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Developmental reflex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061376/visual-orienting-and-attention-deficits-in-5-and-10-month-old-preterm-infants
#1
Shannon Ross-Sheehy, Sammy Perone, Kelsi L Macek, Bret Eschman
Cognitive outcomes for children born prematurely are well characterized, including increased risk for deficits in memory, attention, processing speed, and executive function. However, little is known about deficits that appear within the first 12 months, and how these early deficits contribute to later outcomes. To probe for functional deficits in visual attention, preterm and full-term infants were tested at 5 and 10 months with the Infant Orienting With Attention task (IOWA; Ross-Sheehy, Schneegans and Spencer, 2015)...
January 3, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034711/ventilatory-and-chemoreceptor-responses-to-hypercapnia-in-neonatal-rats-chronically-exposed-to-moderate-hyperoxia
#2
Ryan W Bavis, Ke-Yong Li, Kathryn J DeAngelis, Ryan J March, Josefine A Wallace, Sarah Logan, Robert W Putnam
Rats reared in hyperoxia hypoventilate in normoxia and exhibit progressive blunting of the hypoxic ventilatory response, changes which are at least partially attributed to abnormal carotid body development. Since the carotid body also responds to changes in arterial CO2/pH, we tested the hypothesis that developmental hyperoxia would attenuate the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) of neonatal rats by blunting peripheral and/or central chemoreceptor responses to hypercapnic challenges. Rats were reared in 21% O2 (Control) or 60% O2 (Hyperoxia) until studied at 4, 6-7, or 13-14days of age...
December 26, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928634/pressurized-wideband-acoustic-stapedial-reflex-thresholds-normal-development-and-relationships-to-auditory-function-in-infants
#3
Lisa L Hunter, Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, Denis F Fitzpatrick
This study analyzed effects of pressurization on wideband acoustic stapedial-muscle reflex (ASR) tests in infants cared for in normal newborn (NN) and neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Effects of hearing-screening outcomes on ASR threshold measurements were also evaluated, and a subsequent longitudinal study established normative threshold ranges over the first year after birth. An initial experiment compared thresholds in newborns measured at ambient pressure in the ear canal and at the tympanometric peak pressure...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918171/the-complexities-of-power-in-feminist-multicultural-psychotherapy-supervision
#4
Alexis V Arczynski, Susan L Morrow
The goal of the present study was to understand how current feminist multicultural supervisors understand and implement their feminist multicultural principles into clinical supervision. We addressed this aim by answering the following research question: How do self-identified feminist multicultural psychotherapy supervisors conceptualize and practice feminist supervision that is explicitly multicultural? The perspectives of 14 participant supervisors were obtained by using semistructured initial interviews, follow-up interviews, and feedback interviews and were investigated via a feminist constructivist grounded theory design and analysis...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908562/ontogeny-of-sensorimotor-gating-and-short-term-memory-processing-throughout-the-adolescent-period-in-rats
#5
Anja A Goepfrich, Chris M Friemel, Sabina Pauen, Miriam Schneider
Adolescence and puberty are highly susceptible developmental periods during which the neuronal organization and maturation of the brain is completed. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, which is well known to modulate cognitive processing, undergoes profound and transient developmental changes during adolescence. With the present study we were aiming to examine the ontogeny of cognitive skills throughout adolescence in male rats and clarify the potential modulatory role of CB1 receptor signalling. Cognitive skills were assessed repeatedly every 10th day in rats throughout adolescence...
November 19, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843466/the-relationship-between-motor-function-and-behavioral-function-in-infants-with-low-birth-weight
#6
Malek Amini, Faranak Aliabadi, Mehdi Alizade, Majid Kalani, Mostafa Qorbani
OBJECTIVE: Nowadays, the evaluation of all aspects of infant development is important. However, in practice, some of these assessments, especially those requiring more manipulation on high-risk infants, may impose additional stress on them. Therefore, sometimes it is essential to utilize the results of a developmental assessment for the prediction of some other aspects of development. This study evaluated the relationship between the scores of the behavioral tests and the motor function test...
