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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392009/genitourinary-and-gastrointestinal-co-morbidities-in-children-the-role-of-neural-circuits-in-regulation-of-visceral-function
#1
REVIEW
A P Malykhina, K E Brodie, D T Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) is a common problem in childhood. Lower urinary tract symptoms in children include overactive bladder, voiding postponement, stress incontinence, giggle incontinence, and dysfunctional voiding. Gastrointestinal co-morbidities, including constipation or fecal incontinence, are commonly associated with lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms in children, often reaching 22-34%. This review summarized the potential mechanisms underlying functional lower urinary and gastrointestinal co-morbidities in children...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343847/global-developmental-delay-and-intellectual-disability-associated-with-a-de-novo-top2b-mutation
#2
Ching-Wan Lam, Wai-Lan Yeung, Chun-Yiu Law
BACKGROUND: More than 100 genes had been identified for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). With the advancement of whole-exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS), disease-causing gene in ASD can be identified in a holistic and unbiased approach. The identification of new ASD genes can further explore the molecular basis of ASD. METHODS: We report a 15yo girl with developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, microcephaly and autistic feature. She first presented at 6months old with primitive response to noise...
March 23, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341233/neonatal-reflexes-and-behavior-in-hypertensive-rats-of-isiah-strain
#3
Diana S Ragaeva, Maria A Tikhonova, Olga M Petrova, Tatjana N Igonina, Irina N Rozkova, Eugeny Yu Brusentsev, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Sergey Ya Amstislavsky
Hypertension is one of the most common diseases in humans, and there is a special concern on the consequences of maternal hypertensive conditions for the health of newborns. An inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (ISIAH) rat strain has been selected but only a few studies have addressed behavior in these rats. Body weight, neurodevelopmental reflexes, and neuronal density in the hippocampus were compared in ISIAH and normotensive WAG rats during their suckling period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), adult rat performance in the open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), and novel object recognition (NOR) tests were evaluated at the age of 12-14weeks old...
March 21, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332011/delayed-otolith-development-does-not-impair-vestibular-circuit-formation-in-zebrafish
#4
Richard Roberts, Jeffrey Elsner, Martha W Bagnall
What is the role of normally patterned sensory signaling in development of vestibular circuits? For technical reasons, including the difficulty in depriving animals of vestibular inputs, this has been a challenging question to address. Here we take advantage of a vestibular-deficient zebrafish mutant, rock solo (AN66) , in order to examine whether normal sensory input is required for formation of vestibular-driven postural circuitry. We show that the rock solo (AN66) mutant is a splice site mutation in the secreted glycoprotein otogelin (otog), which we confirm through both whole genome sequencing and complementation with an otog early termination mutant...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330826/the-influence-of-methamphetamine-on-maternal-behavior-and-development-of-the-pups-during-the-neonatal-period
#5
Mária Ševčíková, Ivana Hrebíčková, Eva Macúchová, Romana Šlamberová
Since it enters breast milk, methamphetamine (MA) abuse during lactation can not only affect the quality of maternal behavior but also postnatal development of pups. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of injected MA (5mg/kg) on maternal behavior of rats and the differences in postnatal development, during postnatal days (PD) 1-11, of pups when the pups were directly exposed (i.e., injected) to MA or received MA indirectly via breast milk. Maternal behavior was examined using observation test (PD 1-22) and pup retrieval test (PD 1-12)...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241263/bridging-knowledge-gaps-to-understand-how-zika-virus-exposure-and-infection-affect-child-development
#6
Bill G Kapogiannis, Nahida Chakhtoura, Rohan Hazra, Catherine Y Spong
Importance: The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has profoundly affected the lives of children and families across the Americas. As the number of children born with ZIKV-related complications continues to grow, the long-term developmental trajectory for these children and the effect on their families remains largely unknown. In September 2016, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and partner National Institutes of Health institutes convened a workshop to develop a research agenda to improve the evaluation, monitoring, and management of neonates, infants, or children affected by ZIKV and its complications...
February 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182485/-wolves-canis-lupus-and-dogs-canis-familiaris-differ-in-following-human-gaze-into-distant-space-but-respond-similar-to-their-packmates-gaze-correction-to-werhahn-et-al-2016
#7
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze" by Geraldine Werhahn, Zsófia Virányi, Gabriela Barrera, Andrea Sommese and Friederike Range (Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2016[Aug], Vol 130[3], 288-298). In the article, the affiliations for the second and fifth authors should be Wolf Science Center, Ernstbrunn, Austria, and Comparative Cognition, Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna/ Medical University of Vienna/University of Vienna...
