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muscle architecture

Kishan A Manani, Kim Christensen, Nicholas S Peters
Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of 4-5 and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF...
October 2016: Physical Review. E
Alexandra Louise Webb, Elizabeth O'Sullivan, Maria Stokes, Sarah Mottram
The serratus anterior is portrayed as a homogeneous muscle in textbooks and during functional activities and rehabilitation exercises. It is unclear whether the serratus anterior is composed of subdivisions with distinctive morphology and functions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the serratus anterior could be subdivided into different structural parts on the basis of its segmental architectural parameters. Eight formalin-embalmed serratus anterior muscles were dissected and the attachments of each fascicle documented...
October 18, 2016: Anatomical Science International
A Dangin, N Tardy, M Wettstein, O May, N Bonin
With the development of conservative hip surgery techniques, new entities such as microinstability have been identified. Microinstability is a painful supra-physiological mobility of the hip. It results from the association of architectural and functional abnormalities impairing joint stability. These risk factors concern hip joint bone architecture or peri-articular soft tissues. Bone abnormalities are identified on hip assessment parameters. Soft tissues also play a key role in the static and dynamic stability of the hip: the joint capsule, labrum, ligamentum teres and adjacent myotendinous structures affect joint coaptation; any abnormality or iatrogenic lesion concerning these structures may constitute a risk factor for microinstability...
October 12, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Keisuke Goto, Daichi Maeda, Yukitsugu Kudo-Asabe, Takashi Hibiya, Akimasa Hayashi, Masashi Fukayama, Kenichi Ohashi, Akiteru Goto
AIMS: Hidradenoma papilliferum (HP) is a benign vulvar neoplasm that arises from anogenital mammary-like glands, and its morphology is similar to mammary intraductal papilloma. The aim of this study was to investigate oncogenic mutations involved in the tumourigenesis of HP. We focused specifically on PIK3CA and AKT1 mutations, which are both reported to be detected in 33% of mammary intraductal papillomas. METHODS: In total, seven HP cases were analysed. Clinicopathological analyses and immunohistochemistry for oestrogen receptor, p63, smooth muscle actin (SMA), p53 and β-catenin were performed...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Daniel G Whitney, Harshvardhan Singh, Freeman Miller, Mary F Barbe, Jill M Slade, Ryan T Pohlig, Christopher M Modlesky
INTRODUCTION: Nonambulatory children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) have underdeveloped bone architecture, low bone strength and a high degree of fat infiltration in the lower extremity musculature. The present study aims to determine if such a profile exists in ambulatory children with mild CP and if excess fat infiltration extends into the bone marrow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ambulatory children with mild spastic CP and typically developing children (4 to 11years; 12/group) were tested...
October 9, 2016: Bone
Jairo A Diaz, Mauricio F Murillo, Jhonan A Mendoza, Ana M Barreto, Lina S Poveda, Lina K Sanchez, Laura C Poveda, Katherine T Mora
Emergent biological responses develop via unknown processes dependent on physical collision. In hypoxia, when the tissue architecture collapses but the geometric core is stable, actin cytoskeleton filament components emerge, revealing a hidden internal order that identifies how each molecule is reassembled into the original mold, using one common connection, i.e., a fractal self-similarity that guides the system from the beginning in reverse metamorphosis, with spontaneous self-assembly of past forms that mimics an embryoid phenotype...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
Daniel Romero, Oscar Camara, Frank Sachse, Rafael Sebastian
The specialised conducting tissues present in the ventricles are responsible for the fast distribution of the electrical impulse from the atrio-ventricular node to regions in the subendocardial myocardium. Characterisation of anatomical features of the specialised conducting tissues in the ventricles is highly challenging, in particular its most distal section, which is connected to the working myocardium via Purkinje-myocardial junctions. The goal of this work is to characterise the architecture of the distal section of the Purkinje network by differentiating Purkinje cells from surrounding tissue, performing a segmentation of Purkinje fibres at cellular scale, and mathematically describing its morphology and interconnections...
