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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214944/the-vascular-plants-open-system-of-growth
#1
REVIEW
Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom...
February 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214893/the-role-of-netrins-and-their-receptors-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-during-development
#2
Michael J Murray
Transitions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells are underpinned by changes in motility, adhesion, and polarity. Netrins and their receptors can control each of these cellular properties, and are emerging as important regulators of epithelial mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). Netrins were first identified in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as secreted chemoattractants/repellents that could guide migrating mesodermal cells and axonal growth cones. Orthologues were subsequently found to play conserved roles in vertebrates and in the vinegar fly Drosophila...
February 20, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214385/temporal-changes-in-physiology-and-haematology-in-response-to-high-and-micro-doses-of-recombinant-human-erythropoietin
#3
Brad Clark, Sarah M Woolford, Annette Eastwood, Ken Sharpe, Peter G Barnes, Christopher J Gore
There is evidence to suggest athletes have adopted recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) dosing regimens that diminish the likelihood they will be caught by direct detection techniques. However, the temporal response in physiology, performance and athlete biological passport (ABP) parameters to such regimens is not clearly understood. Participants were assigned to a high dose only group (HIGH, n = 8, six rHuEPO doses of 250 IU/kg over two weeks), a combined high micro-dose group (COMB, n = 8, high dose plus nine rHuEPO micro-doses over a further three weeks), or one of two placebo control groups who received saline in the same pattern as the HIGH (HIGH-PLACEBO, n = 4) or COMB (COMB-PLACEBO, n = 4) groups...
February 18, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214240/bridging-locoregional-therapy-longitudinal-trends-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
REVIEW
Hayley C Oligane, Orrie N Close, Minzhi Xing, Hyun S Kim
The purpose of this article is to analyze longitudinal trends in locoregional therapy (LRT) use and review locoregional therapy's role in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma prior to orthotropic liver transplantation Porrett et al. (2006) . LRT has a role in both bridge to transplantation and downstaging of patients not initially meeting Milan or UCSF Criteria. Due to the lack of randomized controlled trials, no specific bridging LRT modality is recommended over another for treating patients on the waiting list, however each modality has unique and patient-specific advantages...
February 2, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213708/removal-mechanisms-for-extremely-high-level-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics-in-pharmaceutical-wastewater-treatment-plants
#5
Xinyan Guo, Zheng Yan, Yi Zhang, Xiangji Kong, Deyang Kong, Zhengjun Shan, Na Wang
Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) receive industrial effluents from the plant that contain extremely high levels of antibiotics and are regarded as one of the major sources of antibiotics in the environment. Two PWWTPs have been selected in Zhejiang Province, China, to assess the removal mechanisms of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs). PWWTP A uses activated sludge with biocarriers in a moving bed biofilm reactor in anoxic and aerobic units, and PWWTP B uses biological units under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213582/a-scale-up-mock-up-comparison-of-student-learning-gains-in-high-and-low-tech-active-learning-environments
#6
Paula A G Soneral, Sara A Wyse
Student-centered learning environments with upside-down pedagogies (SCALE-UP) are widely implemented at institutions across the country, and learning gains from these classrooms have been well documented. This study investigates the specific design feature(s) of the SCALE-UP classroom most conducive to teaching and learning. Using pilot survey data from instructors and students to prioritize the most salient SCALE-UP classroom features, we created a low-tech "Mock-up" version of this classroom and tested the impact of these features on student learning, attitudes, and satisfaction using a quasi--experimental setup...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213365/fda-approval-summary-tas-102
#7
Leigh Marcus, Steven J Lemery, Sachia Khasar, Emily Wearne, Whitney S Helms, Weishi Yuan, Kun He, Xianhua Cao, Jingyu Yu, Hong Zhao, Yaning Wang, Olen Stephens, Erika Englund, Rajiv Agarwal, Patricia Keegan, Richard Pazdur
FDA approved TAS-102 (Lonsurf, Taiho Oncology, Inc.) for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who have been previously treated with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy, an anti-VEGF biological therapy, and if RAS wild-type, an anti-EGFR therapy. In an international, multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial (TPU-TAS-102-301, herein referred to as RECOURSE), 800 patients with previously treated mCRC were randomly allocated (2:1) to receive either TAS-102 35mg/m2 orally twice daily after meals on Days 1-5 and 8-12 of each 28-day cycle (n=534) or matching placebo (n=266)...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213335/transformation-products-of-clindamycin-in-moving-bed-biofilm-reactor-mbbr
#8
Gordon T H Ooi, Monica Escola Casas, Henrik R Andersen, Kai Bester
Clindamycin is widely prescribed for its ability to treat a number of common bacterial infections. Thus, clindamycin enters wastewater via human excretion or disposal of unused medication and widespread detection of pharmaceuticals in rivers proves the insufficiency of conventional wastewater treatment plants in removing clindamycin. Recently, it has been discovered that attached biofilm reactors, e.g., moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) obtain a higher removal of pharmaceuticals than conventional sludge wastewater treatment plants...
