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muscle architecture

Xiaofei Zhang, Huaibin Mabel Ko, Joana Torres, Hinaben J Panchal, Zhenjian Cai, Mathilde Wagner, Bruce E Sands, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Judy Cho, Bachir Taouli, Noam Harpaz
Intestinal stricture, a major complication of Crohn's disease (CD), results from fibromuscular remodeling and expansion of the intestinal wall. The corresponding microanatomical alterations have not been fully described, hindering progress toward understanding their pathogenesis and devising appropriate treatments. We used tissue-specific staining and quantitative digital histomorphometry for this purpose. Serial histological sections from 37 surgically-resected ileal strictures and adjacent non-strictured controls from patients with CD were evaluated after staining for smooth muscle actin, collagen (Sirius red) and collagen types I, III and V...
March 16, 2018: Human Pathology
Malgorzata A Gazda, Pedro Andrade, Sandra Afonso, Jolita Dilyte, John P Archer, Ricardo J Lopes, Rui Faria, Miguel Carneiro
Racing pigeons have been selectively bred to find their way home quickly over what are often extremely long distances. This breed is of substantial commercial value and is also an excellent avian model to gain empirical insights into the evolution of traits associated with flying performance and spatial orientation. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of the superior athletic and navigational capabilities of racing pigeons using whole-genome and RNA sequencing data. We inferred multiple signatures of positive selection distributed across the genome of racing pigeons...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
M Murali, P Athif, P Suganthi, A Sadiq Bukhari, H E Syed Mohamed, H Basu, R K Singhal
In the present study, freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus were exposed to sub lethal concentrations (120, 150 and 180 ppm) of Aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2 O3 NPs) for 96 h. Histological abnormalities were not observed in the organs of control fishes whereas severe damages and extensive architectural loss was found in the brain, gill, intestine, kidney and muscle tissues of treated fishes with more pronounced effects in 180 ppm. The results showed that the acute exposure to Al2 O3 NPs altered the histoarchitecture in various fish tissues...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ryuta Kinugasa, Keigo Taniguchi, Naoto Yamamura, Mineko Fujimiya, Masaki Katayose, Shu Takagi, V Reggie Edgerton, Shantanu Sinha
The in vitro unconstrained Achilles tendon is nearly straight, while in vivo experiments reveal that the proximal region of the Achilles tendon, adjacent to Kager's fat pad, bends ventrally during plantarflexion but remains nearly straight during dorsiflexion. Tendon bending is an important factor in determining the displacement of the foot compared to the shortening of the muscle fibers. The objective of this study was to elucidate the various mechanisms that could cause tendon bending, which currently remain unknown...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jamie S McPhee, James Cameron, Thomas Maden-Wilkinson, Mathew Piasecki, Moi Hoon Yap, David A Jones, Hans Degens
The contributions of fibre atrophy, fibre loss, in situ specific force and voluntary activation to weakness in sarcopenia remain unclear. To investigate, forty older (20 women; age 72±4yrs) and 31 younger adults (15 women, age 22±3yrs) completed measurements. The knee extensor maximal voluntary torque (MVC) was measured as well as voluntary activation, patella tendon moment arm length, muscle volume and fascicle architecture to estimate in situ specific force. Fibre cross-sectional area (FCSA), fibre numbers and connective tissue contents were also estimated from vastus lateralis biopsies...
February 26, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Lifang Guo, Minggang Tian, Ruiqing Feng, Ge Zhang, Ruoyao Zhang, Xuechen Li, Zhiqiang Liu, Xiuquan He, Jing Zhi Sun, Xiaoqiang Yu
Lipid droplets (LDs) with own interface architecture not only play crucial roles in protecting cell from lipotoxicity and lipoapoptosis but also closely relate with many diseases such as fatty liver and diabetes. Thus, as one of important applied biomaterials, fluorescent probes with ultrahigh selectivity for in-situ and high-fidelity imaging LDs in living cells and tissues are critical to elucidate relevant physiological and pathological events as well as detect related diseases. However, available LDs probes only utilizing their waterless neutral cores but ignoring the unique phospholipid monolayer interfaces exhibit low selectivity...
