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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737609/the-effects-of-supplementary-low-load-blood-flow-restriction-training-on-morphological-and-performance-based-adaptations-in-team-sport-athletes
#1
Brendan R Scott, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Paul S R Goods
Scott, BR, Peiffer, JJ, and Goods, PSR. The effects of supplementary low-load blood flow restriction training on morphological and performance-based adaptations in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2147-2154, 2017-Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may be a method to enhance muscular development even in trained athletes. This study aimed to assess whether supplemental low-load BFR training can improve muscle size, strength, and physical performance characteristics in team sport athletes...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733815/structure-of-isolated-z-disks-from-honeybee-flight-muscle
#2
Mara Rusu, Zhongjun Hu, Kenneth A Taylor, John Trinick
The Z-disk is a complex structure comprising some 40 proteins that are involved in the transmission of force developed during muscle contraction and in important signalling pathways that govern muscle homeostasis. In the Z-disk the ends of antiparallel thin filaments from adjacent sarcomeres are crosslinked by α-actinin. The structure of the Z-disk lattice varies greatly throughout the animal kingdom. In vertebrates the thin filaments form a tetragonal lattice, whereas invertebrate flight muscle has a hexagonal lattice...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733255/nanofiber-structured-hydrogel-yarns-with-ph-response-capacity-and-cardiomyocyte-drivability-for-bio-microactuator-application
#3
Shaohua Wu, Bin Duan, Xiaohong Qin, Jonathan T Butcher
Polymeric hydrogels have great potential in soft biological micro-actuator applications. However, inappropriate micro-architecture, non-anisotropy, weak biomechanics, and inferior response behaviors limit their development. In this study, we designed and manufactured novel polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based hydrogel yarns composed with uniaxially aligned nanofibers. The nanofibrous hydrogel yarns possessed anisotropic architecture and robust mechanical properties with flexibility, and could be assembled into defined scaffold structures by subsequent processes...
July 18, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727745/evaluation-of-tissue-displacement-and-regional-strain-in-the-achilles-tendon-using-quantitative-high-frequency-ultrasound
#4
Stijn Bogaerts, Catarina De Brito Carvalho, Lennart Scheys, Kaat Desloovere, Jan D'hooge, Frederik Maes, Paul Suetens, Koen Peers
The Achilles tendon has a unique structure-function relationship thanks to its innate hierarchical architecture in combination with the rotational anatomy of the sub-tendons from the triceps surae muscles. Previous research has provided valuable insight in global Achilles tendon mechanics, but limitations with the technique used remain. Furthermore, given the global approach evaluating muscle-tendon junction to insertion, regional differences in tendon mechanical properties might be overlooked. However, recent advancements in the field of ultrasound imaging in combination with speckle tracking have made an intratendinous evaluation possible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725197/skeletal-muscle-remodeling-in-response-to-eccentric-vs-concentric-loading-morphological-molecular-and-metabolic-adaptations
#5
REVIEW
Martino V Franchi, Neil D Reeves, Marco V Narici
Skeletal muscle contracts either by shortening or lengthening (concentrically or eccentrically, respectively); however, the two contractions substantially differ from one another in terms of mechanisms of force generation, maximum force production and energy cost. It is generally known that eccentric actions generate greater force than isometric and concentric contractions and at a lower metabolic cost. Hence, by virtue of the greater mechanical loading involved in active lengthening, eccentric resistance training (ECC RT) is assumed to produce greater hypertrophy than concentric resistance training (CON RT)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717622/semitendinosus-muscle-architecture-during-maximum-isometric-contractions-in-individuals-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-and-controls
#6
Evagelos Karagiannidis, Eleftherios Kellis, Nikiforos Galanis, Baltzopoulos Vasilios
BACKGROUND: The most widely used graft as a replacement in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is the semitendinosus (ST) tendon graft. After harvesting for ACL reconstruction, the hamstring tendon regenerates in most people and becomes similar to normal. The effect of graft harvest on muscle morphology and function remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the morphology of the ST during isometric contraction after harvesting the ST tendon for ACL reconstruction...
January 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715662/preaged-remodeling-of-myofibrillar-cytoarchitecture-in-skeletal-muscle-expressing-r349p-mutant-desmin
#7
Stefanie Diermeier, Andreas Buttgereit, Sebastian Schürmann, Lilli Winter, Hongyang Xu, Robyn M Murphy, Christoph S Clemen, Rolf Schröder, Oliver Friedrich
The majority of hereditary and acquired myopathies are clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness. We hypothesized that ongoing derangement of skeletal muscle cytoarchitecture at the single fiber level may precede and be responsible for the progressive muscle weakness. Here, we analyzed the effects of aging in wild-type (wt) and heterozygous (het) and homozygous (hom) R349P desmin knock-in mice. The latter harbor the ortholog of the most frequently encountered human R350P desmin missense mutation...
