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Developmental reflex

Jie Gao, Zhiqiang Hu, Liwei Shi, Na Li, Yeling Ouyang, Shaofang Shu, Shanglong Yao, Xiangdong Chen
It is widely accepted that the induction dose of anesthetics is higher in infants than in adults, although the relevant molecular mechanism remains elusive. We previously showed neuronal hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels contribute to hypnotic actions of propofol and ketamine. Interestingly, the expression of HCN channels in neocortex significantly changes during postnatal periods. Thus, we postulated that changes in HCN channels expression might contribute to sensitivity to intravenous anesthetics...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Yoyo T Y Cheng, William W N Tsang, Catherine Mary Schooling, Shirley S M Fong
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a common motor disorder affecting balance performance. However, few studies have investigated reactive balance performance and the underlying mechanisms in children with DCD. This study aimed to compare the reactive balance performance, lower limb muscle reflex contraction latency and attention level in response to unpredictable balance perturbations between 100 typically developing children and 120 children with DCD (with and without comorbid autism spectrum disorder) aged 6-9 years...
March 1, 2018: Gait & Posture
Jacob G McPherson, Albert Chen, Michael D Ellis, Jun Yao, C J Heckman, Julius P A Dewald
KEY POINTS: Activation of the shoulder abductor muscles in the arm opposite a unilateral brain injury causes involuntary increases in elbow, wrist and finger flexion in the same arm, a phenomenon referred to as the flexion synergy. It has been proposed that flexion synergy expression is related to reduced output from ipsilesional motor cortex and corticospinal pathways. In this human subjects study, we provide evidence that the magnitude of flexion synergy expression is instead related to a progressive, task-dependent recruitment of contralesional cortex...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Maxime Delcour, Vicky S Massicotte, Michaël Russier, Hélène Bras, Julie Peyronnet, Marie-Hélène Canu, Florence Cayetanot, Mary F Barbe, Jacques-Olivier Coq
Motor control and body representation in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as musculoskeletal architecture and physiology are shaped during development by sensorimotor experience and feedback, but the emergence of locomotor disorders during maturation and their persistence over time remain a matter of debate in the absence of brain damage. By using transient immobilization of the hind limbs, we investigated the enduring impact of postnatal sensorimotor restriction (SMR) on gait and posture on treadmill, age-related changes in locomotion, musculoskeletal histopathology and Hoffmann reflex in adult rats without brain damage...
February 13, 2018: Brain Pathology
Bérengère Laporte, Jérôme Gay-Quéheillard, Véronique Bach, Anne-Sophie Villégier
Today, developmental intellectual disorders affect one out of six children in industrialised countries. Intensively used in agriculture, the neurotoxicant pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) is known for its environmental persistence and bioaccumulation. Its role has not yet been established in the aetiology of intellectual impairments. Here we assessed whether maternal ingestion of low CPF dose in rats could impair the cerebral function of their progeny. Rat dams received daily CPF exposures (1 mg/kg, per os) during gestation and lactation...
January 25, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Gasem Mohammad Abu-Taweel
Cardamom is a strong antioxidant plant, so it is called the queen of spices. In the present study, we explored the potentials of cardamom on developmental, learning ability and biochemical parameters of mice offspring. Thirty pregnant mice were allocated to three groups of ten animals in each. Groups Π and Ш received pilsbury's Diet containing 10 and 20% of cardamom (w/w) respectively, whereas Group I used as control. Cardomom was administered from the first day of pregnancy and was continued until post-natal day 15 (PD 15) and thereafter the mothers were switched to plain pilsbury's Diet...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Pragati Sharma, Kim L Powell, Mary E Wlodek, Terence J O'Brien, Krista L Gilby
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant myelination and developmental delay have been reported in epilepsy. However, it is unclear whether these are linked to intrinsic mechanisms that support a predisposition toward seizures and the development of epilepsy. Thus, we compared rates of myelination and neurodevelopment in male rats selectively bred for enhanced susceptibility to kindling epileptogenesis (FAST) with male rats bred for resistance (SLOW). METHODS: Myelin-specific gene expression was compared in the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebral hemisphere of FAST and SLOW rats on postnatal days (PNDs) 5, 11, 17, 23, and 90 to determine strain-specific myelination rates...
