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"Adult autism"

Rachel Grove, Rosa A Hoekstra, Marlies Wierda, Sander Begeer
Special interests form part of the core features of autism. However, to date there has been limited research focusing on the role of special interests in the lives of autistic adults. This study surveyed autistic adults on their special interest topics, intensity, and motivation. It also assessed the relationship between special interests and a range of quality of life measures including subjective wellbeing and domain specific life satisfaction. About two thirds of the sample reported having a special interest, with relatively more males reporting a special interest than females...
February 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Shaun M Eack, Susan S Hogarty, Deborah P Greenwald, Maralee Y Litschge, Shannondora A Porton, Carla A Mazefsky, Nancy J Minshew
Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to treating core cognitive deficits in adults with autism, but rigorously controlled trials of comprehensive interventions that target both social and non-social cognition over a sufficient period of time to impact functioning are lacking. This study examined the efficacy of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) for improving core cognitive and employment outcomes in adult autism. Verbal adult outpatients with autism spectrum disorder (N = 54) were randomized to an 18-month, single-blind trial of CET, a cognitive remediation approach that integrates computer-based neurocognitive training with group-based training in social cognition, or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) comparison focused on psychoeducation and condition management...
December 29, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Julia Horta Tabosa do Egito, Gabrielle Martins Ribeiro Ferreira, Manoela Izidoro Gonçalves, Ana Alexandra Caldas Osório
This study examined the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. This is a self-report questionnaire for continuous and quantitative assessment of autistic spectrum traits in adults. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the five-factor model (social skill, attention switching, attention to detail, communication and imagination) proposed by the original authors, support not being found for this model in our sample. An exploratory factor analysis was then performed that resulted in an alternative three-factor model (social skills, details/patterns and imagination)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Helen McConachie, David Mason, Jeremy R Parr, Deborah Garland, Colin Wilson, Jacqui Rodgers
Accurate measurement of quality of life (QoL) is important for evaluation of autism services and trials of interventions. We undertook psychometric validation of the World Health Organisation measure-WHOQoL-BREF, examined construct validity of the WHO Disabilities module and developed nine additional autism-specific items (ASQoL) from extensive consultation with the autism community. The sample of 309 autistic people was recruited from the Adult Autism Spectrum Cohort-UK. The WHOQoL-BREF had good psychometric properties, including criterion, convergent, divergent and discriminant validity...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
L Dell'Osso, C Gesi, E Massimetti, I M Cremone, M Barbuti, G Maccariello, I Moroni, S Barlati, G Castellini, M Luciano, L Bossini, M Rocchetti, M Signorelli, E Aguglia, A Fagiolini, P Politi, V Ricca, A Vita, C Carmassi, M Maj
AIM: Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to autism. The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), a new questionnaire specifically tailored to assess subthreshold forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adulthood. METHODS: 102 adults endorsing at least one DSM-5 symptom criterion for ASD (ASDc), 143 adults diagnosed with a feeding and eating disorder (FED), and 160 subjects with no mental disorders (CTL), were recruited from 7 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and administered the following: SCID-5, Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale 14-item version (RAADS-14), and AdAS Spectrum...
February 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Liliana Dell'Osso, Riccardo Dalle Luche, Camilla Gesi, Ilenia Moroni, Claudia Carmassi, Mario Maj
Growing interest has recently been devoted to partial forms of autism, lying at the diagnostic boundaries of those conditions previously diagnosed as Asperger's Disorder. This latter includes an important retrieval of the European classical psychopathological concepts of adult autism to which Hans Asperger referred in his work. Based on the review of Asperger's Autistische Psychopathie, from first descriptions through the DSM-IV Asperger's Disorder and up to the recent DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder, the paper aims to propose a Subthreshold Autism Spectrum Model that encompasses not only threshold-level manifestations but also mild/atypical symptoms, gender-specific features, behavioral manifestations and personality traits associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder...
2016: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Richard J E James, Indu Dubey, Danielle Smith, Danielle Ropar, Richard J Tunney
Autistic traits are widely thought to operate along a continuum. A taxometric analysis of Adult Autism Spectrum Quotient data was conducted to test this assumption, finding little support but identifying a high severity taxon. To understand this further, latent class and latent profile models were estimated that indicated the presence of six distinct subtypes: one with little probability of endorsing any autistic traits, one engaging in 'systemising' behaviours, three groups endorsing multiple components of Wing and Gould's autistic triad, and a group similar in size and profile to the taxon previously identified...
