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"Adult autism"

Richard J E James, Indu Dubey, Danielle Smith, Danielle Ropar, Richard J Tunney
Autistic traits are widely thought to operate along a continuum. A taxometric analysis of Adult Autism Spectrum Quotient data was conducted to test this assumption, finding little support but identifying a high severity taxon. To understand this further, latent class and latent profile models were estimated that indicated the presence of six distinct subtypes: one with little probability of endorsing any autistic traits, one engaging in 'systemising' behaviours, three groups endorsing multiple components of Wing and Gould's autistic triad, and a group similar in size and profile to the taxon previously identified...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Maria Rhode
This paper addresses factors other than symbolic capacity that can influence the use of language by children on the autism spectrum. Chief among the issues considered are the influence of bodily experience on the articulation of words and the influence of fantasies concerning bodily relationships on the construction of words and sentences. It is suggested that such considerations may shed light on the behavior of those children on the autism spectrum whose symbolic capacity is greater than might be assumed from their use of language, and also on that of some children with selective mutism...
2015: Psychoanalytic Study of the Child
Beth Ward, Brianna Smith Tanner, Barbara Mandleco, Tina T Dyches, Donna Freeborn
Like other young people, those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an impact on siblings in both positive and negative ways. Research indicates positive attributes include maturity and responsibility; positive self-concept; less quarrelling and competition; admiration for the person with ASD; and satisfactory sibling relationships. Negative attributes include fear of frightening or violent behavior, decreased sibling intimacy, and social and emotional difficulties. However, most research relies on information from parents/teachers, rather than from siblings...
March 2016: Pediatric Nursing
Noriaki Yahata, Jun Morimoto, Ryuichiro Hashimoto, Giuseppe Lisi, Kazuhisa Shibata, Yuki Kawakubo, Hitoshi Kuwabara, Miho Kuroda, Takashi Yamada, Fukuda Megumi, Hiroshi Imamizu, José E Náñez, Hidehiko Takahashi, Yasumasa Okamoto, Kiyoto Kasai, Nobumasa Kato, Yuka Sasaki, Takeo Watanabe, Mitsuo Kawato
Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious lifelong condition, its underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. Recently, neuroimaging-based classifiers for ASD and typically developed (TD) individuals were developed to identify the abnormality of functional connections (FCs). Due to over-fitting and interferential effects of varying measurement conditions and demographic distributions, no classifiers have been strictly validated for independent cohorts. Here we overcome these difficulties by developing a novel machine-learning algorithm that identifies a small number of FCs that separates ASD versus TD...
2016: Nature Communications
Karson T F Kung, Mihaela Constantinescu, Wendy V Browne, Rebecca M Noorderhaven, Melissa Hines
BACKGROUND: Some previous research has suggested that testosterone prenatally contributes to gender differences in autistic traits, but little is known about the role of testosterone during early postnatal development (mini-puberty). Two prior studies found no sex difference in testosterone postnatally in saliva samples and detected little to no relationship between testosterone postnatally and autistic traits in toddlers. These findings may reflect late measurements of testosterone at 3 to 4 months of age, after the peak of mini-puberty at 1 to 3 months of age...
2016: Molecular Autism
Renata Basso Cupertino, Djenifer B Kappel, Cibele Edom Bandeira, Jaqueline Bohrer Schuch, Bruna Santos da Silva, Diana Müller, Claiton Henrique Dotto Bau, Nina Roth Mota
Multiple biological processes throughout development require intracellular vesicular trafficking, where the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (SNAP) receptors) complex plays a major role. The core proteins forming the SNARE complex are SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein 25), VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein) and Syntaxins, besides its regulatory proteins, such as Synaptotagmin. Genes encoding these proteins (SNAP25, VAMP1, VAMP2, STX1A, SYT1 and SYT2) have been studied in relation to psychiatric disorders susceptibility...