June 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714118/body-wall-structure-in-the-starfish-asterias-rubens
#8
Liisa M Blowes, Michaela Egertová, Yankai Liu, Graham R Davis, Nick J Terrill, Himadri S Gupta, Maurice R Elphick
The body wall of starfish is composed of magnesium calcite ossicles connected by collagenous tissue and muscles and it exhibits remarkable variability in stiffness, which is attributed to the mechanical mutability of the collagenous component. Using the common European starfish Asterias rubens as an experimental animal, here we have employed a variety of techniques to gain new insights into the structure of the starfish body wall. The structure and organisation of muscular and collagenous components of the body wall were analysed using trichrome staining...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710834/ultrastructure-of-skeletal-muscles-in-mice-lacking-muscle-specific-vegf-expression
#9
Oliver Baum, Lena Jentsch, Adolfo Odriozola, Stefan A Tschanz, I Mark Olfert
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) influences several physiological processes including endothelial cell function and maintenance of organ/tissue capillarity. While the functional aspects of VEGF were vigorously investigated, only little detail is known on structural integrity of skeletal muscle fibers and capillaries in mice lacking VEGF expression in their muscles. Therefore, we assessed systematically the architecture of the glycolytic plantaris and the oxidative soleus muscles obtained from muscle-specific VEGF knockout (mVEGF-KO, n=7) mice and their wild-type (WT, n=7) littermates by morphometry after transmission electron microscopy...
July 15, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706255/mitsugumin-29-regulates-t-tubule-architecture-in-the-failing-heart
#10
Robert N Correll, Jeffrey M Lynch, Tobias G Schips, Vikram Prasad, Allen J York, Michelle A Sargent, Didier X P Brochet, Jianjie Ma, Jeffery D Molkentin
Transverse tubules (t-tubules) are uniquely-adapted membrane invaginations in cardiac myocytes that facilitate the synchronous release of Ca(2+) from internal stores and subsequent myofilament contraction, although these structures become disorganized and rarefied in heart failure. We previously observed that mitsugumin 29 (Mg29), an important t-tubule organizing protein in skeletal muscle, was induced in the mouse heart for the first time during dilated cardiomyopathy with heart failure. Here we generated cardiac-specific transgenic mice expressing Mg29 to model this observed induction in the failing heart...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702779/clinicopathological-characteristics-of-fallopian-tube-metastases-from-primary-endometrial-cervical-and-nongynecological-malignancies-a-single-institutional-experience
#11
Kiyong Na, Hyun-Soo Kim
This study was aimed at investigating the clinicopathological characteristics of tubal metastases originating from primary endometrial, cervical, and nongynecological malignancies. We performed a 4-year retrospective study in which fallopian tube tissues obtained from 60 patients with tubal metastases were examined. In addition, we compared the number of tubal metastasis cases detected during periods of representative or whole tubal sampling. Twenty-three and 37 tubal metastases were found in cases examined after representative and whole tubal sampling techniques, respectively...
July 13, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701320/changes-in-microvascular-density-differentiate-metabolic-health-outcomes-in-monkeys-with-prior-radiation-exposure-and-subsequent-skeletal-muscle-ecm-remodeling
#12
Katherine M Fanning, Bianca Pfisterer, Ashley T Davis, Tennille D Presley, Ian M Williams, David H Wasserman, J Mark Cline, Kylie Kavanagh
Radiation exposure accelerates the onset of age-related diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neoplasia and thus lends insight into in vivo mechanisms common to these disorders. Fibrosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which occur with aging, overnutrition, and following irradiation, are both risk factors for type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. Our prior work demonstrated that monkeys with whole-body radiation exposure five to nine years prior had an increased incidence of skeletal muscle insulin resistance and T2DM...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675203/electrospun-poly-n-isopropyl-acrylamide-poly-caprolactone-fibers-for-the-generation-of-anisotropic-cell-sheets
#13
Alicia C B Allen, Elissa Barone, Cody O Keefe Crosby, Laura J Suggs, Janet Zoldan
Cell alignment in muscle, nervous tissue, and cartilage is requisite for proper tissue function; however, cell sheeting techniques using the thermosensitive polymer poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAAm) can only produce anisotropic cell sheets with delicate and resource-intensive modifications. We hypothesized that electrospinning, a relatively simple and inexpensive technique to generate aligned polymer fibers, could be used to fabricate anisotropic PNIPAAm and poly(caprolactone) (PCL) blended surfaces that both support cell viability and permit cell sheet detachment via PNIPAAm dissolution...
