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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743198/the-knoxi-transcription-factor-shoot-meristemless-regulates-floral-fate-in-arabidopsis
#1
Ohad Roth, John Alvarez, Matan Levy, John L Bowman, Naomi Ori, Eilon Shani
Plants have evolved a unique and conserved developmental program that enables the conversion of leaves into floral organs. Elegant genetic and molecular work has identified key regulators of flower meristem identity. However, further understanding of flower meristem specification has been hampered by redundancy and by pleiotropic effects. The KNOXI transcription factor SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) is a well-characterized regulator of shoot apical meristem maintenance. Arabidopsis thaliana stm loss-of-function mutants arrest shortly after germination, and therefore the knowledge on later roles of STM in later processes, including flower development, is limited...
May 9, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740613/big1-arfgef1-and-arf1-regulate-the-initiation-of-myelination-by-schwann-cells-in-mice
#2
Yuki Miyamoto, Tomohiro Torii, Kenji Tago, Akito Tanoue, Shou Takashima, Junji Yamauchi
During development of the peripheral nervous system in mammals, Schwann cells wrap their plasma membranes around neuronal axons, forming multiple myelin sheaths. A mature myelin sheath insulates axons and increases nerve conduction velocity while protecting nerve fibers from various stresses such as physical ones. Despite this functional importance, the molecular units that underlie dynamic morphological changes in formation of myelin sheaths are not sufficiently understood. Arf1 is a small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein that plays multiple roles in intracellular trafficking and related signaling, both of which are processes involved in cell morphogenesis...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736250/mikc-c-type-mads-box-genes-in-rosa-chinensis-the-remarkable-expansion-of-abcde-model-genes-and-their-roles-in-floral-organogenesis
#3
Jinyi Liu, Xiaodong Fu, Yuwei Dong, Jun Lu, Min Ren, Ningning Zhou, Changquan Wang
MIKCC -type MADS-box (MIKCC ) genes encode transcription factors that have crucial roles in controlling floral organogenesis and flowering time in plants. Although this gene family has been well characterized in many plant species, its evolutionary and comprehensive functional analysis in rose is lacking. In this study, 58 non-redundant MIKCC uni-transcripts were extensively identified from rose transcriptomes. Phylogenetic analysis placed these genes into 12 clades with their Arabidopsis and strawberry counterparts, and revealed that ABCDE model (including AP1/FUL, AP3/PI, AG, and SEP clades), and SOC1 and AGL6 clade genes have remarkably expanded in Rosa chinensis , whereas genes from the FLC and AGL17 clades were undetectable...
2018: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735673/simulated-night-shift-work-induces-circadian-misalignment-of-the-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-transcriptome
#4
Laura Kervezee, Marc Cuesta, Nicolas Cermakian, Diane B Boivin
Misalignment of the endogenous circadian timing system leads to disruption of physiological rhythms and may contribute to the development of the deleterious health effects associated with night shift work. However, the molecular underpinnings remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of a 4-day simulated night shift work protocol on the circadian regulation of the human transcriptome. Repeated blood samples were collected over two 24-hour measurement periods from eight healthy subjects under highly controlled laboratory conditions before and 4 days after a 10-hour delay of their habitual sleep period...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709075/reduction-of-the-geomagnetic-field-delays-arabidopsis-thaliana-flowering-time-through-downregulation-of-flowering-related-genes
#5
Chiara Agliassa, Ravishankar Narayana, Cinzia M Bertea, Christopher T Rodgers, Massimo E Maffei
Variations in magnetic field (MF) intensity are known to induce plant morphological and gene expression changes. In Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0, near-null magnetic field (NNMF, i.e., <100 nT MF) causes a delay in the transition to flowering, but the expression of genes involved in this response has been poorly studied. Here, we showed a time-course quantitative analysis of the expression of both leaf (including clock genes, photoperiod pathway, GA20ox, SVP, and vernalization pathway) and floral meristem (including GA2ox, SOC1, AGL24, LFY, AP1, FD, and FLC) genes involved in the transition to flowering in A...
