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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441759/synaptic-homeostasis-and-its-immunological-disturbance-in-neuromuscular-junction-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Masaharu Takamori
In the neuromuscular junction, postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) clustering, trans-synaptic communication and synaptic stabilization are modulated by the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity. The synaptic functions are based presynaptically on the active zone architecture, synaptic vesicle proteins, Ca(2+) channels and synaptic vesicle recycling. Postsynaptically, they are based on rapsyn-anchored nAChR clusters, localized sensitivity to ACh, and synaptic stabilization via linkage to the extracellular matrix so as to be precisely opposed to the nerve terminal...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441420/mapping-of-the-brain-hemodynamic-responses-to-sensorimotor-stimulation-in-a-rodent-model-a-bold-fmri-study
#2
Salem Boussida, Amidou S Traoré, Franck Durif
Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI) during electrical paw stimulation has been widely used in studies aimed at the understanding of the somatosensory network in rats. However, despite the well-established anatomical connections between cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor system, most of these functional studies have been concentrated on the cortical effects of sensory electrical stimulation. BOLD fMRI study of the integration of a sensorimotor input across the sensorimotor network requires an appropriate methodology to elicit functional activation in cortical and subcortical areas owing to the regional differences in both neuronal and vascular architectures between these brain regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427958/micro-anatomical-changes-in-major-blood-vessel-caused-by-dengue-virus-serotype-2-infection
#3
Sivan Padma Priya, S Sakinah, Mok Pooi Ling, Hui-Yee Chee, Akon Higuchi, Rukman Awang Hamat, Vasantha Kumari Neela, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Murugan A Munusamy, Ashraf A Hatamleh, Ahmed E Al-Sabri, Ibrahim Ahmad Abdulaziz Al-Suwailem, Mariappan Rajan, Giovanni Benelli, Marlina, S Suresh Kumar
Dengue virus (DENV) has emerged as a major economic concern in developing countries, with 2.5 billion people believed to be at risk. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) lining the circulatory system from heart to end vessels perform crucial functions in the human body, by aiding gas exchange in lungs, gaseous, nutritional and its waste exchange in all tissues, including the blood brain barrier, filtration of fluid in the glomeruli, neutrophil recruitment, hormone trafficking, as well as maintenance of blood vessel tone and hemostasis...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418526/empirically-determined-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-mechano-adaptation-law
#4
Kerianne E Steucke, Zaw Win, Taylor R Stemler, Emily E Walsh, Jennifer L Hall, Patrick W Alford
Cardiovascular disease can alter the mechanical environment of the vascular system, leading to mechano-adaptive growth and remodeling. Predictive models of arterial mechano-adaptation could improve patient treatments and outcomes in cardiovascular disease. Vessel-scale mechano-adaptation includes remodeling of both the cells and extracellular matrix. Here, we aimed to experimentally measure and characterize a phenomenological mechano-adaptation law for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) within an artery. To do this, we developed a highly controlled and reproducible system for applying a chronic step-change in strain to individual VSMCs with in vivo like architecture, and tracked the temporal cellular stress evolution...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408878/reward-based-motor-adaptation-mediated-by-basal-ganglia
#5
Taegyo Kim, Khaldoun C Hamade, Dmitry Todorov, William H Barnett, Robert A Capps, Elizaveta M Latash, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia (BG) play a key role in action selection and reinforcement learning. However, despite considerable number of studies, the BG architecture and function are not completely understood. Action selection and reinforcement learning are facilitated by the activity of dopaminergic neurons, which encode reward prediction errors when reward outcomes are higher or lower than expected. The BG are thought to select proper motor responses by gating appropriate actions, and suppressing inappropriate ones...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397957/single-cell-strain-energy-density-function-measured-by-cellular-micro-biaxial-stretching
#6
Zaw Win, Justin M Buksa, Kerianne E Steucke, G W Gant Luxton, Victor H Barocas, Patrick W Alford
The stress in a cell due to extracellular mechanical stimulus is determined by its mechanical properties, and the structural organization of many adherent cells suggests that their properties are anisotropic. This anisotropy may significantly influence the cells' mechanotransductive response to complex loads, and has important implications for development of accurate models of tissue biomechanics. Standard methods for measuring cellular mechanics report linear moduli that cannot capture large-deformation anisotropic properties, which in a continuum mechanics framework are best described by a strain energy density function (SED)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392769/force-depression-in-plantar-flexors-exists-equally-in-plantar-flexed-and-dorsiflexed-regions
#7
Atsuki Fukutani, Jun Misaki, Tadao Isaka
Isometric muscle force attained during isometric contractions decreases after active shortening compared to that attained during purely isometric contractions. This phenomenon is called residual force depression. The aim of this study was to examine whether residual force depression occurs in human plantar flexors in both plantar flexed and dorsiflexed region. In addition, the magnitude of fascicle shortening was evaluated because not only muscle force but also fascicle shortening during active shortening are considered to affect force depression...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391823/location-of-mammograms-roi-s-and-reduction-of-false-positive
#8
Luis Antonio Salazar-Licea, Jesús Carlos Pedraza-Ortega, Alberto Pastrana-Palma, Marco A Aceves-Fernandez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There are many work related with segmentation techniques, including nearest neighbor algorithm, fuzzy rules, morphological filters, image entropy, thresholding, machine learning, wavelet analysis, and so on. Such methods carry out the segmentation, but take a lot of processing time by modifying the content of the image or showing discern problems in homogeneous areas, and the segmentation technique is designed to work efficiently only with the techniques used...