March 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Josefine Radke, Randi Koll, Corinna Preuße, Debora Pehl, Kremena Todorova, Constanze Schönemann, Yves Allenbach, Eleonora Aronica, Marianne de Visser, Frank L Heppner, Joachim Weis, Soroush Doostkam, Thierry Maisonobe, Olivier Benveniste, Hans-Hilmar Goebel, Werner Stenzel
Objective: To study the B-cell content, organization, and existence of distinct B-cell subpopulations in relation to the expression of type 1 interferon signature related genes in dermatomyositis (DM). Methods: Evaluation of skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with adult DM (aDM) and juvenile DM (jDM) by histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Results: We defined 3 aDM subgroups-classic (containing occasional B cells without clusters), B-cell-rich, and follicle-like aDM-further elucidating IM B-lymphocyte maturation and immunity...
May 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Christian L Lino Cardenas, Chase W Kessinger, Yisha Cheng, Carolyn MacDonald, Thomas MacGillivray, Brian Ghoshhajra, Luai Huleihel, Saifar Nuri, Ashish S Yeri, Farouc A Jaffer, Naftali Kaminski, Patrick Ellinor, Neal L Weintraub, Rajeev Malhotra, Eric M Isselbacher, Mark E Lindsay
Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) has been associated with mutations affecting members of the TGF-β signaling pathway, or components and regulators of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) actomyosin cytoskeleton. Although both clinical groups present similar phenotypes, the existence of potential common mechanisms of pathogenesis remain obscure. Here we show that mutations affecting TGF-β signaling and VSMC cytoskeleton both lead to the formation of a ternary complex comprising the histone deacetylase HDAC9, the chromatin-remodeling enzyme BRG1, and the long noncoding RNA MALAT1...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
G Vesentini, G Marini, F Piculo, D C Damasceno, S M M Matheus, S L Felisbino, I M P Calderon, A Hijaz, A M P Barbosa, M V C Rudge
The urethral muscle of diabetic pregnant rats is affected by long-term mild diabetes and short-term severe diabetes, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pelvic floor disorders. We hypothesized that muscles outside the pelvis are subject to similar changes. The current study aimed at analyzing the effects of long-term mild and short-term severe diabetes on the structure and ultrastructure of fiber muscles and collagen in rats' rectus abdominis (RA) muscle. Therefore, the RA muscle of virgin, pregnant, long-term mild diabetic, short-term severe diabetic, long-term mild diabetic pregnant and short-term severe diabetic pregnant 3-month-old Wistar rats were collected...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Valentina Mazzoli, Lukas M Gottwald, Eva S Peper, Martijn Froeling, Bram F Coolen, Nico Verdonschot, Andre M Sprengers, Pim van Ooij, Gustav J Strijkers, Aart J Nederveen
PURPOSE: 3D time-resolved (4D) phase contrast MRI can be used to study muscle contraction. However, 3D coverage with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution can only be achieved by interleaved acquisitions during many repetitions of the motion task, resulting in long scan times. The aim of this study was to develop a compressed sensing accelerated 4D phase contrast MRI technique for quantification of velocities and strain rate of the muscles in the lower leg during active plantarflexion/dorsiflexion...
March 5, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Sarah J Allison, Katherine Brooke-Wavell, Jonathan Folland
High impact exercise programmes can improve bone strength, but little is known about whether this type of training further benefits fracture risk by improving physical function in older people. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the influence of high impact exercise on balance, muscle function and morphology in older men. METHODS: Fifty, healthy men (65-80 years) were assigned to a 6-month multidirectional hopping programme (TG) and twenty age and physical activity matched volunteers served as controls (CG)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Janine Berkholz, Regina Eberle, Klaus Boller, Barbara Munz
skNAC (skeletal and heart muscle-specific variant of nascent polypeptide-associated complex) and Smyd1 (SET and MYND domain-containing 1) form a protein dimer which is specific for striated muscle cells. Its function is largely unknown. On the one hand, skNAC-Smyd1 appears to control transcriptional processes in the nucleus, on the other hand, specifically at later stages of myogenic differentiation, both proteins translocate to the sarcoplasm and at least Smyd1 specifically associates with sarcomeric structures and might control myofibrillogenesis and/or sarcomere architecture...
February 24, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Huichun Xu, Gerald W Dorn Ii, Amol Shetty, Ankita Parihar, Tushar Dave, Shawn W Robinson, Stephen S Gottlieb, Mark P Donahue, Gordon F Tomaselli, William E Kraus, Braxton D Mitchell, Stephen B Liggett
Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) is the most common form of non-ischemic chronic heart failure. Despite the higher prevalence of IDC in African Americans, the genetics of IDC have been relatively understudied in this ethnic group. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify susceptibility genes for IDC in African Americans recruited from five sites in the U.S. (662 unrelated cases and 1167 controls). The heritability of IDC was calculated to be 33% (95% confidence interval: 19-47%; p = 6...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
Liang Li, Fengjuan Zhou, Fanzhong Lin, Cuihong Han
Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma (TL-LGNPPA) is an extremely rare neoplasm. It morphologically resembles papillary thyroid carcinoma and is immunochemically positive for thyroid transcription factor 1. Herein, we reported a case of TL-LGNPPA in a female patient of 35 years old. She felt pharyngeal foreign body sensation of unknown cause and subsequently developed dyspnea after activities. Nasopharyngeal plain computerized tomography showed no abnormalities, but laryngoscopy showed a peanut-sized smooth neoplasm with a pedicel at the posterior edge of the nasal septum...