February 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168413/early-neurobehavioral-development-of-mice-lacking-endogenous-pacap
#8
Jozsef Farkas, Balazs Sandor, Andrea Tamas, Peter Kiss, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Andras D Nagy, Balazs D Fulop, Tamas Juhasz, Sridharan Manavalan, Dora Reglodi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide. In addition to its diverse physiological roles, PACAP has important functions in the embryonic development of various tissues, and it is also considered as a trophic factor during development and in the case of neuronal injuries. Data suggest that the development of the nervous system is severely affected by the lack of endogenous PACAP. Short-term neurofunctional outcome correlates with long-term functional deficits; however, the early neurobehavioral development of PACAP-deficient mice has not yet been evaluated...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141712/significant-sleep-dysregulation-in-a-toddler-with-developmental-delay
#9
Martin T Stein, Judith Owens, Myles Abbott
Derrick's parents made an appointment with a new pediatrician for a second opinion about disordered sleep. Now 22-months old, he was evaluated at 18 months of age for developmental delay when he was found to have "a regulatory disorder associated with delays in language and motor development, hypotonia and significant sleep problems." The parents are now most concerned about his sleeping pattern. Prolonged sleep onset and frequent night awaking occur each night since 6-months of age. These problems are more severe in the past few months when he awakes screaming and cannot be settled...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061376/visual-orienting-and-attention-deficits-in-5-and-10-month-old-preterm-infants
#10
Shannon Ross-Sheehy, Sammy Perone, Kelsi L Macek, Bret Eschman
Cognitive outcomes for children born prematurely are well characterized, including increased risk for deficits in memory, attention, processing speed, and executive function. However, little is known about deficits that appear within the first 12 months, and how these early deficits contribute to later outcomes. To probe for functional deficits in visual attention, preterm and full-term infants were tested at 5 and 10 months with the Infant Orienting With Attention task (IOWA; Ross-Sheehy, Schneegans and Spencer, 2015)...
January 3, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034711/ventilatory-and-chemoreceptor-responses-to-hypercapnia-in-neonatal-rats-chronically-exposed-to-moderate-hyperoxia
#11
Ryan W Bavis, Ke-Yong Li, Kathryn J DeAngelis, Ryan J March, Josefine A Wallace, Sarah Logan, Robert W Putnam
Rats reared in hyperoxia hypoventilate in normoxia and exhibit progressive blunting of the hypoxic ventilatory response, changes which are at least partially attributed to abnormal carotid body development. Since the carotid body also responds to changes in arterial CO2/pH, we tested the hypothesis that developmental hyperoxia would attenuate the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) of neonatal rats by blunting peripheral and/or central chemoreceptor responses to hypercapnic challenges. Rats were reared in 21% O2 (Control) or 60% O2 (Hyperoxia) until studied at 4, 6-7, or 13-14days of age...
March 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928634/pressurized-wideband-acoustic-stapedial-reflex-thresholds-normal-development-and-relationships-to-auditory-function-in-infants
#12
Lisa L Hunter, Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, Denis F Fitzpatrick
This study analyzed effects of pressurization on wideband acoustic stapedial-muscle reflex (ASR) tests in infants cared for in normal newborn (NN) and neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Effects of hearing-screening outcomes on ASR threshold measurements were also evaluated, and a subsequent longitudinal study established normative threshold ranges over the first year after birth. An initial experiment compared thresholds in newborns measured at ambient pressure in the ear canal and at the tympanometric peak pressure...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918171/the-complexities-of-power-in-feminist-multicultural-psychotherapy-supervision
#13
Alexis V Arczynski, Susan L Morrow
The goal of the present study was to understand how current feminist multicultural supervisors understand and implement their feminist multicultural principles into clinical supervision. We addressed this aim by answering the following research question: How do self-identified feminist multicultural psychotherapy supervisors conceptualize and practice feminist supervision that is explicitly multicultural? The perspectives of 14 participant supervisors were obtained by using semistructured initial interviews, follow-up interviews, and feedback interviews and were investigated via a feminist constructivist grounded theory design and analysis...