August 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Bruno Wicker, Elisabetta Monfardini, Jean-Pierre Royet
BACKGROUND: As evidenced in the DSM-V, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often characterized by atypical sensory behavior (hyper- or hypo-reactivity), but very few studies have evaluated olfactory abilities in individuals with ASD. METHODS: Fifteen adults with ASD and 15 typically developing participants underwent olfactory tests focused on superficial (suprathreshold detection task), perceptual (intensity and pleasantness judgment tasks), and semantic (identification task) odor processing...
2016: Molecular Autism
Ina Peiker, Nicole David, Till R Schneider, Guido Nolte, Daniel Schöttle, Andreas K Engel
UNLABELLED: The integration of visual details into a holistic percept is essential for object recognition. This integration has been reported as a key deficit in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The weak central coherence account posits an altered disposition to integrate features into a coherent whole in ASD. Here, we test the hypothesis that such weak perceptual coherence may be reflected in weak neural coherence across different cortical sites. We recorded magnetoencephalography from 20 adult human participants with ASD and 20 matched controls, who performed a slit-viewing paradigm, in which objects gradually passed behind a vertical or horizontal slit so that only fragments of the object were visible at any given moment...
December 16, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mingjing Situ, Xiao Hu, Jia Cai, Kuifang Guo, Yi Huang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between the behavior phenotypes of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents through family study. METHODS: Forty-five core families with ASD and 30 control families from Chengdu area were examined using Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis, and Logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the effect of various factors, especially genetic factors that may affect the pathogenesis of ASD...
December 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Debra D'Angelo, Sébastien Lebon, Qixuan Chen, Sandra Martin-Brevet, LeeAnne Green Snyder, Loyse Hippolyte, Ellen Hanson, Anne M Maillard, W Andrew Faucett, Aurélien Macé, Aurélie Pain, Raphael Bernier, Samuel J R A Chawner, Albert David, Joris Andrieux, Elizabeth Aylward, Genevieve Baujat, Ines Caldeira, Philippe Conus, Carrina Ferrari, Francesca Forzano, Marion Gérard, Robin P Goin-Kochel, Ellen Grant, Jill V Hunter, Bertrand Isidor, Aurélia Jacquette, Aia E Jønch, Boris Keren, Didier Lacombe, Cédric Le Caignec, Christa Lese Martin, Katrin Männik, Andres Metspalu, Cyril Mignot, Pratik Mukherjee, Michael J Owen, Marzia Passeggeri, Caroline Rooryck-Thambo, Jill A Rosenfeld, Sarah J Spence, Kyle J Steinman, Jennifer Tjernagel, Mieke Van Haelst, Yiping Shen, Bogdan Draganski, Elliott H Sherr, David H Ledbetter, Marianne B M van den Bree, Jacques S Beckmann, John E Spiro, Alexandre Reymond, Sébastien Jacquemont, Wendy K Chung
IMPORTANCE: The 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 duplication is the copy number variant most frequently associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and comorbidities such as decreased body mass index (BMI). OBJECTIVES: To characterize the effects of the 16p11.2 duplication on cognitive, behavioral, medical, and anthropometric traits and to understand the specificity of these effects by systematically comparing results in duplication carriers and reciprocal deletion carriers, who are also at risk for ASD...
January 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Mark Plitt, Kelly Anne Barnes, Gregory L Wallace, Lauren Kenworthy, Alex Martin
Although typically identified in early childhood, the social communication symptoms and adaptive behavior deficits that are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) persist throughout the lifespan. Despite this persistence, even individuals without cooccurring intellectual disability show substantial heterogeneity in outcomes. Previous studies have found various behavioral assessments [such as intelligence quotient (IQ), early language ability, and baseline autistic traits and adaptive behavior scores] to be predictive of outcome, but most of the variance in functioning remains unexplained by such factors...
December 1, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M Sunbul, E A Sunbul, B Kanar, O Yanartas, S Aydin, A Bacak, H Gulec, I Sari
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by reductions in breathing amplitude during sleep caused by an obstructed or collapsed upper airway. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed as a novel biomarker for systemic inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between NLR and OSA. METHODS: The study population consisted of 195 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of OSA. Full night polysomnography was performed for all patients...
