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Wellness in adolescents

Jennifer F Buckman, Evgeny G Vaschillo, Maria Fonoberova, Igor Mezić, Marsha E Bates
OBJECTIVE: It has been nearly 15 years since Kazdin and Nock published methodological and research recommendations for understanding mechanisms of change in child and adolescent therapy. Their arguments and enthusiasm for research on mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs) resonated across disciplines and disorders, as it shined a light on the crucial importance of understanding how and for whom treatments instigate behavior change and how therapeutic mechanisms might be extended to "situations and settings of everyday life...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Ingela Fredriksson, Susanna Geidne, Charli Eriksson
AIMS: The aim of this paper is to advocate for the importance of meaningful leisure time for young people from a health-promotion perspective using experiences from two youth centres in multicultural neighbourhoods in Sweden. METHODS: In this practice-based study, data were collected between 2012 and 2014 at two youth centres in multicultural, socially deprived suburbs in Sweden using surveys with 12- to 16-year-old adolescents ( n = 207), seven individual interviews with staff and three cooperation partners in the neighbourhoods, and six group interviews with adolescents (50% girls)...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Nelli Lyyra, Raili Välimaa, Jorma Tynjälä
AIM: The first aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of loneliness and subjective health complaints (SHCs) among school-aged children in Finland. The second aim was to analyse to what extent perceived loneliness explains any variance in SHCs among school-aged children. METHOD: A representative sample of 5925 Finnish children and adolescents from grades 5 ( Mage =11.8 years), 7 ( Mage =13.8) and 9 ( Mage =15.8) completed the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Bente Wold, Maurice B Mittelmark
AIMS: This debate paper traces the development of innovative methods for undertaking health promotion research with a socialecological orientation, with a few examples drawn from 30 years of research on adolescent health promotion research at the University of Bergen. CONCLUSION: We aim to show how the social-ecological model is becoming more evident as a guide to research, using three cases that illustrate progress and potential. The first case is the Norwegian part of the European Network of Health Promoting Schools...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Paul C Helm, Sebastian Kempert, Marc-André Körten, Wiebke Lesch, Katharina Specht, Ulrike M M Bauer
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) and their families require qualified combined medical and psychosocial information, care, and counseling. This study aimed to analyze CHD patients' and parents' perception of disease-specific knowledge, state of health, and impairments experienced in everyday life, as well as factors influencing these perceptions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses were based on a survey among patients/parents recruited via the German National Register for Congenital Heart Defects (NRCHD)...
January 25, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
Cameron Laue, Marcus Griffey, Ping-I Lin, Kirk Wallace, Menno van der Schoot, Paul Horn, Ernest Pedapati, Drew Barzman
Social information processing theory hypothesizes that aggressive children pay more attention to cues of hostility and threat in others' behavior, consequently leading to over-interpretation of others' behavior as hostile. While there is abundant evidence of aggressive children demonstrating hostile attribution biases, less well documented is whether such biases stem from over-attendance and hypersensitivity to hostile cues in social situations. Over-attendance to hostile cues would be typified by deviations at any stage of the multi-stage process of social information processing models...
March 19, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
Mika J Mäkelä, Pär Gyllfors, Erkka Valovirta, Maria A Steffensen, Pernille M Grønager, Johannes Savolainen, Lone Winther
PURPOSE: The SQ tree sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet containing allergen extracts with the major allergen Bet v 1 from birch pollen is currently being developed for the treatment of tree pollen-induced allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis with or without asthma. The aim of this Phase II trial was to investigate the dose-related efficacy and safety of the SQ tree SLIT-tablet. METHODS: This study was a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-national trial conducted in Europe...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Danielle Gulick, Joshua J Gamsby
Although potent effects of psychoactive drugs on circadian rhythms were first described over 30 years ago, research into the reciprocal relationship between the reward system and the circadian system - and the impact of this relationship on addiction - has only become a focus in the last decade. Nonetheless, great progress has been made in that short time toward understanding how drugs of abuse impact the molecular and physiological circadian clocks, as well as how disruption of normal circadian rhythm biology may contribute to addiction and ameliorate the efficacy of treatments for addiction...
March 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Trevor G Mazzucchelli, Marian Jenkins, Kate Sofronoff
BACKGROUND: Many parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report that they are ill-equipped to support their children's behaviour, and these youths are known to be at substantially greater risk of emotional or behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. There is a need for an efficient and tailored parenting program for parents of adolescents with ASD that includes guidance on how to best support these youths' development and well-being. AIMS: The current study examined the feasibility of Building Bridges Triple P (BBTP), an eight-week (11...
March 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Jonika Tannous, Henrique Amaral-Silva, Bo Cao, Mon-Ju Wu, Giovana B Zunta-Soares, Iram Kazimi, Cristian Zeni, Benson Mwangi, Jair C Soares
The hippocampus has been implicated in various mood disorders, with global volume deficits consistently found in patient populations. The hippocampus, however, consists of anatomically distinct subfields, and examination of specific subfield differences may elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms behind psychiatric pathologies. Indeed, adult studies have reported smaller hippocampal subfield volumes in regions within the cornu ammonis (CA1 and CA4), dentate gyrus (DG), and hippocampal tails in both patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Amanda M Kalamar, Özge Tunçalp, Michelle J Hindin
OBJECTIVE: We explore the patterns of adolescents' need for contraception in 46 low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys, we estimate the prevalence of never-use, ever-use and current contraceptive use of sexually active adolescent girls, ages 15-19. We use weighted fixed effects meta-analytic techniques to estimate summary measures. Finally, we highlight country profiles of adolescent contraceptive use. RESULTS: More than half (54...
