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Nutrition in adolescents

Narges Pachenari, Hossein Azizi, Elmira Ghasemi, Maryam Azadi, Saeed Semnanian
During the past decades, the use/misuse of opioids has increased dramatically among adolescent population. It is now well acknowledged that various morphological and physiological changes occur in the brain during adolescence. During this critical period, brain development and maturation could be affected by several factors including stress, drug abuse, nutritional status, etc. Although studies on transgenerational effects of substances such as alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine have focused on both paternal and maternal drug exposure, most reports on transgenerational effects of morphine are restricted to maternal exposure...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
So Yoon Han, Nan Hee Kim, Do Hoon Kim, Kyungdo Han, Seon Mee Kim
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood obesity has significantly increased in Korea. This study aimed to use data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to investigate the association between sodium (Na) intake and insulin resistance in children and adolescents with obesity. METHODS: The study population consisted of 578 adolescents aged 12-18 years who were enrolled in the 2010 KNHANES. Subjects were classified into the following four groups based on their body mass index (BMI) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values: normal BMI and HOMA-IR (Group 1), normal BMI and ≥75% HOMA-IR (Group 2), ≥85% BMI and normal HOMA-IR (Group 3) and ≥85% BMI and ≥75% HOMA-IR (Group 4)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Christiane Scheffler, Louisa-Marie Krützfeldt, Parasmani Dasgupta, Michael Hermanussen
Body height has traditionally been looked upon as a mirror of the condition of society, short height being an indicator of poor nutritional status, poor education, and low social status and income. This view has recently been questioned. We aimed to quantify the effects of nutrition, education, sibship size, and household income, factors that are conventionally considered to be related to child growth, on body height of children and adolescents raised under urban Indian conditions. Sample and methods: We re-analyzed several anthropometric measurements and questionnaires with questions on sibship size, fathers' and mother's education, and monthly family expenditure, from two cross-sectional growth studies performed in Kolkata, India...
March 15, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Jeffrey W Jordan, Carolyn A Stalgaitis, John Charles, Patrick A Madden, Anjana G Radhakrishnan, Daniel Saggese
PURPOSE: Peer crowds are macro-level subcultures that share similarities across geographic areas. Over the past decade, dozens of studies have explored the association between adolescent peer crowds and risk behaviors, and how they can inform public health efforts. However, despite the interest, researchers have not yet reported on crowd size and risk levels from a representative sample, making it difficult for practitioners to apply peer crowd science to interventions. The current study reports findings from the first statewide representative sample of adolescent peer crowd identification and health behaviors...
February 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Rodrigo Dalke Meucci, Angélica Ozório Linhares, Daniel Wenceslau Votto Olmedo, Ewerton Luiz Porto Cousin Sobrinho, Vlanice Madruga Duarte, Juraci Almeida Cesar
The scope of this article is to assess low back pain prevalence and associated factors in the last 12 months among adolescents in a city in the south of the State of Piauí. It was a cross-sectional study which included 1,112 adolescents aged 13-19 in the city of Caracol, Piauí. Demographic, socio-economic, nutritional, behavioral and comorbidty characteristics were investigated. The outcome was the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) in the last 12 months. The outcome prevalence was calculated in accordance with independent variables...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Jéssica Cumpian-Silva, Ana Elisa Madalena Rinaldi, Camila Medeiros da Silva Mazzeti, Wolney Lisboa Conde
The study aims to describe body phenotypes estimated by multivariate technique for the assessment of nutritional status in adolescence during the process of sexual maturation. The sample consisted of 833 schoolchildren 10 to 15 years of age, selected by complex sampling in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Body phenotypes were defined by principal components analysis (PCA) based on anthropometric data (body mass, height, skinfolds, and waist circumference), body composition (phase angle measurement by bioelectric impedance), biochemical parameters (triglycerides, glucose, total/LDL cholesterol ratio, hemoglobin), and sexual maturation (self-classification of stages of pubic hair and breasts or genitals)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Rui Zhang, Changwei Li, Tingting Liu, Liqiang Zheng, Shengxu Li
Background: Previous studies have reported that handgrip strength, a measure of muscular fitness, is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. However, the association of handgrip strength with blood pressure in children has been inconsistent. We tested the association of handgrip strength with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in children and adolescents from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014. Methods: The study included 3,929 participants aged 8-19 years who underwent a handgrip test...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Larissa Galastri Baraldi, Euridice Martinez Steele, Daniela Silva Canella, Carlos Augusto Monteiro