2015: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Shuo Wang, Ming Jiang, Xavier Morin Duchesne, Elizabeth A Laugeson, Daniel P Kennedy, Ralph Adolphs, Qi Zhao
The social difficulties that are a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are thought to arise, at least in part, from atypical attention toward stimuli and their features. To investigate this hypothesis comprehensively, we characterized 700 complex natural scene images with a novel three-layered saliency model that incorporated pixel-level (e.g., contrast), object-level (e.g., shape), and semantic-level attributes (e.g., faces) on 5,551 annotated objects. Compared with matched controls, people with ASD had a stronger image center bias regardless of object distribution, reduced saliency for faces and for locations indicated by social gaze, and yet a general increase in pixel-level saliency at the expense of semantic-level saliency...
November 4, 2015: Neuron
Kitty-Rose Foley, Julian Trollor
BACKGROUND: Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may require medical assessment and care, especially for mental health conditions. Although substantial knowledge and resources are available regarding the management of mental ill health in children with ASD, substantial gaps remain for adults with ASD. Diagnostic overshadowing, limitations of communication skills and the heterogeneous nature of this patient population can make practice in this area more challenging, and can contribute to poorer outcomes, including overprescribing of psychotropic medications...
2015: Australian Family Physician
Hila Harris, David Israeli, Nancy Minshew, Yoram Bonneh, David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Dov Sagi
Inflexible behavior is a core characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but its underlying cause is unknown. Using a perceptual learning protocol, we observed initially efficient learning in ASD that was followed by anomalously poor learning when the location of the target was changed (over-specificity). Reducing stimulus repetition eliminated over-specificity. Our results indicate that inflexible behavior may be evident ubiquitously in ASD, even in sensory learning, but can be circumvented by specifically designed stimulation protocols...
November 2015: Nature Neuroscience
Eynat Gal, Efrat Selanikyo, Asnat Bar-Haim Erez, Noomi Katz
This study aimed to assess whether the perception of quality of life (QOL) and subjective well-being (SWB) of young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is affected by participation in a comprehensive program. Participants included 25 young adults with ASD who participated in the "Roim Rachok Program" (RRP), where they were trained to become aerial photography interpreters. Following the training period, they served in a designated army unit where they practiced their newly acquired profession. The participants filled out two questionnaires, (a) Quality of Life (QOL-Q) and (b) Personal Well-being Index (PWI), at three points of the intervention: (a) before the course, (b) at the end of the course, and (c) six months after integrating in the designated army unit...
September 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Liliana Dell'Osso, Riccardo Dalle Luche, Mario Maj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: CNS Spectrums
Shiming Tang, Ying Wang, Xuan Gong, Gaohua Wang
The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in offspring has been investigated in several studies, but the evidence is not conclusive. We, therefore, conducted this meta-analysis to explore whether an association exists between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring up to 10 June 2015. The random-effects model was used to combine results from individual studies...
September 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Takamitsu Watanabe, Miho Kuroda, Hitoshi Kuwabara, Yuta Aoki, Norichika Iwashiro, Natsubori Tatsunobu, Hidemasa Takao, Yasumasa Nippashi, Yuki Kawakubo, Akira Kunimatsu, Kiyoto Kasai, Hidenori Yamasue
Autism spectrum disorder is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with no established pharmacological treatment for its core symptoms. Although previous literature has shown that single-dose administration of oxytocin temporally mitigates autistic social behaviours in experimental settings, it remains in dispute whether such potentially beneficial responses in laboratories can result in clinically positive effects in daily life situations, which are measurable only in long-term observations of individuals with the developmental disorder undergoing continual oxytocin administration...
November 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Benjamin C Schwartzman, Jeffrey J Wood, Steven K Kapp
The present study aimed to: determine the extent to which the five factor model of personality (FFM) accounts for variability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in adults, examine differences in average FFM personality traits of adults with and without ASD and identify distinct behavioral phenotypes within ASD. Adults (N = 828; nASD = 364) completed an online survey with an autism trait questionnaire and an FFM personality questionnaire. FFM facets accounted for 70 % of variance in autism trait scores...
January 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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