December 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Maria Rhode
This paper addresses factors other than symbolic capacity that can influence the use of language by children on the autism spectrum. Chief among the issues considered are the influence of bodily experience on the articulation of words and the influence of fantasies concerning bodily relationships on the construction of words and sentences. It is suggested that such considerations may shed light on the behavior of those children on the autism spectrum whose symbolic capacity is greater than might be assumed from their use of language, and also on that of some children with selective mutism...
2015: Psychoanalytic Study of the Child
Beth Ward, Brianna Smith Tanner, Barbara Mandleco, Tina T Dyches, Donna Freeborn
Like other young people, those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an impact on siblings in both positive and negative ways. Research indicates positive attributes include maturity and responsibility; positive self-concept; less quarrelling and competition; admiration for the person with ASD; and satisfactory sibling relationships. Negative attributes include fear of frightening or violent behavior, decreased sibling intimacy, and social and emotional difficulties. However, most research relies on information from parents/teachers, rather than from siblings...
March 2016: Pediatric Nursing
Noriaki Yahata, Jun Morimoto, Ryuichiro Hashimoto, Giuseppe Lisi, Kazuhisa Shibata, Yuki Kawakubo, Hitoshi Kuwabara, Miho Kuroda, Takashi Yamada, Fukuda Megumi, Hiroshi Imamizu, José E Náñez, Hidehiko Takahashi, Yasumasa Okamoto, Kiyoto Kasai, Nobumasa Kato, Yuka Sasaki, Takeo Watanabe, Mitsuo Kawato
Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious lifelong condition, its underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. Recently, neuroimaging-based classifiers for ASD and typically developed (TD) individuals were developed to identify the abnormality of functional connections (FCs). Due to over-fitting and interferential effects of varying measurement conditions and demographic distributions, no classifiers have been strictly validated for independent cohorts. Here we overcome these difficulties by developing a novel machine-learning algorithm that identifies a small number of FCs that separates ASD versus TD...
April 14, 2016: Nature Communications
Karson T F Kung, Mihaela Constantinescu, Wendy V Browne, Rebecca M Noorderhaven, Melissa Hines
BACKGROUND: Some previous research has suggested that testosterone prenatally contributes to gender differences in autistic traits, but little is known about the role of testosterone during early postnatal development (mini-puberty). Two prior studies found no sex difference in testosterone postnatally in saliva samples and detected little to no relationship between testosterone postnatally and autistic traits in toddlers. These findings may reflect late measurements of testosterone at 3 to 4 months of age, after the peak of mini-puberty at 1 to 3 months of age...
2016: Molecular Autism
Renata Basso Cupertino, Djenifer B Kappel, Cibele Edom Bandeira, Jaqueline Bohrer Schuch, Bruna Santos da Silva, Diana Müller, Claiton Henrique Dotto Bau, Nina Roth Mota
Multiple biological processes throughout development require intracellular vesicular trafficking, where the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (SNAP) receptors) complex plays a major role. The core proteins forming the SNARE complex are SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein 25), VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein) and Syntaxins, besides its regulatory proteins, such as Synaptotagmin. Genes encoding these proteins (SNAP25, VAMP1, VAMP2, STX1A, SYT1 and SYT2) have been studied in relation to psychiatric disorders susceptibility...
August 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Bruno Wicker, Elisabetta Monfardini, Jean-Pierre Royet
BACKGROUND: As evidenced in the DSM-V, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often characterized by atypical sensory behavior (hyper- or hypo-reactivity), but very few studies have evaluated olfactory abilities in individuals with ASD. METHODS: Fifteen adults with ASD and 15 typically developing participants underwent olfactory tests focused on superficial (suprathreshold detection task), perceptual (intensity and pleasantness judgment tasks), and semantic (identification task) odor processing...
2016: Molecular Autism
Ina Peiker, Nicole David, Till R Schneider, Guido Nolte, Daniel Schöttle, Andreas K Engel
UNLABELLED: The integration of visual details into a holistic percept is essential for object recognition. This integration has been reported as a key deficit in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The weak central coherence account posits an altered disposition to integrate features into a coherent whole in ASD. Here, we test the hypothesis that such weak perceptual coherence may be reflected in weak neural coherence across different cortical sites. We recorded magnetoencephalography from 20 adult human participants with ASD and 20 matched controls, who performed a slit-viewing paradigm, in which objects gradually passed behind a vertical or horizontal slit so that only fragments of the object were visible at any given moment...
