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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136012/regional-knockdown-of-ndufs4-implicates-a-thalamocortical-circuit-mediating-anesthetic-sensitivity
#1
Renjini Ramadasan-Nair, Jessica Hui, Pavel I Zimin, Leslie S Itsara, Philip G Morgan, Margaret M Sedensky
Knockout of the mitochondrial complex I protein, NDUFS4, profoundly increases sensitivity of mice to volatile anesthetics. In mice carrying an Ndufs4lox/lox gene, adeno-associated virus expressing Cre recombinase was injected into regions of the brain postulated to affect sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. These injections generated otherwise phenotypically wild type mice with region-specific, postnatal inactivation of Ndufs4, minimizing developmental effects of gene loss. Sensitivities to the volatile anesthetics isoflurane and halothane were measured using loss of righting reflex (LORR) and movement in response to tail clamp (TC) as endpoints...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069391/dimensions-and-intensity-of-inter-professional-teamwork-in-primary-care-evidence-from-five-international-jurisdictions
#2
Jean-Frederic Levesque, Mark F Harris, Cathie Scott, Benjamin Crabtree, William Miller, Lisa M Halma, William E Hogg, Jan-Willem Weenink, Jenny R Advocat, Jane Gunn, Grant Russell
Background: Inter-professional teamwork in primary care settings offers potential benefits for responding to the increasing complexity of patients' needs. While it is a central element in many reforms to primary care delivery, implementing inter-professional teamwork has proven to be more challenging than anticipated. Objective: The objective of this study was to better understand the dimensions and intensity of teamwork and the developmental process involved in creating fully integrated teams...
October 23, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036732/predictors-of-poor-outcome-in-neonates-with-pyogenic-meningitis-in-a-level-three-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-of-developing-country
#3
Mala Kumar, Shalini Tripathi, Himanshu Kumar, S N Singh
Background: The mortality of neonatal pyogenic meningitis is reduced to 10-15%, but morbidity is unchanged. Methods: Primary objective is to determine the outcome, i.e. death or abnormal neurological examination (NE) at discharge and abnormal developmental quotient (DQ) at 3 months. Secondary objective is to find predictors of poor outcome. Results: In all, 89 neonates enrolled, 10 expired and 24 neonates had abnormal NE at discharge. A total of 59 neonates came for follow up, 13 had DQ < 70...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035974/altered-ultrasonic-vocalization-in-neonatal-sapap3-deficient-mice
#4
Natalya S Tesdahl, Danielle K King, Latisha N McDaniel, Andrew A Pieper
Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in neonatal mice provide a means of modeling communication deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders. Mature mice deficient in SAP90/PSD95-associated protein 3 (SAPAP3) display compulsive grooming and anxiety-like behavior, conditions that are often associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. To date, however, aspects of neurodevelopment have not been investigated in SAPAP3-deficient mice. Here, we examined whether neonatal SAPAP3-deficient mice display altered USVs. We recorded USVs from 5-day-old sapap3 and sapap3 mice, and also monitored developmental reflexes in these mice during the early postnatal period...
December 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020454/the-absence-of-brain-specific-link-protein-bral2-in-perineuronal-nets-hampers-auditory-temporal-resolution-and-neural-adaptation-in-mice
#5
J Popelář, M Díaz Gómez, J Lindovský, N Rybalko, J Burianová, T Oohashi, J Syka
Brain-specific link protein Bral2 represents a substantial component of perineuronal nets (PNNs) enwrapping neurons in the central nervous system. To elucidate the role of Bral2 in auditory signal processing, the hearing function in knockout Bral2(-/-) (KO) mice was investigated using behavioral and electrophysiological methods and compared with wild type Bral2(+/+) (WT) mice. The amplitudes of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and the efficiency of the prepulse inhibition of ASR (PPI of ASR), produced by prepulse noise stimulus or gap in continuous noise, was similar in 2-week-old WT and KO mice...
October 11, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017960/upper-respiratory-tract-nociceptor-stimulation-and-stress-response-following-acute-and-repeated-cyfluthrin-inhalation-in-normal-and-pregnant-rats-physiological-rat-specific-adaptions-can-easily-be-misunderstood-as-adversities
#6
Juergen Pauluhn
This paper reviews the results from past regulatory and mechanistic inhalation studies in rats with the type II pyrethroid Cyfluthrin. Apart from many chemical irritants, Cyfluthrin was shown to be a neuroexcitatory agent without any inherent tissue-destructive or irritant property. Thus, any Cyfluthrin-induced neuroexcitatory afferent sensory stimulus from peripheral nociceptors in the upper respiratory tract is likely to be perceived as a transient stimulus triggering annoyance and/or avoidance by both rats and humans...