2016: PloS One
Mireia Díaz-Lobo, Alda Lisa Concia, Livia Gómez, Pere Clapés, Ignacio Fita, Joan J Guinovart, Joan C Ferrer
Glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) are the key enzymes that control, respectively, the synthesis and degradation of glycogen, a multi-branched glucose polymer that serves as a form of energy storage in bacteria, fungi and animals. An abnormal glycogen metabolism is associated with several human diseases. Thus, GS and GP constitute adequate pharmacological targets to modulate cellular glycogen levels by means of their selective inhibition. The compound 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) is a known potent inhibitor of GP...
September 26, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Mark S Cook, Laura Bou-Malham, Mary C Esparza, Marianna Alperin
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation is a widely utilized, but often challenging therapy for pelvic floor disorders, which are prevalent in older women. Regimens involving the use of appendicular muscles, such as the obturator internus (OI), have been developed for strengthening of the levator ani muscle (LAM). However, changes that lead to potential dysfunction of these alternative targets in older women are not well known. We hypothesized that aging negatively impacts OI architecture, the main determinant of muscle function, and intramuscular extracellular matrix (ECM), paralleling age-related alterations in LAM...
October 4, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Jinyu Li, Wei Zhi, Taotao Xu, Feng Shi, Ke Duan, Jianxin Wang, Yandong Mu, Jie Weng
The macro-pore sizes of porous scaffold play a key role for regulating ectopic osteogenesis and angiogenesis but many researches ignored the influence of interconnection between macro-pores with different sizes. In order to accurately reveal the relationship between ectopic osteogenesis and macro-pore sizes in dorsal muscle and abdominal cavities of dogs, hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds with three different macro-pore sizes of 500-650, 750-900 and 1100-1250 µm were prepared via sugar spheres-leaching process, which also had similar interconnecting structure determined by keeping the d/s ratio of interconnecting window diameter to macro-pore size constant...
October 2016: Regenerative Biomaterials
Hanting Yang, Miaohui Hu, Jianli Guo, Xiaomin Ou, Tanxi Cai, Zhenfeng Liu
Intracellular Ca(2+) signalling processes are fundamental to muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, cell growth and apoptosis. Release of Ca(2+) from the intracellular stores is supported by a series of ion channels in sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER). Among them, two isoforms of the trimeric intracellular cation (TRIC) channel family, named TRIC-A and TRIC-B, modulate the release of Ca(2+) through the ryanodine receptor or inositol triphosphate receptor, and maintain the homeostasis of ions within SR/ER lumen...
October 3, 2016: Nature
Matthew P Hoffman, Erik N Taylor, George E Aninwene, Sakthivel Sadayappan, Richard J Gilbert
Contraction of muscular tissue requires the synchronized shortening of myofibers arrayed in complex geometrical patterns. Imaging such myofiber patterns with diffusion-weighted MRI reveals architectural ensembles that underlie force generation at the organ scale. Restricted proton diffusion is a stochastic process resulting from random translational motion that may be used to probe the directionality of myofibers in whole tissue. During diffusion-weighted MRI, magnetic field gradients are applied to determine the directional dependence of proton diffusion through the analysis of a diffusional probability distribution function (PDF)...
October 2, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Arif Tasleem Jan, Eun Ju Lee, Inho Choi
Fibromodulin (FMOD) is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that plays roles in a series of biological and pathophysiological processes. The interaction between FMOD and lysyl oxidase (LOX; collagen cross-linking enzyme) helps regulate extracellular matrix composition, and thereby, provides a permissive environment for regulating cellular turnover. FMOD has been mostly studied in the context of matrix component assembly, but during recent years its association with muscle development, cell reprogramming, and the angiogenic program have demonstrated its activities well beyond extracellular matrix maintenance...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Zhu Li, Julie L Frey, G William Wong, Marie-Claude Faugere, Michael J Wolfgang, Jason K Kim, Ryan C Riddle, Thomas L Clemens
Recent studies have identified the osteoblast as an insulin responsive cell that participates in global energy homeostasis. Here we show that Glut4 is required for insulin-dependent uptake and oxidation of glucose in mature osteoblasts. In primary cultures of mouse osteoblasts, insulin increased uptake and oxidation of (14)C-glucose in a dose-dependent fashion, but did not significantly affect uptake or oxidation of (14)C-oleate. In vitro, undifferentiated osteoblasts expressed three high affinity glucose transporters: Glut1, Glut4, and Glut3...
