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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930997/using-in-vivo-and-tissue-and-cell-explant-approaches-to-study-the-morphogenesis-and-pathogenesis-of-the-embryonic-and-perinatal-aorta
#1
Ashish Misra, Zhonghui Feng, Jiasheng Zhang, Zhi-Yin Lou, Daniel M Greif
The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The aortic wall is composed of an inner layer of endothelial cells, a middle layer of alternating elastic lamellae and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and an outer layer of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. In contrast to the widespread study of pathological models (e.g., atherosclerosis) in the adult aorta, much less is known about the embryonic and perinatal aorta. Here, we focus on SMCs and provide protocols for the analysis of the morphogenesis and pathogenesis of embryonic and perinatal aortic SMCs in normal development and disease...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927918/the-safety-of-irreversible-electroporation-on-nerves-adjacent-to-treated-tumors
#2
Xiaomei Luo, Zilin Qin, Huimin Tao, Jian Shi, Gang Fang, Zhonghai Li, Xulong Zhou, Jibing Chen, Kecheng Xu, Jianying Zeng, Lizhi Niu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the sciatic nerve after IRE ablation of adjacent tumor. METHODS: and analysis In this study, VX2 tumors were implanted adjacent to the sciatic nerves in 26 New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were divided into three groups 10 days after implantation, with two treatment groups of ten rabbits each and a control group of six rabbits. In one of the treatment groups (IRE-S group), the rabbits underwent ablation with a single IRE application, and in the other group (IRE-D group) the rabbits underwent two IRE applications...
September 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910688/aortic-fibromuscular-dysplasia-complicated-by-dissection-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#3
Takashi Tasaki, Kazuhito Hatanaka, Mari Kirishima, Shun Ohnishi, Yuko Goto, Ikumi Kitazono, Tsubasa Hiraki, Sohsuke Yamada, Michiyo Higashi, Akihide Tanimoto
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is an idiopathic, segmental, nonatherosclerotic, non-inflammatory vascular disease, which is often complicated by the occurrence of dissection. Although it is known to occur in all arteries, aortic involvement is relatively rare. To date, 33 cases of aortic FMD have been reported in available English literature, among which only three cases have been complicated by the occurrence of dissection. We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman diagnosed with aortic FMD complicated by the occurrence of a type A aortic dissection...
August 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900920/the-role-of-mitochondria-in-the-activation-maintenance-of-soce-membrane-contact-sites-as-signaling-hubs-sustaining-store-operated-ca-2-entry
#4
Nicolas Demaurex, Daniele Guido
Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a cell signaling pathway essential for immune and muscle function controlled by dynamic interactions between Ca(2+)-sensing STIM proteins on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Ca(2+)-permeable ORAI channels on the plasma membrane (PM). STIM-ORAI interactions occur at membrane contact sites (MCS), evolutionarily conserved cellular structures characterized by the close apposition (10-20 nm) between the ER and target membranes that facilitate the exchange of lipids by non-vesicular transport mechanisms...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891704/mucoepidermoid-carcinoma-in-the-skull-of-an-orange-winged-amazon-parrot-amazona-amazonica
#5
Melissa R Nau, James W Carpenter, Denise Lin, Sanjeev Narayanan, Mackenzie Hallman
A 33-year-old female intact orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica) presented for a slowly growing mass over the right eye. A computed tomography scan performed with and without intravenous contrast revealed a heterogeneous mixed soft tissue and mineral-dense mass with a small area of non-contrast-enhancing fluid density located between the orbits at the caudal aspect of the nasal passages, with associated lysis of the right caudal nasal passage and the right frontal bone. Following euthanasia, the mass was found to consist of soft tissue between the right eye and nostril over the right frontal bone...
September 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891223/promoter-architecture-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-musculoskeletal-embryonic-nuclear-protein-1b-mustn1b-gene-in-zebrafish
#6
P Suarez-Bregua, C J Chien, M Megias, S D Du, J Rotllant
BACKGROUND: Mustn1 is a specific musculoskeletal protein that plays a critical role in myogenesis and chondrogenesis in vertebrates. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that mustn1b mRNAs are specifically expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles in zebrafish embryos. However, the precise function and the regulatory elements required for its muscle-specific expression are largely unknown. RESULTS: The purpose of this study was to explore and uncover the target genomic regions that regulate mustn1b gene expression by in-vivo functional characterization of the mustn1b promoter...
September 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891073/sexual-dimorphism-in-jaw-muscles-of-the-japanese-sparrowhawk-accipiter-gularis
#7
H Wang, J Yan, Z Zhang
Materials suitable for anatomical research of raptorial birds are rare. Bird-eating raptors show distinct inter-sexual differences in body size and parental roles. The large females catch larger prey and prepare small morsels to feed their young using their hooked beaks. Here, we investigated the architectural properties of different jaw muscles of the Japanese sparrowhawk (Accipiter gularis) and examined whether there is sexual dimorphism in their architectural design. The results showed that musculus depressor mandibulae, the opener of the lower jaw, was characterized by relatively long fascicle length, whereas musculus pterygoideus was characterized by its larger mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) in both sexes...