March 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908562/ontogeny-of-sensorimotor-gating-and-short-term-memory-processing-throughout-the-adolescent-period-in-rats
#14
Anja A Goepfrich, Chris M Friemel, Sabina Pauen, Miriam Schneider
Adolescence and puberty are highly susceptible developmental periods during which the neuronal organization and maturation of the brain is completed. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, which is well known to modulate cognitive processing, undergoes profound and transient developmental changes during adolescence. With the present study we were aiming to examine the ontogeny of cognitive skills throughout adolescence in male rats and clarify the potential modulatory role of CB1 receptor signalling. Cognitive skills were assessed repeatedly every 10th day in rats throughout adolescence...
November 19, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843466/the-relationship-between-motor-function-and-behavioral-function-in-infants-with-low-birth-weight
#15
Malek Amini, Faranak Aliabadi, Mehdi Alizade, Majid Kalani, Mostafa Qorbani
OBJECTIVE: Nowadays, the evaluation of all aspects of infant development is important. However, in practice, some of these assessments, especially those requiring more manipulation on high-risk infants, may impose additional stress on them. Therefore, sometimes it is essential to utilize the results of a developmental assessment for the prediction of some other aspects of development. This study evaluated the relationship between the scores of the behavioral tests and the motor function test...
2016: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832268/an-active-efficient-coding-model-of-optokinetic-nystagmus
#16
Chong Zhang, Jochen Triesch, Bertram E Shi
Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is an involuntary eye movement responsible for stabilizing retinal images in the presence of relative motion between an observer and the environment. Fully understanding the development of OKN requires a neurally plausible computational model that accounts for the neural development and the behavior. To date, work in this area has been limited. We propose a neurally plausible framework for the joint development of disparity and motion tuning in the visual cortex and of optokinetic and vergence eye-movement behavior...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825732/cognitive-components-underpinning-the-development-of-model-based-learning
#17
Tracey C S Potter, Nessa V Bryce, Catherine A Hartley
Reinforcement learning theory distinguishes "model-free" learning, which fosters reflexive repetition of previously rewarded actions, from "model-based" learning, which recruits a mental model of the environment to flexibly select goal-directed actions. Whereas model-free learning is evident across development, recruitment of model-based learning appears to increase with age. However, the cognitive processes underlying the development of model-based learning remain poorly characterized. Here, we examined whether age-related differences in cognitive processes underlying the construction and flexible recruitment of mental models predict developmental increases in model-based choice...
October 29, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819443/error-related-brain-activity-is-related-to-aversive-potentiation-of-the-startle-response-in-children-but-only-the-ern-is-associated-with-anxiety-disorders
#18
Alexandria Meyer, Greg Hajcak, Catherine R Glenn, Autumn J Kujawa, Daniel N Klein
Identifying biomarkers that characterize developmental trajectories leading to anxiety disorders will likely improve early intervention strategies as well as increase our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. The error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential that occurs during error commission, is increased in anxious adults and children-and has been shown to predict the onset of anxiety disorders across childhood. The ERN has therefore been suggested as a biomarker of anxiety...
April 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812128/cognitive-control-of-saccadic-eye-movements-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder
#19
Claudia C Gonzalez, Mark Mon-Williams, Siobhan Burke, Melanie R Burke
The ability to use advance information to prepare and execute a movement requires cognitive control of behaviour (e.g., anticipation and inhibition). Our aim was to explore the integrity of saccadic eye movement control in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing (TD) children (8-12 years) and assess how these children plan and inhibit saccadic responses, the principal mechanisms within visual attention control. Eye movements and touch responses were measured (separately and concurrently) in Cued and Non-Cued conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783647/bumetanide-an-inhibitor-of-nkcc1-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-isoform-1-enhances-propofol-induced-loss-of-righting-reflex-but-not-its-immobilizing-actions-in-neonatal-rats
#20
Yukihide Koyama, Tomio Andoh, Yoshinori Kamiya, Tomoyuki Miyazaki, Koichi Maruyama, Takayuki Kariya, Takahisa Goto
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been shown to induce excitation on immature neurons due to increased expression of Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter isoform 1 (NKCC1), and the transition of GABAergic signaling from excitatory to inhibitory occurs before birth in the rat spinal cord and spreads rostrally according to the developmental changes in cation-chloride co-transporter expression. We previously showed that midazolam activates the hippocampal CA3 area and induces less sedation in neonatal rats compared with adolescent rats in an NKCC1-dependent manner...
2016: PloS One
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