February 28, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Astrid Truschnegg, Stephan Acham, Lumnije Kqiku, Norbert Jakse, Alfred Beham
Prompted by a unique case of an ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECT) of the palate in a 54-year-old female, we reviewed the English and German literature on this entity until the end of 2016 using PubMed. The search produced 74 lingual cases with a nearly equal sex distribution and a mean age of 39.3 years, and two extra-lingual cases sharing histological and immunohistological features including nodular growth, round, fusiform or spindle-shaped cellular architecture, and chondromyxoid stroma. Immunophenotyping showed the majority of cases to be positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S-100 protein, glycoprotein CD57, pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3), and smooth muscle actin (SMA); in isolated cases there was molecular-genetic rearrangement or gain of Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) but no rearrangement of pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1)...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
Troy A Pittman, Olivia A Abbate, James M Economides
BACKGROUND: Prepectoral prosthetic-based breast reconstruction has become increasingly popular as an alternative to the partial or total submuscular approach. Potential issues with the prepectoral approach include a noticeable superior implant edge and implant rippling. These concerns are particularly apparent in thin patients. We introduce a novel muscle-sparing technique in which a partial-thickness slip of pectoralis muscle is created in an otherwise prepectoral plane to mask these upper pole defects, mask superior implant rippling, and provide greater implant support (The P1 Method)...
February 27, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Gijsje H Koenderink, Ewa K Paluch
Myosin-driven contraction of the actin cytoskeleton is at the base of cell and tissue morphogenesis. At the molecular level, myosin motors drive contraction by sliding actin filaments past one another using energy produced by ATP hydrolysis. How this microscopic sliding activity gives rise to cell-scale contractions has been an active research question first in muscle cells, and over the last few decades in non-muscle cells. While many early investigations focused on myosin motor activity, increasingly, the nanoscale architecture of the actin network emerges as a key regulator of contractility...
February 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Ana I Hernandez Cordero, Peter Carbonetto, Gioia Riboni Verri, Jennifer S Gregory, David J Vandenbergh, Joseph P Gyekis, David A Blizard, Arimantas Lionikas
The genetics underlying variation in health-related musculoskeletal phenotypes can be investigated in a mouse model. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting musculoskeletal traits in the LG/J and SM/J strain lineage remain to be refined and corroborated. The aim of this study was to map muscle and bone traits in males (n = 506) of the 50th filial generation of advanced intercross lines (LG/SM AIL) derived from the two strains. Genetic contribution to variation in all musculoskeletal traits was confirmed; the SNP heritability of muscle mass ranged between 0...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
Ali-Akbar Karkhaneh Yousefi, Mohammad Ali Nazari, Pascal Perrier, Masoud Shariat Panahi, Yohan Payan
Material properties of the human tongue tissue have a significant role in understanding its function in speech, respiration, suckling, and swallowing. Tongue as a combination of various muscles is surrounded by the mucous membrane and is a complicated architecture to study. As a first step before the quantitative mechanical characterization of human tongue tissues, the passive biomechanical properties in the superior longitudinal muscle (SLM) and the mucous tissues of a bovine tongue have been measured. Since the rate of loading has a sizeable contribution to the resultant stress of soft tissues, the rate dependent behavior of tongue tissues has been investigated via uniaxial tension tests (UTTs)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Adrianne Rahde Bischoff, Fábio da Silva Cunha, Roberta Dalle Molle, Paulo José Cauduro Maróstica, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
OBJECTIVE: The literature suggests that a fetus will adapt to surrounding adversities by optimizing its use of energy to improve survival, ultimately leading to the programming of the individual's energy intake and expenditure. While recent reviews focused on the fetal programming of energy intake and food preferences, there is also some evidence that fetal adversity is associated with diminished physical activity levels. Therefore, we aimed to review (a) the evidence for an association between being born IUGR and sedentarism over the life-course and (b) the potential benefits of physical activity over cardiometabolic risk factors for this population...
February 21, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
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