone-based-on-cationic-conjugated-polymer-mediated-fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer
#4
Xiaozhen Lu, Hongxia Jia, Xiaohua Yan, Jingsha Wang, Yucong Wang, Chenghui Liu
A simple and homogeneous histone assay is developed based on histone-induced DNA compressing coupled with cationic conjugated polymer (CCP)-mediated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In this strategy, the CCP serves as the FRET donor and SYBR Green I (SG), which can strongly fluoresce not at its free state but after intercalated into the double stranded calf thymus DNA (dsDNA), serves as the acceptor of FRET. In the absence of histone, the dsDNA-SG and CCP combine with each other through electrostatic interaction and the strong FRET from CCP to SG occurs due to the overlapping between the fluorescent emitting spectrum of the CCP and the absorption spectrum of SG...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332385/a-highly-sensitive-ratiometric-self-assembled-micellar-nanoprobe-for-nitroxyl-and-its-application-in-vivo
#5
Feiyi Wang, Shaohua Yuan, Guichun Yang, CuiFen Lu, Junqi Nie, Zuxing Chen, Jun Ren, Yuan Qiu, Qi Sun, Chunchang Zhao, Wei-Hong Zhu
Nitroxyl (HNO) is a derivative of nitric oxide (NO) which plays an essential role in various biological and pharmacological events. Until now, the in situ trapping and specific detection of HNO in living samples is still challenging. In this project, we fabricated a novel BODIPY-based micellar nanoprobe for monitoring nitroxyl in vitro and in vivo in ratiometric mode in aqueous solution. The probe (P-BODIPY-N) contains an asymmetrical BODIPY dye for fluorescent signaling, and a diphenylphosphinobenzoyl as the trigger moiety, then we encapsulated P-BODIPY-N into the hydrophobic interior of an amphiphilic copolymer (mPEG-DSPE) and prepared a novel BODIPY-based micellar nanoprobe: NP-BODIPY-N...
January 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332326/carcinogenic-potential-of-antitumor-therapies-is-the-risk-predictable
#6
Ivanka Nenova, Janet Grudeva-Popova
The growing number of successfully cured cancer patients has created a new field in oncogenesis. The life expectancy of such patients has increased, however this favorable event may create enough time for epigenetic events to occur which can cause a new carcinognic event, i.e. a secondary malignancy. The terms in use are second primary malignancies as well as therapy-related neoplasms in case the treatment of the first neoplasm is a direct cause. Second primary malignancies can be hematological neoplasms or solid tumors, with solid tumors having higher frequency...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331063/simultaneous-pharmacokinetics-and-stability-studies-of-physalins-in-rat-plasma-and-intestinal-bacteria-culture-media-using-liquid-chromatography-with-mass-spectrometry
#7
Yunliang Zheng, Meihua Lin, Xingjiang Hu, You Zhai, Qiao Zhang, Yan Lou, Jianzhong ShenTu, Lihua Wu
Physalins are the major steroidal constituent of Physalis plants and display a range of biological activity. For this study, a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of six physalins. Specifically, it was for the quantification of physalin A, physalin B, physalin D, physalin G, 4,7-didehydroneophysalin B and isophysalin B in rat plasma and rat intestinal bacteria. After a solid-phase extraction, analytes and internal standards (prednisolone) were separated on a Shield reverse-phase C18 column (measuring 3 mm × 150 mm with an internal diameter of 3...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330715/case-series-analysis-of-new-zealand-reports-of-rapid-intense-potentiation-of-warfarin-by-roxithromycin
#8
Ruth L Savage, Michael V Tatley
INTRODUCTION: We undertook an analysis of all the reports to the New Zealand Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring of a roxithromycin/warfarin interaction after two recent reports described intense rapid warfarin potentiation. The interaction was first published in 1995. Cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition has been the proposed mechanism but has limited biologic plausibility. There are suggestions that the clinical significance of the interaction may be increased by severe illness, polypharmacy, renal dysfunction, older age and increased warfarin sensitivity...
January 12, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329458/three-fatty-acyl-coenzyme-a-reductases-bdfar1-bdfar2-and-bdfar3-are-involved-in-primary-alcohols-biosynthesis-of-cuticular-wax-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#9
Yong Wang, Yulin Sun, Qiuye You, Wenqiao Luo, Cong Wang, Shuai Zhao, Guaiqiang Chai, Tingting Li, Xue Shi, Chunlian Li, Reinhard Jetter, Zhonghua Wang
Plant cuticular wax is a heterogeneous mixture of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. Primary alcohols are the dominant wax components throughout leaf development of Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium). However, the genes involved in primary alcohols biosynthesis have not been investigated and their exact biological function remains currently unclear in Brachypodium to date. Here, we monitored the leaf wax profile and crystal morphology during Brachypodium leaf morphogenesis, and isolated three Brachypodium fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) genes, named BdFAR1, BdFAR2 and BdFAR3, then analyzed their biochemical activities, substrate specificities, expression patterns, subcellular localization, and stress induction...