March 14, 2018: Contraception
Bridget Linehan Logan, Lynn Foster-Johnson, Eleni Zotos
BACKGROUND: A collection of studies have demonstrated that approximately one-third of female nulliparous athletes experience urinary incontinence during their athletic activities. Contributing factors of incontinence that have thus far been the focus of study include type of sport, duration and intensity of athletic activity, use of hormonal contraception, and weight. There has, as yet, been a notable underemphasis on several other factors which influence incontinence, including bowel pattern, urinary habits, and menstrual status...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Saeko Takada, Satomi Kameoka, Makiko Okuyama, Takeo Fujiwara, Junko Yagi, Yoshitaka Iwadare, Hiroaki Honma, Hirohumi Mashiko, Keizo Nagao, Takeshi Fujibayashi, Yasuko Asano, Sayaka Yamamoto, Tomoko Osawa, Hiroshi Kato
The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index for DSM-5 (PTSD-RI-5) among Japanese youth. This is the first study to explore psychometrics of the DSM-5 version of the PTSD-RI-5, as well as the first multisite study of an Asian population. This article presents psychometric characteristics of the PTSD-RI-5 derived from a sample of Japanese children and adolescents (N = 318). The PTSD-RI-5 total scale displayed good internal consistency reliability (α = 0...
March 3, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Maretha Visser, Tonya R Thurman, Alexandra Spyrelis, Tory M Taylor, Johanna K Nice, Michelle Finestone
Preventing HIV among young people is critical to achieving and sustaining global epidemic control. Evidence from Western settings suggests that family-centred prevention interventions may be associated with greater reductions in risk behaviour than standard adolescent-only models. Despite this, family-centred models for adolescent HIV prevention are nearly non-existent in South Africa - home to more people living with HIV than any other country. This paper describes the development and formative evaluation of one such intervention: an evidence-informed, locally relevant, adolescent prevention intervention engaging caregivers as co-participants...
March 6, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Mery Munoz-Persy, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a unique form of non-IgE-mediated food allergy characterized by esophageal eosinophilic infiltration that commonly causes dysphagia and food impaction in children and adolescents. Assessing the efficacy of dietary restrictions or drug therapies to achieve clinical and histologic resolution of EoE through randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses has resulted in new evidence-based guidelines. Avoiding food triggers is the only therapy targeting the cause of the disease...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Yasodha Maheshi Rohanachandra, Shamini Prathapan, Gampolage Swarna Wijetunge
INTRODUCTION: Maternal depression has been shown to be associated with neurodevelopmental, emotional and behavioural disorders in offspring. We aimed to describe the proportion of psychological problems among children of mothers with depression in Sri Lanka and to describe the association with the characteristics of the mothers' illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 100 children and adolescents between 4-16 years whose mother has a diagnosis of depression and currently in remission...
March 3, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Grace Guerrero-Ramírez, Eduardo Cumba-Avilés
OBJECTIVE: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may experience significant changes in their daily routines due to this condition, which frequently results in depressive symptoms and the deterioration of their quality of life. We examined the factors associated with suicidal ideation (SI) and diabetes-related quality of life (DRQOL) in adolescents (aged 12 to 17) with T1D. METHODS: The sample consisted of 51 youths (29 girls) recruited during a treatment study for depression...
2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Thomas Joshua Pasvol, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful roll-out of paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant increase in survival of adolescents and young people growing up with HIV. Those on suppressive ART since childhood represent a unique group particularly well positioned to interrupt ART and achieve post-treatment control (PTC), or HIV remission. This maybe a consequence of early and sustained treatment since infancy, the small size of the HIV reservoir, the presence of a functioning thymus and a more 'flexible' immune system better able to respond to novel immune therapeutic interventions when compared with adults who acquired HIV at a time of immunological maturity and thymic involution...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Madelyne A Bisby, Kathryn D Baker, Rick Richardson
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are considered critical for the consolidation of extinction but recent work challenges this assumption. Namely, NMDARs are not required for extinction retention in infant rats as well as when extinction training occurs for a second time (i.e., reextinction) in adult rats. In this study, a possible third instance of NMDAR-independent extinction was tested. Although adolescents typically exhibit impaired extinction retention, rats that are conditioned as juveniles and then given extinction training as adolescents (JuvCond-AdolesExt) have good extinction retention...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
Israel Agaku, Satomi Odani, Constantine Vardavas, Linda Neff
BACKGROUND: We investigated tobacco-related self-identity and risk perceptions among adolescent tobacco users. METHODS: Data were analyzed for 20 675 US sixth- to 12th-graders from the 2016 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Students who reported past-30-day use of a specific tobacco product or ≥2 products but denied having used "any tobacco product" in the past 30 days were classified as not self-identifying as tobacco users. Tobacco product harm perceptions were further assessed across products...
March 15, 2018: Pediatrics
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