February 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213261/a-method-for-the-analysis-of-sugars-in-biological-systems-using-reductive-amination-in-combination-with-hydrophilic-interaction-chromatography-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#9
Sami Bawazeer, Ali Muhsen Ali, Aliyah Alhawiti, Abedawn Khalaf, Colin Gibson, Jonans Tusiimire, David G Watson
Separation of sugar isomers extracted from biological samples is challenging because of their natural occurrence as alpha and beta anomers and, in the case of hexoses, in their pyranose and furanose forms. A reductive amination method was developed for the tagging of sugars with the aim of it becoming part of a metabolomics work flow. The best separation of the common hexoses (glucose, fructose, mannose and galactose) was achieved when (2)H5-aniline was used as the tagging reagent in combination with separation on a ZICHILIC column...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213159/signal-transduction-cascades-in-axon-regeneration-insights-from-c-elegans
#10
REVIEW
Naoki Hisamoto, Kunihiro Matsumoto
Axon regeneration after nerve injury is a conserved biological process in many animals, including humans. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has recently emerged as a genetically tractable model for studying regenerative responses in neurons. Extensive studies over several years using this organism have revealed a number of intrinsic and extrinsic signal transduction cascades that regulate axon regeneration, and these are found to be conserved from worms to humans. Further studies have demonstrated that these cascades consist of several signaling networks that ultimately merge into the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212892/atf2-a-paradigm-of-the-multifaceted-regulation-of-transcription-factors-in-biology-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Gregory Watson, Ze'ev Ronai, Eric Lau
Stringent transcriptional regulation is crucial for normal cellular biology and organismal development. Perturbations in the proper regulation of transcription factors can result in numerous pathologies, including cancer. Thus, understanding how transcription factors are regulated and how they are dysregulated in disease states is key to the therapeutic targeting of these factors and/or the pathways that they regulate. Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) has been studied in a number of developmental and pathological conditions...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212735/elimination-of-the-unnecessary-intra-and-extracellular-signaling-by-anionic-phospholipids
#12
REVIEW
Valerian E Kagan, Hülya Bayır, Yulia Y Tyurina, Sergey B Bolevich, John J Maguire, Bengt Fadeel, Krishnakumar Balasubramanian
High fidelity of biological systems is frequently achieved by duplication of the essential intracellular machineries or, removal of the entire cell, which becomes unnecessary or even harmful in altered physiological environments. Carefully controlled removal of these cells, without damaging normal cells, requires precise signaling, and is critical to maintaining homeostasis. This review describes how two anionic phospholipids - phosphatidylserine (PS) and cardiolipin (CL) - residing in distinct compartments of the cell, signal removal of "the unnecessary" using several uniform principles...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212725/lipid-peroxidation-in-cell-death
#13
REVIEW
Michael M Gaschler, Brent R Stockwell
Disruption of redox homeostasis is a key phenotype of many pathological conditions. Though multiple oxidizing compounds such as hydrogen peroxide are widely recognized as mediators and inducers of oxidative stress, increasingly, attention is focused on the role of lipid hydroperoxides as critical mediators of death and disease. As the main component of cellular membranes, lipids have an indispensible role in maintaining the structural integrity of cells. Excessive oxidation of lipids alters the physical properties of cellular membranes and can cause covalent modification of proteins and nucleic acids...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212708/development-and-performance-evaluation-of-a-three-dimensional-clinostat-synchronized-heavy-ion-irradiation-system
#14
Hiroko Ikeda, Hikaru Souda, Anggraeini Puspitasari, Kathryn D Held, Jun Hidema, Takeshi Nikawa, Yukari Yoshida, Tatsuaki Kanai, Akihisa Takahashi
Outer space is an environment characterized by microgravity and space radiation, including high-energy charged particles. Astronauts are constantly exposed to both microgravity and radiation during long-term stays in space. However, many aspects of the biological effects of combined microgravity and space radiation remain unclear. We developed a new three-dimensional (3D) clinostat synchronized heavy-ion irradiation system for use in ground-based studies of the combined exposures. Our new system uses a particle accelerator and a respiratory gating system from heavy-ion radiotherapy to irradiate samples being rotated in the 3D clinostat with carbon-ion beams only when the samples are in the horizontal position...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212705/detection-of-dna-damage-by-space-radiation-in-human-fibroblasts-flown-on-the-international-space-station