October 7, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959195/prenatal-exposure-to-paint-thinner-alters-postnatal-development-and-behavior-in-mice
#7
Hanaa Malloul, Ferdaousse M Mahdani, Mohammed Bennis, Saadia Ba-M'hamed
Occupational exposure and sniffing of volatile organic solvents continue to be a worldwide health problem, raising the risk for teratogenic sequelae of maternal inhalant abuse. Real life exposures usually involve simultaneous exposures to multiple solvents, and almost all the abused solvents contain a mixture of two or more different volatile compounds. However, several studies examined the teratogenicity due to industrial exposure to a single volatile solvent but investigating the teratogenic potential of complex chemical mixture such as thinner remains unexplored...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955085/menkes-disease-a-rare-disorder
#8
Sidra Kaleem Jafri, Raman Kumar, Shazia Kulsoom Lashari, Prem Chand
Menkes disease (MD) (OMIM: 309400) is also known as kinky hair disease, trichopoliodystrophy, and steely hair. A 7-months-old, male infant presented to our outpatient department in June 2016 with history of developmental delay and seizures. Seizures started at 3 months of age and worsened progressively to clusters of extensor spasms. Physical examination showed sparse and kinky hair. Neurological examination revealed a central hypotonia with marked decrease in muscle power with normal deep tendon reflexes. The serum ceruloplasmin level and serum copper level were decreased...
October 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931039/abnormalities-in-substance-p-neurokinin-1-receptor-binding-in-key-brainstem-nuclei-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-related-to-prematurity-and-sex
#9
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard, Jhodie R Duncan, Henry F Krous, David S Paterson
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves failure of arousal to potentially life threatening events, including hypoxia, during sleep. While neuronal dysfunction and abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems within the medulla oblongata have been implicated, the specific pathways associated with autonomic and cardiorespiratory failure are unknown. The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and its tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of homeostatic function in the medulla, including regulation of respiratory rhythm generation, integration of cardiovascular control, and modulation of the baroreceptor reflex and mediation of the chemoreceptor reflex in response to hypoxia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889966/safety-evaluation-of-supratherapeutic-dose-of-maytenus-ilicifolia-mart-ex-reissek-extracts-on-fertility-and-neurobehavioral-status-of-male-and-pregnant-rats
#10
Assis Ecker, Carla Giane Loss, Stephen A Adefegha, Aline Augusti Boligon, Silvane Souza Roman
Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek is a plant commonly used in folklore medicine in the management of gastric diseases in South America. This study explores the effects of a supratherapeutic dose of aqueous and ethanol extracts of M. ilicifolia (1360 mg/kg) on fertility and neurobehavioral status in male and pregnant rats. A battery of sensory-motor developmental endpoints was carried out to assess impairments on pups of dams orally treated with the aqueous extract of M. ilicifolia during the organogenesis period of pregnancy (GD 9 through GD 14)...
September 7, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879461/perinatal-exposure-to-the-cyanotoxin-%C3%AE-n-m%C3%A3-thylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-results-in-long-lasting-behavioral-changes-in-offspring-potential-involvement-of-dna-damage-and-oxidative-stress
#11
Anthony Laugeray, Asma Oummadi, Clément Jourdain, Justyne Feat, Géraldine Meyer-Dilhet, Arnaud Menuet, Karen Plé, Marion Gay, Sylvain Routier, Stéphane Mortaud, Gilles J Guillemin
We recently demonstrated that perinatal exposure to the glutamate-related herbicide, glufosinate ammonium, has deleterious effects on neural stem cell (NSC) homeostasis within the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ), probably leading to ASD-like symptoms in offspring later in life. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether perinatal exposure to another glutamate-related toxicant, the cyanobacterial amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), might also trigger neurodevelopmental disturbances. With this aim, female mice were intranasally exposed to low doses of BMAA, 50 mg kg(-1) three times a week from embryonic days 7-10 to postnatal day 21...
September 6, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763098/cross-species-comparison-of-behavioral-neurodevelopmental-milestones-in-the-common-marmoset-monkey-and-human-child
#12
Karla K Ausderau, Caitlin Dammann, Kathy McManus, Mary Schneider, Marina E Emborg, Nancy Schultz-Darken
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is an increasingly popular non-human primate species for developing transgenic and genomic edited models of neurological disorders. These models present an opportunity to assess from birth the impact of genetic mutations and to identify candidate predictive biomarkers of early disease onset. In order to apply findings from marmosets to humans, a cross-species comparison of typical development is essential. Aiming to identify similarities, differences, and gaps in knowledge of neurodevelopment, we evaluated peer-reviewed literature focused on the first 6 months of life of marmosets and compared to humans...