December 16, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mingjing Situ, Xiao Hu, Jia Cai, Kuifang Guo, Yi Huang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between the behavior phenotypes of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents through family study. METHODS: Forty-five core families with ASD and 30 control families from Chengdu area were examined using Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis, and Logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the effect of various factors, especially genetic factors that may affect the pathogenesis of ASD...
December 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Debra D'Angelo, Sébastien Lebon, Qixuan Chen, Sandra Martin-Brevet, LeeAnne Green Snyder, Loyse Hippolyte, Ellen Hanson, Anne M Maillard, W Andrew Faucett, Aurélien Macé, Aurélie Pain, Raphael Bernier, Samuel J R A Chawner, Albert David, Joris Andrieux, Elizabeth Aylward, Genevieve Baujat, Ines Caldeira, Philippe Conus, Carrina Ferrari, Francesca Forzano, Marion Gérard, Robin P Goin-Kochel, Ellen Grant, Jill V Hunter, Bertrand Isidor, Aurélia Jacquette, Aia E Jønch, Boris Keren, Didier Lacombe, Cédric Le Caignec, Christa Lese Martin, Katrin Männik, Andres Metspalu, Cyril Mignot, Pratik Mukherjee, Michael J Owen, Marzia Passeggeri, Caroline Rooryck-Thambo, Jill A Rosenfeld, Sarah J Spence, Kyle J Steinman, Jennifer Tjernagel, Mieke Van Haelst, Yiping Shen, Bogdan Draganski, Elliott H Sherr, David H Ledbetter, Marianne B M van den Bree, Jacques S Beckmann, John E Spiro, Alexandre Reymond, Sébastien Jacquemont, Wendy K Chung
IMPORTANCE: The 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 duplication is the copy number variant most frequently associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and comorbidities such as decreased body mass index (BMI). OBJECTIVES: To characterize the effects of the 16p11.2 duplication on cognitive, behavioral, medical, and anthropometric traits and to understand the specificity of these effects by systematically comparing results in duplication carriers and reciprocal deletion carriers, who are also at risk for ASD...
January 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Mark Plitt, Kelly Anne Barnes, Gregory L Wallace, Lauren Kenworthy, Alex Martin
Although typically identified in early childhood, the social communication symptoms and adaptive behavior deficits that are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) persist throughout the lifespan. Despite this persistence, even individuals without cooccurring intellectual disability show substantial heterogeneity in outcomes. Previous studies have found various behavioral assessments [such as intelligence quotient (IQ), early language ability, and baseline autistic traits and adaptive behavior scores] to be predictive of outcome, but most of the variance in functioning remains unexplained by such factors...
December 1, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M Sunbul, E A Sunbul, B Kanar, O Yanartas, S Aydin, A Bacak, H Gulec, I Sari
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by reductions in breathing amplitude during sleep caused by an obstructed or collapsed upper airway. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed as a novel biomarker for systemic inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between NLR and OSA. METHODS: The study population consisted of 195 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of OSA. Full night polysomnography was performed for all patients...
2015: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Shuo Wang, Ming Jiang, Xavier Morin Duchesne, Elizabeth A Laugeson, Daniel P Kennedy, Ralph Adolphs, Qi Zhao
The social difficulties that are a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are thought to arise, at least in part, from atypical attention toward stimuli and their features. To investigate this hypothesis comprehensively, we characterized 700 complex natural scene images with a novel three-layered saliency model that incorporated pixel-level (e.g., contrast), object-level (e.g., shape), and semantic-level attributes (e.g., faces) on 5,551 annotated objects. Compared with matched controls, people with ASD had a stronger image center bias regardless of object distribution, reduced saliency for faces and for locations indicated by social gaze, and yet a general increase in pixel-level saliency at the expense of semantic-level saliency...
November 4, 2015: Neuron
Kitty-Rose Foley, Julian Trollor
BACKGROUND: Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may require medical assessment and care, especially for mental health conditions. Although substantial knowledge and resources are available regarding the management of mental ill health in children with ASD, substantial gaps remain for adults with ASD. Diagnostic overshadowing, limitations of communication skills and the heterogeneous nature of this patient population can make practice in this area more challenging, and can contribute to poorer outcomes, including overprescribing of psychotropic medications...
2015: Australian Family Physician
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