September 30, 2016: Endocrinology
Oliver B Clarke, Wayne A Hendrickson
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular cation channels that mediate the rapid and voluminous release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) as required for excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Understanding of the architecture and gating of RyRs has advanced dramatically over the past two years, due to the publication of high resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) reconstructions and associated atomic models of multiple functional states of the skeletal muscle receptor, RyR1...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Mourad Aderkichi, Fatma Malek
OBJECTIVE: Orthopedic disorders of IMC walking children associated with other disorders of posture and movement get progressively worse with growth causing major deformations that can impede walking from the age of 2 years. The treatments implemented by physiotherapy, botulinum toxin and multi-site surgery significantly improve the functional prognosis of these children. The goal is to evaluate the fate of children who have not benefited from multi-site surgeries that have benefited from physiotherapy, stretching casts botulinum toxin and tenotomy on one or two sites...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Maud Pradines, Ingrid Masson, Raphaël Portero, Caroline Giroux, Jean-Michel Gracies
OBJECTIVE: To explore changes in muscle architectural parameters of the muscle-tendon unit of soleus and medial gastrocnemius (GM) in patients with chronic hemiparesis, after 1 year of rehabilitation. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 20 chronic hemiparetic patients (8W, mean age: 56 [12], time since lesion 9 [8]) were evaluated. Muscle architectural parameters including muscle fascicle length, pennation angle, thickness, tendon and muscle belly lengths were evaluated in vivo using ultrasonography in passive condition (verified by electromyographic recording) in a seated patient with ankle, knee and hip on the paretic side at 90°...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Fausto Antonio Panizzolo, Andrew J Maiorana, Louise H Naylor, Lawrence G Dembo, David G Lloyd, Daniel J Green, Jonas Rubenson
BACKGROUND: Alterations in skeletal muscle function and architecture have been linked to the compromised exercise capacity characterizing chronic heart failure (CHF). However, how passive skeletal muscle force is affected in CHF is not clear. Understanding passive force characteristics in CHF can help further elucidate the extent to which altered contractile properties and/or architecture might affect muscle and locomotor function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate passive force in a single muscle for which non-invasive measures of muscle size and estimates of fiber force are possible, the soleus (SOL), both in CHF patients and age- and physical activity-matched control participants...
2016: PeerJ
Matthew N Bourne, Steven J Duhig, Ryan G Timmins, Morgan D Williams, David A Opar, Aiman Al Najjar, Graham K Kerr, Anthony J Shield
BACKGROUND: The architectural and morphological adaptations of the hamstrings in response to training with different exercises have not been explored. PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in biceps femoris long head (BFLH) fascicle length and hamstring muscle size following 10-weeks of Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) or hip extension (HE) training. METHODS: 30 recreationally active male athletes (age, 22.0±3.6 years; height, 180.4±7 cm; weight, 80...
September 22, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Zhongjian Cheng, Venkata Garikipati, Emily Nickoloff, Chunlin Wang, David J Polhemus, Jibin Zhou, Cynthia Benedict, Mohsin Khan, Suresh K Verma, Joseph E Rabinowitz, David Lefer, Raj Kishore
BACKGROUND: -Bone marrow cell-based treatment for critical limb ischemia (CLI) in diabetic patients yielded a modest therapeutic effect due to cell dysfunction. Therefore, approaches that improve diabetic stem/progenitor cell functions may provide therapeutic benefits. Here, we tested the hypotheses that restoration of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production in diabetic bone marrow cells (BMCs) improves their reparative capacities. METHODS: -Mouse BMCs were isolated by density-gradient centrifugation...
September 22, 2016: Circulation
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