OBJECTIVES: To compare ultra-processed food consumption across sociodemographic groups and over time (2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012) in the USA. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged ≥2 years with at least one 24-hour dietary recall were included (n=23 847). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Average dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods (expressed as a percentage of the total caloric value of the diet), obtained after classifying all food items according to extent and purpose of industrial food processing using NOVA classification...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Jennifer Utter, Nicole Larson, Melissa N Laska, Megan Winkler, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perceived cooking skills in emerging adulthood predicts better nutrition a decade later. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults longitudinal study. Participants reported on adequacy of cooking skills in 2002-2003 (age 18-23 years) and subsequently reported on nutrition-related outcomes in 2015-2016 (age 30-35 years) (n = 1,158). Separate regression models were used to examine associations between cooking skills at age 18-23 years and each subsequent outcome...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Ivy L Pike, Charles Hilton, Matthias Österle, Owuor Olungah
Recently, strong pleas have emerged to place the health of adolescents on the global health agenda. To reposition adolescence front and center, scholars argue that we must work toward a richly contextualized approach that considers the role that social environments play in shaping the final stages of growth and development. We aim to contribute to this deeper understanding of the social determinants of global adolescent health by offering a case study of three nomadic pastoralist communities from northern Kenya...
February 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Hongsheng Wang, Wei Sun, Mengxiong Sun, Zeze Fu, Chenghao Zhou, Chongren Wang, Dongqing Zuo, Zifei Zhou, Gangyang Wang, Tao Zhang, Jing Xu, Jian Chen, Zhuoying Wang, Fei Yin, Zhenfeng Duan, Francis J Hornicek, Zhengdong Cai, Yingqi Hua
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The abilities of chemotherapy resistance are major roadblock in the successful treatment of OS. The clarification of mechanism regarding cell survival during OS chemotherapy are important. Here, we examined HER4 expression by immunohistochemistry in a large series of OS tissues, and found HER4 expression correlated with tumor characteristics and patient survival rates. HER4 knockdown by shRNA inhibited OS cell growth and tumorigenesis, and induced cell senescence and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo...
March 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Anija Orel, Matjaz Homan, Rok Blagus, Evgen Benedik, Rok Orel, Natasa Fidler Mis
Background: Commercial enteral formulas are generally recommended for gastrostomy feeding in patients with severe neurologic impairment. However, pureed food diets are still widely used and even gaining popularity among certain groups. We tried to compare the effectiveness of gastrostomy feeding for treatment of severe malnutrition with either enteral formulas or pureed feeds. Patients and methods: A 6-month nutritional intervention was made with 37 malnourished children, adolescents and young adults (2-26 years old) with severe neurologic impairment (Gross Motor Function Classification system [GMFCS] grade V)...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Joanna Zapolska, Katarzyna Witczak-Sawczuk, Maryna Krawczuk-Rybak, Małgorzata Sawicka-Żukowska, Joanna Smarkusz, Lucyna Ostrowska
Background: Properly balanced diet and exercise are an essential element of healthy living for children and adolescents. Particular attention should be paid to nutrition and physical activity among juniors after cancer treatment, which is one of the most important elements of the convalescence period. Objective: The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of diet, physical activity of healthy children and adolescents with patients after cancer treatment. Material and methods: The study involved 60 children and adolescents; 30 healthy juniors and 30 patients after treatment for cancer...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Iris Iglesia, Inge Huybrechts, Theodora Mouratidou, Javier Santabárbara, Juan M Fernández-Alvira, Alba M Santaliestra-Pasías, Yannis Manios, Alejandro De la O Puerta, Anthony Kafatos, Frédéric Gottrand, Ascensión Marcos, Stefania Sette, Maria Plada, Peter Stehle, Dénes Molnár, Kurt Widhalm, Mathilde Kersting, Stefaan De Henauw, Luis A Moreno, Marcela González-Gross
OBJECTIVES: To determine dietary patterns (DPs) and explain the highest variance of vitamin B6 , folate, and B12 intake and related concentrations among European adolescents. METHODS: A total of 2173 adolescents who participated in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study met the eligibility criteria for the vitamin B intake analysis (46% boys) and 586 adolescents for the biomarkers analysis (47% boys). Two non-consecutive, 24-h, dietary recalls were used to assess the mean intakes...