July 4, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672983/neuroprotective-effect-of-carnosine-against-salsolinol-induced-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Jun Zhao, Lei Shi, Li-Rong Zhang
Carnosine is a dipeptide of β-alanine and histidine amino acids. It is widely present in muscle and brain tissues. Carnosine has been demonstrated to be an antioxidant agent that is beneficial in animals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and aldehydes are are generated from membrane fatty acid oxidation. The antioxidant potential and toxicity of salsolinol had been extensively studied in vivo and in vitro. The present study analyzed the protective effect of carnosine against Parkinson's disease in the salsolinol-induced rat brain and rat brain endothelial cells...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670285/muscle-and-tendon-adaptation-in-adolescence-elite-volleyball-athletes-compared-to-untrained-boys-and-girls
#15
Falk Mersmann, Georgios Charcharis, Sebastian Bohm, Adamantios Arampatzis
Though the plasticity of human tendons is well explored in adults, it is still unknown how superimposed mechanical loading by means of athletic training affects the properties of tendons during maturation. Due to the increased responsiveness of muscle to mechanical loading, adolescence is an important phase to investigate the effects of training on the mechanical properties of tendons. Hence, in the present study we compared vastus lateralis (VL) architecture, muscle strength of the knee extensor muscles and patellar tendon mechanical properties of male and female adolescent elite athletes to untrained boys and girls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664034/fully-automatic-acute-ischemic-lesion-segmentation-in-dwi-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#16
Liang Chen, Paul Bentley, Daniel Rueckert
Stroke is an acute cerebral vascular disease, which is likely to cause long-term disabilities and death. Acute ischemic lesions occur in most stroke patients. These lesions are treatable under accurate diagnosis and treatments. Although diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) is sensitive to these lesions, localizing and quantifying them manually is costly and challenging for clinicians. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to automatically segment stroke lesions in DWI. Our framework consists of two convolutional neural networks (CNNs): one is an ensemble of two DeconvNets (Noh et al...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662374/multiple-oral-deep-penetrating-nevi-extending-to-the-masseter-and-buccal-fat-pad
#17
Eunae S Cho, Hye-Min Cho, Woong Nam, Hyun Sil Kim
The deep penetrating nevus (DPN) is a rare benign melanocytic tumor often clinically and histopathologically mistaken for malignant melanoma (MM) and other nevus types. This report describes an extremely rare case of multiple lesions of a large DPN in the oral cavity with extensive infiltration to the minor salivary gland, buccal fat pad, buccinators, and masseter muscles, yet with preservation of the normal anatomic architecture. After receiving a diagnosis of MM in another hospital, the patient was at risk for receiving a wide excision that included the masticatory muscles, facial nerve, and overlying skin...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651946/layered-smooth-muscle-cell-endothelial-progenitor-cell-sheets-derived-from-the-bone-marrow-augment-postinfarction-ventricular-function
#18
Yasuhiro Shudo, Andrew B Goldstone, Jeffrey E Cohen, Jay B Patel, Michael S Hopkins, Amanda N Steele, Bryan B Edwards, Masashi Kawamura, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yoshiki Sawa, Y Joseph Woo
OBJECTIVE: The angiogenic potential of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may be limited by the absence of their natural biologic foundation, namely smooth muscle pericytes. We hypothesized that joint delivery of EPCs and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in a novel, totally bone marrow-derived cell sheet will mimic the native architecture of a mature blood vessel and act as an angiogenic construct to limit post infarction ventricular remodeling. METHODS: Primary EPCs and mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from bone marrow of Wistar rats...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647181/rosmarinic-acid-attenuates-hepatic-fibrogenesis-via-suppression-of-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-proliferation-and-induction-of-apoptosis
#19
Naglaa M El-Lakkany, Walaa H El-Maadawy, Sayed H Seif El-Din, Olfat A Hammam, Salwa H Mohamed, Shahira M Ezzat, Marwa M Safar, Samira Saleh
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antifibrotic role of rosmarinic acid (RA), a natural polyphenolic compound, on HSCs activation/proliferation and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The impact of RA on stellate cell line (HSC-T6) proliferation, activation and apoptosis was assessed along with its safety on primary hepatocytes. In vivo, rats were divided into: (i) normal; (ii) thioacetamide (TAA)-intoxicated rats for 12 weeks; (iii) TAA + silymarin or (iv) TAA + RA...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634552/inherited-paediatric-motor-neuron-disorders-beyond-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#20
REVIEW
Hooi Ling Teoh, Kate Carey, Hugo Sampaio, David Mowat, Tony Roscioli, Michelle Farrar
Paediatric motor neuron diseases encompass a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterised by the onset of muscle weakness and atrophy before the age of 18 years, attributable to motor neuron loss across various neuronal networks in the brain and spinal cord. While the genetic underpinnings are diverse, advances in next generation sequencing have transformed diagnostic paradigms. This has reinforced the clinical phenotyping and molecular genetic expertise required to navigate the complexities of such diagnoses...
2017: Neural Plasticity
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