September 11, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885740/preferential-encoding-of-movement-amplitude-and-speed-in-the-primary-motor-cortex-and-cerebellum
#8
Alit Stark-Inbar, Eran Dayan
Voluntary movements require control of multiple kinematic parameters, a task carried out by a distributed brain architecture. However, it remains unclear whether regions along the motor system encode single, or rather a mixture of, kinematic parameters during action execution. Here, rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to differentiate brain activity along the motor system during the encoding of movement amplitude, duration, and speed. We present cumulative evidence supporting preferential encoding of kinematic parameters along the motor system, based on blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal recorded in a well-controlled single-joint wrist-flexion task...
September 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884075/laryngeal-paralysis-associated-with-a-muscle-pseudotumour-in-a-young-dog
#9
Francesca Rizzo, Cecilia Benetti, Consuelo Ballatori, Diana Binanti
An 18-month-old male entire Bloodhound dog was presented with a six-week history of progressive inspiratory dyspnoea, stridor, dysphonia and exercise intolerance. CT scan performed elsewhere had revealed the presence of an unencapsulated nodular mass (3x1x5 cm) dorsal to the larynx and first tracheal rings. Laryngoscopy demonstrated the presence of bilateral laryngeal paralysis and distorted laryngeal architecture suggestive of extraluminal compression. Histopathology results of incisional biopsies from the mass were suggestive of a benign non-neoplastic muscular lesion...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882331/demonstration-of-extended-field-of-view-ultrasound-s-potential-to-increase-the-pool-of-muscles-for-which-in-vivo-fascicle-length-is-measurable
#10
Amy N Adkins, Patrick W Franks, Wendy M Murray
Static, B-mode ultrasound is the most common method of measuring fascicle length in vivo. However, most forearm muscles have fascicles that are longer than the field-of-view of traditional ultrasound (T-US). As such, little work has been done to quantify in vivo forearm muscle architecture. The extended field-of-view ultrasound (EFOV-US) method, which fits together a sequence of B-mode images taken from a continuous ultrasound scan, facilitates direct measurements of longer, curved fascicles. Here, we test the validity and reliability of the EFOV-US method for obtaining fascicle lengths in the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879039/the-tymbal-muscle-of-cicada-has-flight-muscle-type-sarcomeric-architecture-and-protein-expression
#11
Hiroyuki Iwamoto
BACKGROUND: The structural and biochemical features of the tymbal (sound-producing) muscle of cicadas were studied by X-ray diffraction and immunochemistry, and compared with those of flight muscles from the same species. RESULTS: The X-ray diffraction pattern of the tymbal muscle was very similar to that of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscle: In both muscles, the 2,0 equatorial reflection is much more intense than the 1,1, indicating that both muscles have a flight muscle-type myofilament lattice...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871305/skeletal-muscle-on-a-chip-an-in-vitro-model-to-evaluate-tissue-formation-and-injury
#12
Gaurav Agrawal, Aereas Aung, Shyni Varghese
Engineered skeletal muscle tissues can be used for in vitro studies that require physiologically relevant models of native tissues. Herein, we describe the development of a three-dimensional (3D) skeletal muscle tissue that recapitulates the architectural and structural complexities of muscle within a microfluidic device. Using a 3D photo-patterning approach, we spatially confined a cell-laden gelatin network around two bio-inert hydrogel pillars, which induce uniaxial alignment of the cells and serve as anchoring sites for the encapsulated cells and muscle tissues as they form and mature...
September 5, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869034/plasticity-and-function-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-relation-to-disuse-and-rehabilitation-influence-of-ageing-and-surgery
#13
Charlotte Suetta
In order to study the influence of disuse and aging on skeletal muscle homeostasis, different human models were employed. Effects of chronic disuse were investigated in elderly patients suffering from uni-lateral hip-osteoarthritis, whereas the effect of short-term disuse (4 and 14 days of unilateral lower limb immobilisation) was assessed in healthy young and old individuals. In summary, chronic muscle disuse in the elderly was associated with marked quantitative as well as qualitative neuromuscular impairments...