May 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386229/clc-channels-and-transporters-structure-physiological-functions-and-implications-in-human-chloride-channelopathies
#9
REVIEW
Diogo R Poroca, Ryan M Pelis, Valérie M Chappe
The discovery of ClC proteins at the beginning of the 1990s was important for the development of the Cl(-) transport research field. ClCs form a large family of proteins that mediate voltage-dependent transport of Cl(-) ions across cell membranes. They are expressed in both plasma and intracellular membranes of cells from almost all living organisms. ClC proteins form transmembrane dimers, in which each monomer displays independent ion conductance. Eukaryotic members also possess a large cytoplasmic domain containing two CBS domains, which are involved in transport modulation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385808/does-lack-of-glutathione-peroxidase-1-gene-expression-exacerbate-lung-injury-induced-by-neonatal-hyperoxia-in-mice
#10
Sheena Bouch, Megan O'Reilly, Judy B de Haan, Richard Harding, Foula Sozo
Supplemental oxygen (O2) increases the risk of lung injury in preterm infants owing to an immature antioxidant system. Our objective was to determine whether impairing antioxidant defense by decreasing glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) gene expression increases the injurious effects of hyperoxia. GPx1(+/+) and GPx1(-/-) C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to 21% O2 (Air) or 40% O2 (Hyperoxia; Hyp) from birth to postnatal day 7 (P7d); they were killed at P7d or maintained in air until adulthood (P56d) to assess short-term and long-term effects, respectively...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379579/discovery-of-novel-heart-rate-associated-loci-using-the-exome-chip
#11
Marten E van den Berg, Helen R Warren, Claudia P Cabrera, Niek Verweij, Borbala Mifsud, Jeffrey Haessler, Nathan A Bihlmeyer, Yi-Ping Fu, Stefan Weiss, Henry J Lin, Niels Grarup, Ruifang Li-Gao, Giorgio Pistis, Nabi Shah, Jennifer A Brody, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Honghuang Lin, Hao Mei, Albert V Smith, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Leanne M Hall, Jessica van Setten, Stella Trompet, Bram P Prins, Aaron Isaacs, Farid Radmanesh, Jonathan Marten, Aiman Entwistle, Jan A Kors, Claudia T Silva, Alvaro Alonso, Joshua C Bis, Rudolf de Boer, Hugoline G de Haan, Renée de Mutsert, George Dedoussis, Anna F Dominiczak, Alex S F Doney, Patrick T Ellinor, Ruben N Eppinga, Stephan B Felix, Xiuqing Guo, Yanick Hagemeijer, Torben Hansen, Tamara B Harris, Susan R Heckbert, Paul L Huang, Shih-Jen Hwang, Mika Kähönen, Jørgen K Kanters, Ivana Kolcic, Lenore J Launer, Man Li, Jie Yao, Allan Linneberg, Simin Liu, Peter W Macfarlane, Massimo Mangino, Andrew D Morris, Antonella Mulas, Alison D Murray, Christopher P Nelson, Marco Orrú, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Annette Peters, David J Porteous, Neil Poulter, Bruce M Psaty, Lihong Qi, Olli T Raitakari, Fernando Rivadeneira, Carolina Roselli, Igor Rudan, Naveed Sattar, Peter Sever, Moritz F Sinner, Elsayed Z Soliman, Timothy D Spector, Alice V Stanton, Kathleen E Stirrups, Kent D Taylor, Martin D Tobin, André Uitterlinden, Ilonca Vaartjes, Arno W Hoes, Peter van der Meer, Uwe Völker, Melanie Waldenberger, Zhijun Xie, Magdalena Zoledziewska, Andrew Tinker, Ozren Polasek, Jonathan Rosand, Yalda Jamshidi, Cornelia M van Duijn, Eleftheria Zeggini, J Wouter Jukema, Folkert W Asselbergs, Nilesh J Samani, Terho Lehtimäki, Vilmundur Gudnason, James Wilson, Steven A Lubitz, Stefan Kääb, Nona Sotoodehnia, Mark J Caulfield, Colin N A Palmer, Serena Sanna, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Panos Deloukas, Oluf Pedersen, Jerome I Rotter, Marcus Dörr, Chris J O'Donnell, Caroline Hayward, Dan E Arking, Charles Kooperberg, Pim van der Harst, Mark Eijgelsheim, Bruno H Stricker, Patricia B Munroe