April 30, 2018: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707522/early-lymphocyte-loss-and-increased-granulocyte-lymphocyte-ratio-predict-systemic-spread-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-skin-infection
#6
Torsten G Loof, Aaqib Sohail, Mahmoud M Bahgat, Aravind Tallam, Haroon Arshad, Manas K Akmatov, Marina C Pils, Ulrike Heise, Andreas Beineke, Frank Pessler
Background: Group A streptococci may induce lymphopenia, but the value of lymphocyte loss as early biomarkers for systemic spread and severe infection has not been examined systematically. Methods: We evaluated peripheral blood cell indices as biomarkers for severity and spread of infection in a mouse model of Streptococcus pyogenes skin infection, using two isolates of greatly differing virulence. Internal organs were examined histologically. Results: After subcutaneous inoculation, strain AP1 disseminated rapidly to peripheral blood and internal organs, causing frank sepsis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704546/adaptive-changes-in-global-gene-expression-profile-of-lung-carcinoma-a549-cells-acutely-exposed-to-distinct-types-of-ahr-ligands
#7
Jiřina Procházková, Simona Strapáčová, Lucie Svržková, Zdeněk Andrysík, Martina Hýžďalová, Eva Hrubá, Kateřina Pěnčíková, Helena Líbalová, Jan Topinka, Jiří Kléma, Joaquín M Espinosa, Jan Vondráček, Miroslav Machala
Exposure to persistent ligands of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been found to cause lung cancer in experimental animals, and lung adenocarcinomas are often associated with enhanced AhR expression and aberrant AhR activation. In order to better understand the action of toxic AhR ligands in lung epithelial cells, we performed global gene expression profiling and analyze TCDD-induced changes in A549 transcriptome, both sensitive and non-sensitive to CH223191 co-treatment. Comparison of our data with results from previously reported microarray and ChIP-seq experiments enabled us to identify candidate genes, which expression status reflects exposure of lung cancer cells to TCDD, and to predict processes, pathways (e...
April 25, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659575/synergistic-co-regulation-and-competition-by-a-sox9-gli-foxa-phasic-transcriptional-network-coordinate-chondrocyte-differentiation-transitions
#8
Zhijia Tan, Ben Niu, Kwok Yeung Tsang, Ian G Melhado, Shinsuke Ohba, Xinjun He, Yongheng Huang, Cheng Wang, Andrew P McMahon, Ralf Jauch, Danny Chan, Michael Q Zhang, Kathryn S E Cheah
The growth plate mediates bone growth where SOX9 and GLI factors control chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and entry into hypertrophy. FOXA factors regulate hypertrophic chondrocyte maturation. How these factors integrate into a Gene Regulatory Network (GRN) controlling these differentiation transitions is incompletely understood. We adopted a genome-wide whole tissue approach to establish a Growth Plate Differential Gene Expression Library (GP-DGEL) for fractionated proliferating, pre-hypertrophic, early and late hypertrophic chondrocytes, as an overarching resource for discovery of pathways and disease candidates...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656141/wnt5a-suppresses-inflammation-driven-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-via-a-tnf-%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-wnt5a-negative-feedback-loop
#9
Z Li, K Zhang, X Li, H Pan, S Li, F Chen, J Zhang, Z Zheng, J Wang, H Liu
OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the molecular role of Wnt5a on inflammation-driven intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). METHODS: The expression of Wnt5a was analyzed in human nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues with immunohistochemical staining. The effects of Wnt5a on matrix production were assessed by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), promoter deletion assay, and promoter binding site mutant were used to reveal the molecular role of Wnt5a in TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression...
April 12, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625068/chromatin-accessibility-dynamics-during-chemical-induction-of-pluripotency
#10
Shangtao Cao, Shengyong Yu, Dongwei Li, Jing Ye, Xuejie Yang, Chen Li, Xiaoshan Wang, Yuanbang Mai, Yue Qin, Jian Wu, Jiangping He, Chunhua Zhou, He Liu, Bentian Zhao, Xiaodong Shu, Chuman Wu, Ruiping Chen, Waiyee Chan, Guangjin Pan, Jiekai Chen, Jing Liu, Duanqing Pei
Despite its exciting potential, chemical induction of pluripotency (CIP) efficiency remains low and the mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the development of an efficient two-step serum- and replating-free CIP protocol and the associated chromatin accessibility dynamics (CAD) by assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC)-seq. CIP reorganizes the somatic genome to an intermediate state that is resolved under 2iL condition by re-closing previously opened loci prior to pluripotency acquisition with gradual opening of loci enriched with motifs for the OCT/SOX/KLF families...