January 28, 2018: Epilepsia
Justas Birgiolas, Christopher M Jernigan, Richard C Gerkin, Brian H Smith, Sharon M Crook
Many scientifically and agriculturally important insects use antennae to detect the presence of volatile chemical compounds and extend their proboscis during feeding. The ability to rapidly obtain high-resolution measurements of natural antenna and proboscis movements and assess how they change in response to chemical, developmental, and genetic manipulations can aid the understanding of insect behavior. By extending our previous work on assessing aggregate insect swarm or animal group movements from natural and laboratory videos using the video analysis software SwarmSight, we developed a novel, free, and open-source software module, SwarmSight Appendage Tracking (SwarmSight...
December 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jennifer Mitchell, Nicholas Boettcher-Sheard, Camille Duque, Bonnie Lashewicz
The purpose of this article is to illuminate our troubles with, and troubling of, the trustworthiness dimension of balancing subjectivity and reflexivity, in qualitative research. This article evolved from debriefing sessions between three novice researchers working on a qualitative research study aimed at building understandings of the relational dynamics between adults with developmental disability diagnoses (ADevD) and their caregiving families. Following data collection, coauthors discussed interview experiences they had personally found challenging...
December 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
Alzbeta Trancikova, Eva Kovacova, Fei Ru, Kristian Varga, Mariana Brozmanova, Milos Tatar, Marian Kollarik
BACKGROUND: Visceral pain is initiated by activation of primary afferent neurons among which the capsaicin-sensitive (TRPV1-positive) neurons play an important role. The stomach is a common source of visceral pain. Similar to other organs, the stomach receives dual spinal and vagal afferent innervation. Developmentally, spinal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and vagal jugular neurons originate from embryonic neural crest and vagal nodose neurons originate from placodes. In thoracic organs the neural crest- and placodes-derived TRPV1-positive neurons have distinct phenotypes differing in activation profile, neurotrophic regulation and reflex responses...
February 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Roberta Pineda, Joy Bender, Bailey Hall, Lisa Shabosky, Anna Annecca, Joan Smith
OBJECTIVE: To 1) define predictors of parent presence, any holding, holding in arms, and skin-to-skin care in the NICU and 2) investigate the relationships between parent participation and a) early neurobehavior and b) developmental outcomes at age 4 to 5years among preterm infants. METHODS: Eighty-one preterm infants born ≤32weeks estimated gestational age were prospectively enrolled within one week of life in a level III-IV NICU. Parent (maternal and paternal) presence and holding (including holding in arms and skin-to-skin care) were tracked throughout NICU hospitalization...
December 21, 2017: Early Human Development
Tatyana N Igonina, Diana S Ragaeva, Maria A Tikhonova, Olga M Petrova, Yuri E Herbeck, Irina N Rozhkova, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Sergey Ya Amstislavsky
Study of the developmental characteristics and mechanisms of senescence is an important field in brain aging research. The OXYS strain was selected from Wistar rats in Novosibirsk, and it serves as a rat model of accelerated aging. Previously, neurodegenerative processes and aberrant behavior were reported in experiments with adult OXYS rats. In our study, neurodevelopmental reflexes, neuronal density in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and global DNA methylation in the hippocampus are compared between OXYS and WAG (Wistar Albino Glaxo) neonatal pups...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
A Vincent, A AlAli, H MacDonald, C VandenHoven, E Héon
PurposeTo describe the ocular and systemic phenotype in IQCB1-related disease.MethodsFour cases (3 males, 1 female) with molecularly confirmed IQCB1-related disease underwent ophthalmological examination including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, fundus evaluation, electroretinography (ERG), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Systemic evaluation including abdominal ultrasound was performed in all cases.ResultsBCVA ranged from perception of light (Case-2; 1 year) to 20/125 (Case-1; 9 years)...
March 2018: Eye
Mohsin H Ali, Nathalie F Azar, Vinay Aakalu, Felix Y Chau, Javaneh Abbasian, Pete Setabutr, Irene H Maumenee
BACKGROUND: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome caused by a heterozygous deletion on chromosome 4p16.3 and is characterized by a "Greek warrior helmet" facies, hypotonia, developmental delay, seizures, structural central nervous system defects, intrauterine growth restriction, sketelal anomalies, cardiac defects, abnormal tooth development, and hearing loss. A variety of ocular manifestations may occur in up to 40% of patients. MATERIALS/METHODS: We report the genetic testing results, systemic findings, and complete ophthalmologic examination findings in a patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, including external photography, RetCam3 (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasonton, CA) goniography, and fundus photography...