Background Resting heart rate is a heritable trait, and an increase in heart rate is associated with increased mortality risk. GWAS analyses have found loci associated with resting heart rate, at the time of our study these loci explained 0.9% of the variation.Aim To discover new genetic loci associated with heart rate from Exome Chip meta-analyses.Methods Heart rate was measured from either elecrtrocardiograms or pulse recordings. We meta-analysed heart rate association results from 104,452 European-ancestry individuals from 30 cohorts, genotyped using the Exome Chip...
April 3, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376674/effect-of-6-weeks-wbvt-on-the-behaviour-of-the-lower-limb-muscle-fibres-during-vertical-jumping
#12
Jacobo Ángel Rubio-Arias, Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Paula Esteban, Fernando Martínez, José Fernando Jiménez
The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of 6 weeks of whole body vibration training (WBVT) on body composition, muscle activity of the gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius muscle architecture (static and dynamic) and ground reaction forces (performance jump) during the take-off phase of a countermovement jump in young healthy adult males. A total of 33 men (23.31 ± 5.62 years) were randomly assigned to a whole body vibration group (experimental group, EGWBVT: n = 17; 22...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372949/sleep-disordered-breathing-in-neuromuscular-disease-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenges
#13
REVIEW
Loutfi S Aboussouan, Eduardo Mireles-Cabodevila
Normal sleep related rapid eye movement sleep atonia, reduced lung volumes, reduced chemosensitivity, and impaired airway dilator activity, become significant vulnerabilities in the setting of neuromuscular disease. In that context, the compounding effects of respiratory muscle weakness and disease-specific features that promote upper airway collapse or cause dilated cardiomyopathy, contribute to various sleep-disordered breathing events. The reduction in lung volumes with neuromuscular disease is further compromised by sleep and the supine position, exaggerating the tendency for upper airway collapse and desaturation with sleep-disordered breathing events...
March 31, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371516/control-of-cell-alignment-and-morphology-by-redesigning-ecm-mimetic-nanotopography-on-multilayer-membranes
#14
Maria P Sousa, Sofia G Caridade, João F Mano
Inspired by native extracellular matrix (ECM) together with the multilevel architecture observed in nature, a material which topography recapitulates topographic features of the ECM and the internal architecture mimics the biological materials organization is engineered. The nanopatterned design along the XY plane is combined with a nanostructured organization along the Z axis on freestanding membranes prepared by layer-by-layer deposition of chitosan and chondroitin sulfate. Cellular behavior is monitored using two different mammalian cell lines, fibroblasts (L929) and myoblasts (C2C12), in order to perceive the response to topography...