April 5, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605772/nos1-mediates-ap1-nuclear-translocation-and-inflammatory-response
#11
Mansi Srivastava, Mirza S Baig
A hallmark of the AP1 functioning is its nuclear translocation, which induces proinflammatory cytokine expression and hence the inflammatory response. After endotoxin shock AP1 transcription factor, which comprises Jun, ATF2, and Fos family of proteins, translocates into the nucleus and induces proinflammatory cytokine expression. In the current study, we found, NOS1 inhibition prevents nuclear translocation of the AP1 transcription factor subunits. Pharmacological inhibition of NOS1 impedes translocation of subunits into the nucleus, suppressing the transcription of inflammatory genes causing a diminished inflammatory response...
March 29, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604523/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-mads-box-gene-family-in-polyploid-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-and-in-its-diploid-parental-species-gossypium-arboreum-and-gossypium-raimondii
#12
Sarah Muniz Nardeli, Sinara Artico, Gustavo Mitsunori Aoyagi, Stéfanie Menezes de Moura, Tatiane da Franca Silva, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa, Elisson Romanel, Marcio Alves-Ferreira
The MADS-box gene family encodes transcription factors that share a highly conserved domain known to bind to DNA. Members of this family control various processes of development in plants, from root formation to fruit ripening. In this work, a survey of diploid (Gossypium raimondii and Gossypium arboreum) and tetraploid (Gossypium hirsutum) cotton genomes found a total of 147, 133 and 207 MADS-box genes, respectively, distributed in the MIKC, Mα, Mβ, Mγ, and Mδ subclades. A comparative phylogenetic analysis among cotton species, Arabidopsis, poplar and grapevine MADS-box homologous genes allowed us to evaluate the evolution of each MADS-box lineage in cotton plants and identify sequences within well-established subfamilies...
March 20, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596063/neuronal-hypothalamic-regulation-of-body-metabolism-and-bone-density-is-galanin-dependent
#13
Anna Idelevich, Kazusa Sato, Kenichi Nagano, Glenn Rowe, Francesca Gori, Roland Baron
In the brain, the ventral hypothalamus (VHT) regulates energy and bone metabolism. Whether this regulation uses the same or different neuronal circuits is unknown. Alteration of AP1 signaling in the VHT increases energy expenditure, glucose utilization, and bone density, yet the specific neurons responsible for each or all of these phenotypes are not identified. Using neuron-specific genetically targeted AP1 alterations as a tool in adult mice, we found that AgRP- or POMC- expressing neurons, predominantly present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) within the VHT, stimulate whole body energy expenditure, glucose utilization and bone formation and density, although their effects on bone resorption differed...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589093/the-bzip-transcriptional-factor-activator-protein-1-regulates-metarhizium-rileyi-morphology-and-mediates-microsclerotia-formation
#14
Zhangyong Song, Youping Yin, Yunlong Lin, Fang Du, Guangwei Ren, Zhongkang Wang
Internal oxidative stress can trigger microsclerotia (MS) formation of Metarhizium rileyi in liquid culture. Activator protein 1 (AP1) is a transcription factor and an important determinant of the response to oxidative stress. To investigate how M. rileyi responds to internal oxidative stress and how MS development is regulated, the Mrap1 gene was characterized. Mrap1 was highly expressed during periods of invasive hyphal growth and in response to changing culture conditions during MS development. Compared with the wild-type and complemented strains, ΔMrap1 mutants exhibited various defects in aerial hyphal growth, yeast-to-hypha transition, and conidia and MS formation...