April 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
Mohammad Ahmad
Mercury and its derivatives even in small concentration may cause a major human health problem. Though not reported in detail, there are various aquatic bacterial species that produce small quantities of methyl mercury (MM) growing under aerobic conditions. Consumption of food derived from sources contaminated with such bacteria within therapeutic doses and exposure to different forms of MM compounds through such sources may induce substantial toxic effects. In the present study, the perinatal oral exposure of pregnant mice to two strains of mercury resistant bacteria (MRB), Aeromonas KSU5 MRB and KSU6 MRB resulted in a significant reduction in postnatal body weight gain, delays in the opening of the eyes and appearance in the body hair fuzz, and deficits in the developing sensory motor reflexes in the mice pups during their weaning period on post-natal day (PD)7, PD14 and PD21...
January 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Randula Ranawaka, Kavinda Dayasiri, Manoji Gamage
BACKGROUND: Distal (Type 1) renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is characterized by inability to secrete hydrogen irons from the distal tubule. The aetiology of dRTA is diverse and can be either inherited or acquired. Common clinical presentations of dRTA in the paediatric age group include polyuria, nocturia, failure to thrive, constipation, abnormal breathing and nephrolithiasis. Though persistent hypokalemia is frequently seen in dRTA, hypokalemic muscular paralysis is uncommon and rarely described in children...
November 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Renjini Ramadasan-Nair, Jessica Hui, Pavel I Zimin, Leslie S Itsara, Philip G Morgan, Margaret M Sedensky
Knockout of the mitochondrial complex I protein, NDUFS4, profoundly increases sensitivity of mice to volatile anesthetics. In mice carrying an Ndufs4lox/lox gene, adeno-associated virus expressing Cre recombinase was injected into regions of the brain postulated to affect sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. These injections generated otherwise phenotypically wild type mice with region-specific, postnatal inactivation of Ndufs4, minimizing developmental effects of gene loss. Sensitivities to the volatile anesthetics isoflurane and halothane were measured using loss of righting reflex (LORR) and movement in response to tail clamp (TC) as endpoints...
2017: PloS One
Jean-Frederic Levesque, Mark F Harris, Cathie Scott, Benjamin Crabtree, William Miller, Lisa M Halma, William E Hogg, Jan-Willem Weenink, Jenny R Advocat, Jane Gunn, Grant Russell
Background: Inter-professional teamwork in primary care settings offers potential benefits for responding to the increasing complexity of patients' needs. While it is a central element in many reforms to primary care delivery, implementing inter-professional teamwork has proven to be more challenging than anticipated. Objective: The objective of this study was to better understand the dimensions and intensity of teamwork and the developmental process involved in creating fully integrated teams...
October 23, 2017: Family Practice
Mala Kumar, Shalini Tripathi, Himanshu Kumar, S N Singh
Background: The mortality of neonatal pyogenic meningitis is reduced to 10-15%, but morbidity is unchanged. Methods: Primary objective is to determine the outcome, i.e. death or abnormal neurological examination (NE) at discharge and abnormal developmental quotient (DQ) at 3 months. Secondary objective is to find predictors of poor outcome. Results: In all, 89 neonates enrolled, 10 expired and 24 neonates had abnormal NE at discharge. A total of 59 neonates came for follow up, 13 had DQ < 70...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Natalya S Tesdahl, Danielle K King, Latisha N McDaniel, Andrew A Pieper
Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in neonatal mice provide a means of modeling communication deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders. Mature mice deficient in SAP90/PSD95-associated protein 3 (SAPAP3) display compulsive grooming and anxiety-like behavior, conditions that are often associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. To date, however, aspects of neurodevelopment have not been investigated in SAPAP3-deficient mice. Here, we examined whether neonatal SAPAP3-deficient mice display altered USVs. We recorded USVs from 5-day-old sapap3 and sapap3 mice, and also monitored developmental reflexes in these mice during the early postnatal period...
December 6, 2017: Neuroreport
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