2016: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832268/an-active-efficient-coding-model-of-optokinetic-nystagmus
#7
Chong Zhang, Jochen Triesch, Bertram E Shi
Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is an involuntary eye movement responsible for stabilizing retinal images in the presence of relative motion between an observer and the environment. Fully understanding the development of OKN requires a neurally plausible computational model that accounts for the neural development and the behavior. To date, work in this area has been limited. We propose a neurally plausible framework for the joint development of disparity and motion tuning in the visual cortex and of optokinetic and vergence eye-movement behavior...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825732/cognitive-components-underpinning-the-development-of-model-based-learning
#8
Tracey C S Potter, Nessa V Bryce, Catherine A Hartley
Reinforcement learning theory distinguishes "model-free" learning, which fosters reflexive repetition of previously rewarded actions, from "model-based" learning, which recruits a mental model of the environment to flexibly select goal-directed actions. Whereas model-free learning is evident across development, recruitment of model-based learning appears to increase with age. However, the cognitive processes underlying the development of model-based learning remain poorly characterized. Here, we examined whether age-related differences in cognitive processes underlying the construction and flexible recruitment of mental models predict developmental increases in model-based choice...
October 29, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819443/error-related-brain-activity-is-related-to-aversive-potentiation-of-the-startle-response-in-children-but-only-the-ern-is-associated-with-anxiety-disorders
#9
Alexandria Meyer, Greg Hajcak, Catherine R Glenn, Autumn J Kujawa, Daniel N Klein
Identifying biomarkers that characterize developmental trajectories leading to anxiety disorders will likely improve early intervention strategies as well as increase our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. The error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential that occurs during error commission, is increased in anxious adults and children-and has been shown to predict the onset of anxiety disorders across childhood. The ERN has therefore been suggested as a biomarker of anxiety...
November 7, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812128/cognitive-control-of-saccadic-eye-movements-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder
#10
Claudia C Gonzalez, Mark Mon-Williams, Siobhan Burke, Melanie R Burke
The ability to use advance information to prepare and execute a movement requires cognitive control of behaviour (e.g., anticipation and inhibition). Our aim was to explore the integrity of saccadic eye movement control in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing (TD) children (8-12 years) and assess how these children plan and inhibit saccadic responses, the principal mechanisms within visual attention control. Eye movements and touch responses were measured (separately and concurrently) in Cued and Non-Cued conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783647/bumetanide-an-inhibitor-of-nkcc1-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-isoform-1-enhances-propofol-induced-loss-of-righting-reflex-but-not-its-immobilizing-actions-in-neonatal-rats
#11
Yukihide Koyama, Tomio Andoh, Yoshinori Kamiya, Tomoyuki Miyazaki, Koichi Maruyama, Takayuki Kariya, Takahisa Goto
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been shown to induce excitation on immature neurons due to increased expression of Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter isoform 1 (NKCC1), and the transition of GABAergic signaling from excitatory to inhibitory occurs before birth in the rat spinal cord and spreads rostrally according to the developmental changes in cation-chloride co-transporter expression. We previously showed that midazolam activates the hippocampal CA3 area and induces less sedation in neonatal rats compared with adolescent rats in an NKCC1-dependent manner...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764701/prenatal-paraquat-exposure-induces-neurobehavioral-and-cognitive-changes-in-mice-offspring
#12
Yassine Ait-Bali, Saadia Ba-M'hamed, Mohammed Bennis
In the present work, we investigated developmental toxicity of Paraquat (PQ), from the 1st or 6th day of mating and throughout the gestation period. We have examined several parameters, including toxicity indices, reproductive performance, sensorimotor development, as well as anxiety and cognitive performance of the offspring. Our results showed that exposure to 20mg/kg of Paraquat during the first days of pregnancy completely prevents pregnancy in treated mice, but from the 6th day of pregnancy, an alteration in fertility and reproductive parameters was observed...
December 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697304/neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-term-infants-with-perinatal-asphyxia-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-stage-ii
#13
Sudhir Adhikari, Kalipatnam Seshagiri Rao
BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) causes significant mortality and morbidity in developing countries. There is limited information about long term neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with neonatal encephalopathy. METHODS: Term infants with the diagnosis of perinatal asphyxia were followed up in neurodevelopmental clinics of Manipal Teaching hospital, Nepal. Study design was prospective mixed longitudinal study. Prematurity, major congenital malformations, other intracranial pathology, birth weight <2500g and chromosomal abnormalities were excluded...
February 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680547/chemosensory-epithelial-cells-in-the-urethra-sentinels-of-the-urinary-tract
#14
REVIEW
Klaus Deckmann, Wolfgang Kummer
A peculiar cell type of the respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia, originally termed "brush cell" or "tuft cell" by electron microscopists because of its apical tuft of microvilli, utilizes the canonical bitter taste transduction cascade known from oropharyngeal taste buds to detect potential hazardous compounds, e.g. bacterial products. Upon stimulation, this cell initiates protective reflexes and local inflammatory responses through release of acetylcholine and chemokines. Guided by the understanding of these cells as sentinels, they have been newly discovered at previously unrecognized anatomical locations, including the urethra...