August 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867298/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-analyses-of-the-dmd-locus-reveal-novel-cis%C3%A2-acting-dna-elements-that-govern-muscle-dystrophin-expression
#14
Samuele Gherardi, Matteo Bovolenta, Chiara Passarelli, Maria Sofia Falzarano, Paolo Pigini, Chiara Scotton, Marcella Neri, Annarita Armaroli, Hana Osman, Rita Selvatici, Francesca Gualandi, Alessandra Recchia, Marina Mora, Pia Bernasconi, Lorenzo Maggi, Lucia Morandi, Alessandra Ferlini, Giovanni Perini
The dystrophin gene (DMD) is the largest gene in the human genome, mapping on the Xp21 chromosome locus. It spans 2.2Mb and accounts for approximately 0,1% of the entire human genome. Mutations in this gene cause Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy, X-linked Dilated Cardiomyopathy, and other milder muscle phenotypes. Beside the remarkable number of reports describing dystrophin gene expression and the pathogenic consequences of the gene mutations in dystrophinopathies, the full scenario of the DMD transcription dynamics remains however, poorly understood...
August 31, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861883/nervous-system-and-musculature-of-the-parasitic-turbellarian-notentera-ivanovi-plathelminthes-fecampiida
#15
O I Raikova, E A Kotikova, T A Frolova
The article reports the first description of the architecture of the musculature and cholinergic nervous system of the parasitic turbellarian Notentera ivanovi from the White Sea using histochemistry and confocal scanning laser microscopy. It has been demonstrated that the body wall is composed of layers of circular and longitudinal muscles between which there are diagonal muscles described here for the first time. The nervous system is of the regular closely spaced orthogon type with pronounced radiality. In order to make it clear whether the orthogon of this type is a phylogenetic characteristic of this group of worms or its shape is associated with the flat rounded body, the study of other representatives of the Fecampiida group is required...
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860114/notum-coordinates-synapse-development-via-extracellular-regulation-of-wnt-wingless-trans-synaptic-signaling
#16
Danielle L Kopke, Sofia C Lima, Cyrille Alexandre, Kendal Broadie
Synaptogenesis requires orchestrated communication between pre- and postsynaptic cells via coordinated trans-synaptic signaling across the extracellular synaptomatrix. The first discovered Wnt signaling ligand Drosophila Wingless (Wg; Wnt-1 in mammals) plays critical roles in synaptic development, regulating synapse architecture as well as functional differentiation. Here, we investigate synaptogenic functions of the secreted extracellular deacylase Notum, which restricts Wg signaling by cleaving an essential palmitoleate moiety...
August 31, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859831/automatic-reconstruction-of-the-muscle-architecture-from-the-superficial-layer-fibres-data
#17
Josef Kohout, David Cholt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of a muscle plays a significant role in determining the force contribution of muscle fascicles to skeletal movement. This parameter is typically calculated from the lengths of muscle fibres selectively sampled from the superficial layer of the muscle. However, recent studies have found that the length of fibres in the superficial layer often differs significantly (p < 0.5) from the length of fibres in the deep layer...
October 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859012/muscle-power-predicts-bone-strength-in-division-ii-athletes
#18
Vanessa R Yingling, Shannon Webb, Cathy Inouye, Jenny O, Jennifer J Sherwood
The relationship between muscle fitness measures and tibial bone strength in collegiate level athletes was investigated. Eighty-six Division II collegiate athletes (age: (18-29 years), height: 1.71 m (.09): mass: 66.7 kg (10.5) 56 female: 30 male) participated in this cross-sectional study. Maximum grip strength (GS), 1 repetition maximum leg press (1RM) and vertical jump peak power (PP) tests were measured. Cortical area (Ct.Ar), cortical bone mineral density (cBMD), moment of inertia (J) and bone strength (polar strength-strain index, SSIp) were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at 50% tibia length...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855872/a-novel-method-to-detect-3d-mandibular-changes-related-to-soft-diet-feeding
#19
Kana Kono, Chihiro Tanikawa, Takeshi Yanagita, Hiroshi Kamioka, Takashi Yamashiro
Craniofacial morphology varies among individuals, which is regulated by the interaction between genes and the environment. Soft-diet feeding is a widely-used experimental model for studying the association between the skeletal morphology and muscle-related loading on the bone. Traditionally, these studies have been based on linear and angular measurements provided on two-dimensional (2D) radiographs in the lateral view. However, 2D observation is based on simplification of the anatomical structures and cannot detect three-dimensional (3D) changes in detail...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836856/the-role-of-mast-cells-and-macrophages-in-amiodarone-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-the-possible-attenuating-role-of-atorvastatin
#20
E M El-Mohandes, A M Moustafa, H A Khalaf, Y F Hassan
Amiodarone (AM) is an effective anti-arrhythmic drug. We investigated the role of mast cells and macrophages on AM induced pulmonary fibrosis and the action of atorvastatin on this fibrosis. Rats were allocated into four groups; negative control (1), positive control (2), 30 mg/kg body weight/day AM (3) and AM + 10 mg/kg/day atorvastatin (4). Lungs were harvested and prepared for histology and immunohistochemistry. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of group 3 exhibited disorganized lung architecture. We found cellular debris in the lumen of both intrapulmonary bronchi and bronchioles with partial disruption of the thickened epithelial lining and mononuclear cellular infiltration into the lamina propria...
August 24, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
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