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329093/size-exclusion-chromatography-sec-hplc-as-an-alternative-to-study-thrombin-inhibition
#10
Emmanuel Pérez-Escalante, Luis Guillermo González-Olivares, Alma Elizabeth Cruz-Guerrero, Carlos Andrés Galán-Vidal, Ma Elena Páez-Hernández, Giaan Arturo Álvarez-Romero
In vitro analysis of anticoagulant compounds with a potential use as antithrombotic drugs, has been traditionally performed using techniques like spectrophotometry, turbidimetry, as well as electrochemical and clinical assays. Although, these techniques have some disadvantages such as: the inability to measure the total biological activity of thrombin, interferences and, sometimes, the quantitative determination of the inhibition ratio is not accurate. In the present work, the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin was monitored by molecular exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC) in three different reaction systems...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329083/a-label-free-electrochemical-system-for-comprehensive-monitoring-of-o-chlorophenol
#11
Xiaolin Zhu, Kexin Zhang, Nan Lu, Yangyang Yu, Xing Yuan, Jiunian Guan
o-Chlorophenol (OCP) is a priority pollutant that poses serious health threats to the public. The following study designs a simple electrochemical system to monitor the concentration and toxicity of OCP. This system was primarily characterized by the integration of both physicochemical and biological monitoring procedures that had a synergistic effect between the functionalized carbon nanotubes and rhodamine B. This resulted in excellent electrocatalytic activities toward OCP and cellular purine bases. The peak current of OCP was linear with concentrations ranging from 0...
January 4, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328675/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-n-and-c-terminal-protein-bioconjugates-as-gpcr-agonists
#12
Robert D Healey, Jonathan Wojciechowski, Ana Monserrat-Martinez, Susan L Tan, Christopher P Marquis, Emma Sierecki, Yann Gambin, Angela Monique Finch, Pall Thordarson
A GPCR agonist protein, thaumatin, was site-specifically conjugated at the N- or C-terminus with a fluorophore for visualization of GPCR:agonist interactions. The N-terminus was specifically conjugated using a synthetic 2 pyridinecarboxyaldehyde reagent. The interaction profiles observed for N- and C-terminal conjugates were varied; N-terminal conjugates interacted very weakly with the GPCR of interest, whereas C-terminal conjugates bound to the receptor. These chemical biology tools allow interactions of therapeutic proteins:GPCR to be monitored and visualized...
January 12, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328543/the-sarda-sheep-host-fecal-proteome
#13
Antonio Palomba, Alessandro Tanca, Maria Filippa Addis, Daniela Pagnozzi, Sergio Uzzau
We recently reported the first characterization of the sheep fecal microbiota, obtained by using a multi-meta-omic approach. Here, the mass spectra generated by single-run LC/high-resolution MS in the context of that study were reanalyzed using a host-specific database, in order to gain insights for the first time into the host fecal proteome of healthy Sarda sheep. On the whole, 5349 non-redundant tryptic peptide sequences were identified, belonging to 1046 different proteins. The "core" fecal proteome (common to all animals) comprised 431 proteins, mainly related to biological processes as immune response and proteolysis...
January 12, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328030/modern-approaches-to-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-as-a-useful-biomarker-for-allergic-asthma-phenotyping-and-management
#14
N Mgaloblishvili, M Gotua
Asthma is a pathologically heterogeneous disease, consisting of several phenotypes. Different types of airway inflammation are the cornerstone feature of this condition. Fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FENO) has been proposed as a noninvasive, specific biomarker for eosinophilic airway inflammation and has been shown to be elevated in patients with allergic asthma phenotype. More recent studies indicate that FeNO identifies T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)-mediated airway inflammation with a high predictive value for identifying inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) responsive airway inflammation...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327589/transition-metal-dichalcogenide-nanosheets-for-visual-monitoring-pcr-rivaling-a-real-time-pcr-instrument
#15
Liu Wang, Zhicheng Huang, Rui Wang, Yibo Liu, Cheng Qian, Jian Wu, Juewen Liu
Monitoring the progress of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) is of critical importance in bioanalytical chemistry and molecular biology. While real-time PCR thermocyclers are ideal for this purpose, its high cost has limited applications in resource-poor areas. Direct visual detection would be a more attractive alternative. To monitor PCR amplification, DNA staining dyes such as SYBR Green I (SG) are often used. Although these dyes give higher fluorescence when binding to double-stranded (ds) DNA products, they also yield strong background fluorescence in the presence of a high concentration of single-stranded (ss) DNA primers...