December 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595468/persistent-primary-reflexes-affect-motor-acts-potential-implications-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Alice Chinello, Valentina Di Gangi, Eloisa Valenza
In typical motor development progress in use of goal-directed actions and communicative gestures depends on the inhibition of several primitive reflexes, especially those that involve the hand or mouth. This study explored the relationship between the persistence of primitive reflexes that involve the hand or mouth and the motor repertoire in a sample of 12- to 17-month-old infants. Moreover, since children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often have difficulty in performing skilled movements and show poor gesture repertoire, and since ASD represents the upper extreme of a constellation of traits that may be continuously distributed in the general population, we investigated the relationship between the persistence of primitive reflexes in the same sample of infants and the subclinical autistic traits measured in their parents...
August 29, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578980/vojta-method-in-the-treatment-of-developmental-hip-dysplasia-a-case-report
#16
Wojciech Kiebzak, Arkadiusz Żurawski, Michał Dwornik
BACKGROUND: Developmental dysplasia of the hip joint is one of the most common congenital defects and often results in functional and structural disorders. Such cases particularly demand optimizing therapeutic effects and maximally reducing the duration of therapy. PURPOSE: The aim of this case report is to present the therapeutic process in a child with developmental hip dysplasia. CASE REPORT: This is a case report of a female child with a birth weight of 2,800 g and an Apgar score of 9 points born to a gravida 3 para 3 mother at 37 weeks...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486377/long-term-changes-in-brain-cholinergic-system-and-behavior-in-rats-following-gestational-exposure-to-lead-protective-effect-of-calcium-supplement
#17
Chand D Basha, Rajarami G Reddy
Our earlier studies showed that lactational exposure to lead (Pb) caused irreversible neurochemical alterations in rats. The present study was carried out to examine whether gestational exposure to Pb can cause long-term changes in the brain cholinergic system and behavior of rats. The protective effect of calcium (Ca) supplementation against Pb toxicity was also examined. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.2% Pb (Pb acetate in drinking water) from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 21. The results showed decrease in body weight gain (GD 6-21) of dams, whereas no changes were observed in offspring body weight at different postnatal days following Pb exposure...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469432/early-life-overnutrition-induced-by-litter-size-manipulation-decreases-social-play-behavior-in-adolescent-male-rats
#18
Ana Laura O Carvalho, Bárbara G Ferri, Francielly A Lopes de Sousa, Fabiana C Vilela, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva
Several studies have investigated the effects of artificial litter size adjustment on offspring development. Social play behavior is important for neurobehavioral development and is impaired in several developmental psychiatric disorders. This study therefore investigated the effect of litter size on play behavior in adolescent rats. On postnatal day (PND) 2, litters were adjusted to a small litter (SL) size of 3 pups per dam or normal litter (NL) size of 12 pups per dam. Maternal behaviors scored daily during the first week of lactation (PND2-8) revealed that arched nursing and pup licking behaviors were increased in dams with SLs versus those with NLs...
October 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465731/developmental-cardiorespiratory-physiology-of-the-air-breathing-tropical-gar-atractosteus-tropicus
#19
Warren W Burggren, Gil Martinez Bautista, Susana Camarillo Coop, Gabriel Márquez Couturier, Salomón Páramo Delgadillo, Rafael Martínez García, Carlos Alfonso Alvarez González
The physiological transition to aerial breathing in larval air-breathing fishes is poorly understood. We investigated gill ventilation frequency (fG), heart rate (fH), and air breathing frequency (fAB) as a function of development, activity, hypoxia, and temperature in embryos/larvae from day (D) 2.5 to D30 posthatch of the tropical gar, Atractosteus tropicus, an obligate air breather. Gill ventilation at 28°C began at approximately D2, peaking at ∼75 beats/min on D5, before declining to ∼55 beats/min at D30...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339692/adolescent-transitions-in-reflexive-and-non-reflexive-behavior-review-of-fear-conditioning-and-impulse-control-in-rodent-models
#20
REVIEW
Pamela S Hunt, Joshua A Burk, Robert C Barnet
Adolescence is a time of critical brain changes that pave the way for adult learning processes. However, the extent to which learning in adolescence is best characterized as a transitional linear progression from childhood to adulthood, or represents a period that differs from earlier and later developmental stages, remains unclear. Here we examine behavioral literature on associative fear conditioning and complex choice behavior with rodent models. Many aspects of fear conditioning are intact by adolescence and do not differ from adult patterns...
November 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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