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speech disorder in children

Thayse Bienert Goetze, Pricila Sleifer, Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa, Alessandra Pawelec da Silva, Carla Graziadio, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola Zen
Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS), also known as Goldenhar syndrome, is considered a condition associated to failing of embryogenesis involving the first and second branchial arches, leading to structural abnormalities arising from it. The aim of this study is to verify the hearing features presented by patients with OAVS and provide additional information that may contribute to improvement of speech therapy. The sample consisted of 10 individuals diagnosed with OAVS and cared for by the Clinical Genetics Service...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Shiny Thomas, Mary E Hovinga, Dheeraj Rai, Brian K Lee
Epilepsy is reported to co-occur in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies across the world have found prevalence estimates ranging from 4 to 38 %. We examined parent-reported prevalence of co-occurring epilepsy and ASD in the most recent U.S. National Survey of Children's Health, 2011-2012. All analyses accounted for survey weights to account for the complex sampling design. In the overall analytic sample of 85,248 children ages 2-17, there were 1604 children with ASD (prevalence of 1...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Anthony R Mawson, Nola T Radford, Binu Jacob
Stuttering affects about 1% of the general population and from 8 to 11% of children. The onset of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) typically occurs between 2 and 4 years of age. The etiology of stuttering is unknown and a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Clues to the pathogenesis of stuttering include the following observations: PDS is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and birth-associated trauma; stuttering can recur or develop in adulthood following traumatic events such as brain injury and stroke; PDS is associated with structural and functional abnormalities in the brain associated with speech and language; and stuttering resolves spontaneously in a high percentage of affected children...
October 18, 2016: European Neurology
Chien-Hsu Chen, Chuan-Po Wang, I-Jui Lee, Chris Chun-Chin Su
BACKGROUND: We analyzed the efficacy of the interface design of speech generating devices on three non-verbal adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in hopes of improving their on-campus communication and cognitive disability. The intervention program was created based on their social and communication needs in school. Two operating interfaces were designed and compared: the Hierarchical Relating Menu and the Pie Abbreviation-Expansion Menu. METHODS: The experiment used the ABCACB multiple-treatment reversal design...
2016: SpringerPlus
Alan S Brown, David Gyllenberg, Heli Malm, Ian W McKeague, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Miia Artama, Mika Gissler, Keely Cheslack-Postava, Myrna M Weissman, Jay A Gingrich, Andre Sourander
Importance: Speech/language, scholastic, and motor disorders are common in children. It is unknown whether exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy influences susceptibility to these disorders. Objective: To examine whether SSRI exposure during pregnancy is associated with speech/language, scholastic, and motor disorders in offspring up to early adolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective birth cohort study examined national population-based register data in Finland from 1996 to 2010...
October 12, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Christian Guilleminault, Shehlanoor Huseni, Lauren Lo
A short lingual frenulum has been associated with difficulties in sucking, swallowing and speech. The oral dysfunction induced by a short lingual frenulum can lead to oral-facial dysmorphosis, which decreases the size of upper airway support. Such progressive change increases the risk of upper airway collapsibility during sleep. Clinical investigation of the oral cavity was conducted as a part of a clinical evaluation of children suspected of having sleep disordered breathing (SDB) based on complaints, symptoms and signs...
July 2016: ERJ Open Research
Maya Matheis, Johnny L Matson, Claire O Burns, Xinrui Jiang, W Jason Peters, Michael Moore, Kaitlin A de Back, Jasper Estabillo
PURPOSE: The age of first concern (AOC) of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has substantial implications for early diagnosis and intervention. The current study sought to determine the average AOC, what types of first concerns are most common, and what factors predict earlier AOC in toddlers with ASD. METHODS: This study analyzed the predictive influence of the type of concern, symptom severity, medical diagnoses, and other independent variables on AOC among toddlers with ASD using multiple regressions...
August 11, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Ann W Kummer
Children with craniofacial anomalies often demonstrate disorders of speech and/or resonance. Anomalies that affect speech and resonance are most commonly caused by clefts of the primary palate and secondary palate. This article discusses how speech-language pathologists evaluate the effects of dental and occlusal anomalies on speech production and the effects of velopharyngeal insufficiency on speech sound production and resonance. How to estimate the size of a velopharyngeal opening based on speech characteristics is illustrated...