November 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758193/melanopsin-ganglion-cell-outer-retinal-dendrites-morphologically-distinct-and-asymmetrically-distributed-in-the-mouse-retina
#13
Katelyn B Sondereker, Jessica R Onyak, Shakib W Islam, Christopher L Ross, Jordan M Renna
A small population of retinal ganglion cells expresses the photopigment melanopsin and function as autonomous photoreceptors. They encode global luminance levels critical for light-mediated non-image forming visual processes including circadian rhythms and the pupillary light reflex. There are five melanopsin ganglion cell subtypes (M1-M5). M1 and displaced M1 (M1d) cells have dendrites that ramify within the outermost layer of the inner plexiform layer. It was recently discovered that some melanopsin ganglion cells extend dendrites into the outer retina...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743513/chronic-exposure-to-the-fungicide-propiconazole-behavioral-and-reproductive-evaluation-of-f1-and-f2-generations-of-male-rats
#14
Milene Leivas Vieira, Nathália Orlandini Costa, Marina Rangel F Pereira, Suzana de Fátima Paccola Mesquita, Estefânia Gastaldello Moreira, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto Gerardin
Several studies have suggested that propiconazole (PROP) may be an endocrine disruptor; possibly altering the activity of the CYP51 enzyme, which is part of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway required for the production of sexual steroid hormones. Another PROP effect is inhibition of the aromatase enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens, which could lead to negative effects on reproductive parameters. Therefore, the present study evaluated the reproductive and developmental toxicity of PROP by exposing two generations (F1 and F2) of male rats to this fungicide, since a previous study from our lab reported that PROP has anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities (Costa et al...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730834/resveratrol-alleviates-ethanol-induced-hormonal-and-metabolic-disturbances-in-the-rat
#15
J Popelář, M Díaz Gómez, J Lindovský, N Rybalko, J Burianová, T Oohashi, J Syka
Brain-specific link protein Bral2 represents a substantial component of perineuronal nets (PNNs) enwrapping neurons in the central nervous system. To elucidate the role of Bral2 in auditory signal processing, the hearing function in knockout Bral2(-/-) (KO) mice was investigated using behavioral and electrophysiological methods and compared with wild type Bral2(+/+) (WT) mice. The amplitudes of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and the efficiency of the prepulse inhibition of ASR (PPI of ASR), produced by prepulse noise stimulus or gap in continuous noise, was similar in 2-week-old WT and KO mice...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711561/sensory-processing-disorder-in-preterm-infants-during-early-childhood-and-relationships-to-early-neurobehavior
#16
Justin Ryckman, Claudia Hilton, Cynthia Rogers, Roberta Pineda
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are exposed to a variety of sensory stimuli that they are not developmentally prepared to handle, which puts them at risk for developing a sensory processing disorder. However, the patterns and predictors of sensory processing disorder and their relationship to early behavior at term equivalent age are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study are to: 1) describe the incidence of sensory processing disorder in preterm infants at four to six years of age, 2) define medical and sociodemographic factors that relate to sensory processing disorder, and 3) explore relationships between early neurobehavior at term equivalent age and sensory processing disorder at age four to six years...
October 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684394/tg-th-cre-fi172gsat-th-cre-defines-neurons-that-are-required-for-full-hypercapnic-and-hypoxic-reflexes
#17
Jenny J Sun, Russell S Ray
The catecholaminergic (CA) system has been implicated in many facets of breathing control and offers an important target to better comprehend the underlying etiologies of both developmental and adult respiratory pathophysiologies. Here, we used a noninvasive DREADD-based pharmacogenetic approach to acutely perturb Tg(Th-Cre)FI172Gsat (Th-Cre)-defined neurons in awake and unrestrained mice in an attempt to characterize CA function in breathing. We report that clozapine-N-oxide (CNO)-DREADD-mediated inhibition of Th-Cre-defined neurons results in blunted ventilatory responses under respiratory challenge...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619447/similar-movements-are-associated-with-drastically-different-muscle-contraction-velocities
#18
Daniel A Hagen, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
We investigated how kinematic redundancy interacts with the neurophysiological control mechanisms required for smooth and accurate, rapid limb movements. Biomechanically speaking, tendon excursions are over-determined because the rotation of few joints determines the lengths and velocities of many muscles. But how different are the muscle velocity profiles induced by various, equally valid hand trajectories? We used an 18-muscle sagittal-plane arm model to calculate 100,000 feasible shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint rotations that produced valid basketball free throws with different hand trajectories, but identical initial and final hand positions and velocities...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602489/prenatal-naled-and-chlorpyrifos-exposure-is-associated-with-deficits-in-infant-motor-function-in-a-cohort-of-chinese-infants
#19
Monica K Silver, Jie Shao, Binquan Zhu, Minjian Chen, Yankai Xia, Niko Kaciroti, Betsy Lozoff, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: Organophosphate insecticides (OPs) are used worldwide, yet despite nearly ubiquitous exposure in the general population, few have been studied outside the laboratory. Fetal brains undergo rapid growth and development, leaving them susceptible to long-term effects of neurotoxic OPs. The objective here was to investigate the extent to which prenatal exposure to OPs affects infant motor development. METHODS: 30 OPs were measured in umbilical cord blood using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in a cohort of Chinese infants...
September 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600929/detrimental-effects-of-self-administered-methamphetamine-during-pregnancy-on-offspring-development-in-the-rat
#20
Daniela Rüedi-Bettschen, Donna M Platt
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) abuse by pregnant women is a commonly observed phenomenon. While the harmful effects of METH are well described for adults, there is only limited knowledge of the effects of METH use during pregnancy on the developing child. In the present study, we investigated how intraveneous (iv) METH self-administration throughout pregnancy affected rat dams and their offspring through weaning, compared to controls. METHODS: Female rats (n=16) were trained to self-administer METH iv; every drug infusion by a dam also resulted in a saline injection to a yoked control (n=16)...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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