March 29, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362971/stabilization-rolling-and-addition-of-other-extracellular-matrix-proteins-to-collagen-hydrogels-improve-regeneration-in-chitosan-guides-for-long-peripheral-nerve-gaps-in-rats
#15
Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Stefano Cobianchi, Claudia Heimann, James B Phillips, Esther Udina, Xavier Navarro
BACKGROUND: Autograft is still the gold standard technique for the repair of long peripheral nerve injuries. The addition of biologically active scaffolds into the lumen of conduits to mimic the endoneurium of peripheral nerves may increase the final outcome of artificial nerve devices. Furthermore, the control of the orientation of the collagen fibers may provide some longitudinal guidance architecture providing a higher level of mesoscale tissue structure. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the regenerative capabilities of chitosan conduits enriched with extracellular matrix-based scaffolds to bridge a critical gap of 15 mm in the rat sciatic nerve...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358017/electron-tomographic-analysis-reveals-ultrastructural-features-of-mitochondrial-cristae-architecture-which-reflect-energetic-state-and-aging
#16
Yi-Fan Jiang, Shao-Syuan Lin, Jing-Min Chen, Han-Zen Tsai, Tao-Shih Hsieh, Chi-Yu Fu
Within mitochondria, the ability to produce energy relies upon the architectural hallmarks of double membranes and cristae invaginations. Herein, we describe novel features of mitochondrial cristae structure, which correspond to the energetic state of the organelle. In concordance with high-energy demand, mitochondria of Drosophila indirect flight muscle exhibited extensive intra-mitochondrial membrane switches between densely packed lamellar cristae that resulted in a spiral-like cristae network and allowed for bidirectional matrix confluency...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357568/high-resolution-metal-artifact-reduction-mr-imaging-of-the-lumbosacral-plexus-in-patients-with-metallic-implants
#17
Shivani Ahlawat, Steven E Stern, Allan J Belzberg, Jan Fritz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality and accuracy of metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of lumbosacral neuropathies in patients with metallic implants in the pelvis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two subjects with lumbosacral neuropathy following pelvic instrumentation underwent 1.5-T MARS MRI including optimized axial intermediate-weighted and STIR turbo spin echo sequences extending from L5 to the ischial tuberosity...
March 30, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343439/toward-improved-myocardial-maturity-in-an-organ-on-chip-platform-with-immature-cardiac-myocytes
#18
Sean P Sheehy, Anna Grosberg, Pu Qin, David J Behm, John P Ferrier, Mackenzie A Eagleson, Alexander P Nesmith, David Krull, James G Falls, Patrick H Campbell, Megan L McCain, Robert N Willette, Erding Hu, Kevin K Parker
In vitro studies of cardiac physiology and drug response have traditionally been performed on individual isolated cardiomyocytes or isotropic monolayers of cells that may not mimic desired physiological traits of the laminar adult myocardium. Recent studies have reported a number of advances to Heart-on-a-Chip platforms for the fabrication of more sophisticated engineered myocardium, but cardiomyocyte immaturity remains a challenge. In the anisotropic musculature of the heart, interactions between cardiac myocytes, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and neighboring cells give rise to changes in cell shape and tissue architecture that have been implicated in both development and disease...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342367/optimization-of-surface-electrodes-location-for-h-reflex-recordings-in-soleus-muscle
#19
Alberto Botter, Taian M Vieira
The Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) is extensively used to investigate the spinal motor neuron excitability in healthy and pathological subjects. Obtaining a representative and robust amplitude estimation of the H reflex is of marked relevance in clinical as well as in research applications. As for the motor responses, this issue is strictly related to the electrode positioning, especially for large, pinnate muscles such as the triceps surae. In this study we investigated the effect of electrode position on soleus H-reflex amplitude...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340204/changes-in-pain-and-muscle-architecture-in-colon-cancer-survivors-after-a-lumbopelvic-exercise-program-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Irene Cantarero-Villanueva, Antonio I Cuesta-Vargas, Mario Lozano-Lozano, Carolina Fernández-Lao, Antonio Fernández-Pérez, Noelia Galiano-Castillo
Objective.:  To investigate the efficacy of an eight-week lumbopelvic stabilization program (CO-CUIDATE) for colon cancer survivors. Design.:  A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled clinical trial. Settings.:  A blinded, trained researcher performed the end point assessments for pain (Pressure Pain Threshold and Brief Pain Inventory) and muscle architecture (ultrasound imaging measurements). Subjects.:  Forty-six colon cancer survivors who were assigned to the CO-CUIDATE group or usual care group...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
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