January 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327259/5-aminolevulinic-acid-squalene-nanoassemblies-for-tumor-photodetection-and-therapy-in-vitro-studies
#16
Andrej Babič, V Herceg, E Bastien, H-P Lassalle, L Bezdetnaya, Norbert Lange
Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) as natural photosensitizer derived from administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has found clinical use for photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy of several cancers. However, broader use of 5-ALA in oncology is hampered by its charge and polarity that result in its reduced capacity for passing biological barriers and reaching the tumor tissue. Advanced drug delivery platforms are needed to improve the biodistribution of 5-ALA. Here, we report a new approach for the delivery of 5-ALA...
January 11, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327192/towards-a-better-control-of-the-wastewater-treatment-process-excitation-emission-matrix-fluorescence-spectroscopy-of-dissolved-organic-matter-as-a-predictive-tool-of-soluble-bod5-in-influents-of-six-parisian-wastewater-treatment-plants
#17
Angélique Goffin, Sabrina Guérin, Vincent Rocher, Gilles Varrault
The online monitoring of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in raw sewage water is expected to better control wastewater treatment processes. Fluorescence spectroscopy offers one possibility for both the online and real-time monitoring of DOM, especially as regards the DOM biodegradability assessment. In this study, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combined with a parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) has been investigated as a predictive tool of the soluble biological oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5) for raw sewage water...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326054/size-based-separation-methods-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#18
Si-Jie Hao, Yuan Wan, Yi-Qiu Xia, Xin Zou, Si-Yang Zheng
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) originate from the primary tumor mass and enter into the peripheral bloodstream. Compared to other "liquid biopsy" portfolios such as exosome, circulating tumor DNA/RNA (ctDNA/RNA), CTCs have incomparable advantages in analyses of transcriptomics, proteomics, and signal colocalization. Hence, CTCs hold the key to understanding the biology of metastasis and play a vital role in cancer diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and prognosis. Size-based enrichment featureS prominently in CTC isolation...
January 8, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324997/skin-lighteners-and-hair-relaxers-as-risk-factors-for-breast-cancer-results-from-the-ghana-breast-health-study
#19
Louise A Brinton, Jonine D Figueroa, Daniel Ansong, Kofi M Nyarko, Seth Wiafe, Joel Yarney, Richard Biritwum, Michelle Brotzman, Jake E Thistle, Ernest Adjei, Francis Aitpillah, Florence Dedey, Lawrence Edusei, Nicholas Titiloye, Baffour Awuah, Joe Nat Clegg-Lamptey, Beatrice Wiafe-Addai, Verna Vanderpuye
Skin lighteners and hair relaxers, both common among women of African descent, have been suggested as possibly affecting breast cancer risk. In Accra and Kumasi, Ghana, we collected detailed information on usage patterns of both exposures among 1,131 invasive breast cancer cases and 2,106 population-controls. Multivariate analyses estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for breast cancer risk factors. Control usage was 25.8% for ever use of skin lighteners and 90.0% for use of hair relaxers for >1 year...
January 6, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324381/comparative-study-of-diesel-and-biodiesel-exhausts-on-lung-oxidative-stress-and-genotoxicity-in-rats
#20
Thierry Douki, Cécile Corbière, David Preterre, Perrine J Martin, Valérie Lecureur, Véronique André, Yann Landkocz, Ivannah Pottier, Veronika Keravec, Olivier Fardel, Silvestre Moreira-Rebelo, Didier Pottier, Cathy Vendeville, Frédéric Dionnet, Pierre Gosset, Sylvain Billet, Christelle Monteil, François Sichel
The contribution of diesel exhaust to atmospheric pollution is a major concern for public health, especially in terms of occurrence of lung cancers. The present study aimed at addressing the toxic effects of a repeated exposure to these emissions in an animal study performed under strictly controlled conditions. Rats were repeatedly exposed to the exhaust of diesel engine. Parameters such as the presence of a particle filter or the use of gasoil containing rapeseed methyl ester were investigated. Various biological parameters were monitored in the lungs to assess the toxic and genotoxic effects of the exposure...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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