November 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
Maureen A Lefton-Greif, Joan C Arvedson
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have played primary roles in the evaluation and management of children with feeding/swallowing disorders for more than five decades. Medical, surgical, and technological advances have improved the survival of young fragile infants and children, many of whom will present with feeding/swallowing problems. Regardless of their underlying etiologies, many of these children are at risk for aspiration-induced lung disease, undernutrition or malnutrition, developmental deficits, and stressful interactions with their caregivers...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Anne Smith, Christine Weber
Remarkable progress has been made over the past two decades in expanding our understanding of the behavioral, peripheral physiologic, and central neurophysiologic bases of stuttering in early childhood. It is clear that stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by atypical development of speech motor planning and execution networks. The speech motor system must interact in complex ways with neural systems mediating language and other cognitive and emotional processes. During the time when stuttering typically appears and follows its path to either recovery or persistence, all of these neurobehavioral systems are undergoing rapid and dramatic developmental changes...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Judith A Gierut
Research on phonological disorders in children has conventionally emphasized the speech sound in search of causes, diagnoses, treatments, and prevention of the disorder. This article aims to shift the research focus to the word instead. The motivation comes from advances in psycholinguistics that demonstrate the word is central to the perception, production, and acquisition of phonological information. Three strands of potential study are outlined in evaluation of how words might initiate and boost, but perhaps also, interrupt learning for children with phonological disorders...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Jena McDaniel, Paul J Yoder
The behavioral phenotype of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) offers one avenue for developing speech-language therapy services that are tailored to the individual's characteristics that affect treatment response. Behavioral phenotypes are patterns of behavioral strengths and weaknesses for specific genetic disorders that can help guide the development and implementation of effective interventions. Nonetheless, individual differences within children with DS must be acknowledged and addressed because behavioral phenotypes are probabilistic, not deterministic...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Marisa Lousada, Margarida Ramalho, Carolina Marques
OBJECTIVE: This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Language Intervention Programme for the treatment of 14 preschool-aged children with primary language impairment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used a waiting list control design, in which half the sample (7 children) received immediate intervention with the Language Intervention Programme, whereas the remaining children received treatment after a 4-week delay. The intervention consisted of 8 individual biweekly sessions...
September 30, 2016: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Angela Morgan, Alexandra Bonthrone, Frédérique J Liégeois
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Developmental speech and language disorders are common, seen in one in 20 preschool children, in the absence of frank neurological deficits or intellectual impairment. They are a key reason parents seek help from paediatricians. Complex neurogenetic and environmental contributions underpin the disorders, yet few specific causes are known. With the advent of quantitative brain imaging, a growing number of studies have investigated neural contributions. Here, we discuss current MRI approaches and recent findings (January 2014-June 2016) in the field...
September 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Gayane Aghakhanyan, Paolo Bonanni, Giovanna Randazzo, Sara Nappi, Federica Tessarotto, Lara De Martin, Francesca Frijia, Daniele De Marchi, Francesco De Masi, Beate Kuppers, Francesco Lombardo, Davide Caramella, Domenico Montanaro
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM) method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM) structures...
2016: PloS One
Yones Lotfi, Abdollah Moosavi, Farzaneh Zamiri Abdollahi, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Hamed Sadjedi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources...
September 2016: Journal of Audiology & Otology
Sebastian Markett, Benjamin Bleek, Martin Reuter, Holger Prüss, Kirsten Richardt, Thilo Müller, J Scott Yaruss, Christian Montag
Idiopathic stuttering is a fluency disorder characterized by impairments during speech production. Deficits in the motor control circuits of the basal ganglia have been implicated in idiopathic stuttering but it is unclear how these impairments relate to the disorder. Previous work has indicated a possible deficiency in motor inhibition in children who stutter. To extend these findings to adults, we designed two experiments to probe executive motor control in people who stutter using manual reaction time tasks that do not rely on speech production...
September 13, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Karin Buiting, Charles Williams, Bernhard Horsthemke
Angelman syndrome is a rare neurogenetic disorder that is characterized by microcephaly, severe intellectual deficit, speech impairment, epilepsy, EEG abnormalities, ataxic movements, tongue protrusion, paroxysms of laughter, abnormal sleep patterns, and hyperactivity. Angelman syndrome results from loss of function of the imprinted UBE3A (ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A) gene on chromosome 15q11.2-q13. This loss of function can be caused by a mutation on the maternal allele, a 5-7 Mb deletion of the maternally inherited chromosomal region, paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15, or an imprinting defect...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Beth A Earhart, Marian E Williams, Irina Zamora, Linda Marie Randolph, Jodie K Votava-Smith, Stephanie N Marcy
Duplication 7q11.23 syndrome is the reciprocal of Williams-Beuren deletion syndrome. Studies have reported a recognizable phenotype, including autism, intellectual disability, speech, and language delay, social anxiety, and behavioral difficulties in these individuals. Previous studies revealed a variety of craniofacial abnormalities, brain malformations, and cardiac abnormalities, including aortic dilation. This patient series evaluates five family members aged 2 months to 35 years, all with confirmed 7q11...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
M A Rahman, M M Zaman, M M Rahman, M Moniruzzaman, B Ahmed, F K Chhobi, N Rahman, M R Akter
Cerebral Palsy (CP) is one of the most common causes of all childhood disorders. There are tone, posture and movements difficulty due to non-progressive damage to the immature brain in CP. The hallmark of CP is a disability in the development of gross motor function (GMF). The influence of gross motor development on fine motor development is more important in early developmental period, specially under three years old and in children with CP. Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of GMF development...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
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