#15
Tao Lu, Ye Zhang, Michael Wong, Alan Feiveson, Ramona Gaza, Nicholas Stoffle, Huichen Wang, Bobby Wilson, Larry Rohde, Louis Stodieck, Fathi Karouia, Honglu Wu
Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation is challenging due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and due to the difficulty in distinguishing the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, are attributed primarily to their exposure to space radiation...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212541/analysis-of-variability-in-high-throughput-screening-data-applications-to-melanoma-cell-lines-and-drug-responses
#16
Kuan-Fu Ding, Darren Finlay, Hongwei Yin, William P D Hendricks, Chris Sereduk, Jeffrey Kiefer, Aleksandar Sekulic, Patricia M LoRusso, Kristiina Vuori, Jeffrey M Trent, Nicholas J Schork
High-throughput screening (HTS) strategies and protocols have undergone significant development in the last decade. It is now possible to screen hundreds of thousands of compounds, each exploring multiple biological phenotypes and parameters, against various cell lines or model systems in a single setting. However, given the vast amount of data such studies generate, the fact that they use multiple reagents, and are often technician-intensive, questions have been raised about the variability, reliability and reproducibility of HTS results...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212489/direct-single-enzyme-biomineralization-of-catalytically-active-ceria-and-ceria-zirconia-nanocrystals
#17
Christopher D Curran, Li Lu, Yue Jia, Christopher J Kiely, Bryan W Berger, Steven McIntosh
Biomineralization is an intriguing approach to the synthesis of functional inorganic materials for energy applications whereby biological systems are engineered to mineralize inorganic materials and control their structure over multiple length scales under mild reaction conditions. Herein we demonstrate a single enzyme mediated biomineralization route to synthesize crystalline, catalytically active, quantum confined ceria (CeO2-x) and ceria-zirconia (Ce1-yZryO2-x) nanocrystals for application as environmental catalysts...
February 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212453/bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-hybridized-with-nano-anchored-oligonucleotides-on-titanium-implants-enhances-osteogenic-differentiation-in-vivo
#18
Florian Böhrnsen, Jennifer Rublack, Nelia Aeckerle, Anne Foerster, Bernd Schwenzer, Judith Reichert, Dieter Scharnweber, Henning Schliephake
PURPOSE: Previous in vitro studies have shown that DNA oligonucleotides (ODN) can be successfully used as anchor strands for the binding and retarded release of biologically active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2). The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rhBMP-2 bound to the surface of titanium implants through hybridization with nano-anchored ODN strands is biologically active and can enhance the induction of osteogenic markers in peri-implant bone in vivo...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212192/genetic-control-of-erythropoiesis
#19
Laxminath Tumburu, Swee Lay Thein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of several genetic variants associated with erythroid traits and subsequent elucidation of their functional mechanisms are exemplars of the power of the new genetic and genomic technology. The present review highlights findings from recent genetic studies related to the control of erythropoiesis and dyserythropoiesis, and fetal hemoglobin, an erythroid-related trait. RECENT FINDINGS: Identification of the genetic modulators of erythropoiesis involved two approaches: genome-wide association studies (GWASs) using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays that revealed the common genetic variants associated with erythroid phenotypes (hemoglobin, red cell count, MCV, MCH) and fetal hemoglobin; and massive parallel sequencing such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) that led to the discovery of the rarer variants (GFI1B, SBDS, RPS19, PKLR, EPO, EPOR, KLF1, GATA1)...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212005/stimuli-responsive-polymersomes-for-biomedical-applications
#20
Xiuli Hu, Yuqi Zhang, Zhigang Xie, Xiabin Jing, Adriano Bellotti, Zhen Gu
Polymersomes, the structural analogues of liposomes, are hollow structures enclosed by a bilayer membrane made from amphiphilic copolymers. Polymersomes have been proposed to mimic the structure and properties of cellular membranes and viral capsids. Excellent robustness and stability, chemical versatility for tunable membrane properties and surface functionalization make polymersomes attractive candidates for drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, nanoreactor vessels, and artificial organelles. In further biomimetic strategies, stimuli-responsive polymersomes that can recognize various external physical or internal biological environmental stimuli and conduct "on demand" release in dose-, spatial-, and temporal-controlled fashions have been widely developed...
February 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
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