March 27, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582348/comparison-of-detectability-of-breast-cancer-by-abbreviated-breast-mri-based-on-diffusion-weighted-images-and-postcontrast-mri
#15
Takayuki Yamada, Yoshihide Kanemaki, Satoko Okamoto, Yasuo Nakajima
PURPOSE: To compare the detectability of unenhanced abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and abbreviated postcontrast MRI for breast cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 87 patients undergoing breast MRI between December 2016 and March 2017 in a clinical setting. All breast MRIs were performed using a 1.5-T MRI scanner with a 16-channel breast radiofrequency coil. The abbreviated protocols based on DWI (AP1) and postcontrast MRI (AP2) were assessed independently by two radiologists...
March 26, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560581/the-endo-lysosomal-system-of-brain-endothelial-cells-is-influenced-by-astrocytes-in-vitro
#16
Andrea E Toth, Piotr Siupka, Thomas J P Augustine, Susanne T Venø, Louiza B Thomsen, Torben Moos, Hannes T Lohi, Peder Madsen, Karin Lykke-Hartmann, Morten S Nielsen
Receptor- and adsorptive-mediated transport through brain endothelial cells (BEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) involves a complex array of subcellular vesicular structures, the endo-lysosomal system. It consists of several types of vesicles, such as early, recycling, and late endosomes, retromer-positive structures, and lysosomes. Since this system is important for receptor-mediated transcytosis of drugs across brain capillaries, our aim was to characterise the endo-lysosomal system in BEC with emphasis on their interactions with astrocytes...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558202/egfr-mediated-matrix-metalloproteinase-7-up-regulation-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-erk1-ap1-axis-during-ovarian-endometriosis-progression
#17
Kasturi Chatterjee, Sayantan Jana, Pramathes DasMahapatra, Snehasikta Swarnakar
Endometriosis, characterized by extrauterine development of endometrial glands and stroma, is associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer development. In the present study, we investigated the role of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during ovarian endometriosis ( N = 40) progression. We found that the expressions of EMT markers such as vimentin, slug, and N-cadherin were significantly elevated in late stages of ovarian endometriosis compared with those found in early stages...
March 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549603/low-grade-neuroinflammation-due-to-chronic-sleep-deprivation-results-in-anxiety-and-learning-and-memory-impairments
#18
Shaffi Manchanda, Harpal Singh, Taranjeet Kaur, Gurcharan Kaur
Chronic sleep loss/fragmentation prevalent in the current 24/7 society is associated with irreversible consequences on health and overall wellbeing. Various studies have well documented the ill effects of acute sleep loss on cognitive functions of individuals; however, the underlying mechanism behind the chronic sleep loss is yet to be explored. The present study was aimed to investigate whether chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) triggers anxiety-like behaviour and memory decline in male Wistar rats. Rats were sleep deprived by placing them over slowly rotating drum (2 rpm) for 18 h (between 4 pm and 10 am) followed by 6 h of recovery sleep for 21 consecutive days...
March 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545793/src-family-kinases-regulate-interferon-regulatory-factor-1-k63-ubiquitination-following-activation-by-tlr7-8-vaccine-adjuvant-in-human-monocytes-and-b-cells
#19
Lorenza Tulli, Francesca Cattaneo, Juliette Vinot, Cosima T Baldari, Ugo D'Oro
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the activation of innate immune cells, in which their engagement leads to production of cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules. TLRs signaling requires recruitment of toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain-containing adaptors, such as MyD88 and/or TRIF, and leads to activation of several transcription factors, such as NF-κB, the AP1 complex, and various members of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family, which in turn results in triggering of several cellular functions associated with these receptors...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541735/quercetin-3-o-%C3%AE-l-arabinopyranoside-protects-against-retinal-cell-death-via-blue-light-induced-damage-in-human-rpe-cells-and-balb-c-mice
#20
Jun Kim, Hong Lan Jin, Dae Sik Jang, Kwang Won Jeong, Se-Young Choung
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is among the increasing number of diseases causing irreversible blindness in the elderly. Dry AMD is characterized by the accumulation of lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. N-Retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), a component of lipofuscin, is oxidized to oxo-A2E under blue light illumination, leading to retinal cell death. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of quercetin-3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (QA) against blue light (BL)-induced damage in both RPE cells and mice models...
April 25, 2018: Food & Function
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