November 28, 2017: Nutrition
Samuel Mersha Birru, Aysheshim Kassahun Belew, Amare Tariku
BACKGROUND: Poor nutritional status of adolescent girls has a negative effect on the next generation as undernourished adolescents enter pregnancy with poor nutrient reserve. However, there is scarcity of evidence showing the burden of stunting among adolescent girls in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this study aimed to assess prevalence of stunting and associated factors among school adolescent girls in Gondar City Administration, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2017...
March 7, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Ana Carolina Corrêa Café, Carlos Alexandre de Oliveira Lopes, Rommel Larcher Rachid Novais, Wendell Costa Bila, Daniely Karoline da Silva, Márcia Christina Caetano Romano, Joel Alves Lamounier
OBJECTIVE: To systematize literature references addressing the association of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and milk intake with body mass index (BMI) in adolescents. DATA SOURCE: A search was carried out in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health) and BVS (Virtual Library in Health). The descriptors used were: adolescents, young adult, beverages, drinking, obesity, overweight, BMI, and nutritional status. The following filters were applied: age ranging from 10 to 19 years, studies published in Portuguese or English language between 2011-2015...
January 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Molinaro Francesco, Cobellis Giovanni, Cerchia Elisa, Ferrara Francesco, Tallarico Rosella, Sica Marina, Noviello Carmine, Martino Ascanio, Angotti Rossella, Messina Mario
Background: The varicocele is the most commonly diagnosed pre-pubertal andrological condition with an incidence of 10%-15% between adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of retroperitoneoscopic varicocelectomy (RV) in two Italian centres with particular attention to post-operative testicular volume and semen analysis after 18 years of life. Materials and Methods: From 1999 to 2010, 286 adolescents underwent retroperitoneoscopic left varicocelectomy...
April 2017: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
José Darío Martínez-Ezquerro, Mario Enrique Rendón-Macías, Gerardo Zamora-Mendoza, Jacobo Serrano-Meneses, Beatriz Rosales-Rodríguez, Deyanira Escalante-Bautista, Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz, Raúl Sánchez-González, Yessica Arellano-Pineda, Mardia López-Alarcón, María Cecilia Zampedri, Haydeé Rosas-Vargas
BACKGROUND: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rs6265 (G196A; Val66Met) single nucleotide polymorphism has been associated with BMI and obesity in distinct populations, both adult and pediatric, with contradictory results involving either Val or Met as the risk variant. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and BMI in Mexican children and adolescents. METHODS: BDNF Val66Met genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism and nutritional status characterized by their BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) from pediatric volunteers (n = 498) were analyzed by Fisher's exact test association analysis...
March 2, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
Barbara Giordani, Annalisa Amato, Fabio Majo, Gianluca Ferrari, Serena Quattrucci, Laura Minicucci, Rita Padoan, Giovanna Floridia, Gianna Puppo Fornaro, Domenica Taruscio, Marco Salvatore
INTRODUCTION: The Italian Cystic Fibrosis Registry (ICFR) is based on a new agreement about the data flow towards the Registry signed on October, 4th 2016 by the Centre for Rare Diseases of the Italian National Institute of Health (NIH), the clinicians of the Italian National Referral and Support Centres for Cystic Fibrosis, the Paediatric Hospital "Bambino Gesù" (Rome), the Italian Cystic Fibrosis Society, and the Italian League for Cystic Fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present Report is to improve the knowledge on cystic fibrosis (CF) through the epidemiological description of Italian patients...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Citlalli Alvarez Zaragoza, Edgar Manuel Vasquez Garibay, Andrea A García Contreras, Alfredo Larrosa Haro, Enrique Romero Velarde, Alejandro Rea Rosas, José Luis Cabrales de Anda, Israel Vega Olea
This study demonstrated the relationship of low bone mineral density (BMD) with the degree of motor impairment, method of feeding, anthropometric indicators, and malnutrition in children with quadriplegic cerebral palsy (CP). The control of these factors could optimize adequate bone mineralization, avoid the risk of osteoporosis, and would improve the quality of life. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between low BMD and nutritional status in children with quadriplegic CP...
March 4, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
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