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Lesya Marushka, Xuefeng Hu, Malek Batal, Tonio Sadik, Harold Schwartz, Amy Ing, Karen Fediuk, Constantine Tikhonov, Hing Man Chan
We previously studied the association between fish consumption and prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Manitoba and Ontario First Nations (FNs), Canada and found different results. In this study, we used a difference in difference model to analyze the data. Dietary and health data from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study, a cross-sectional study of 706 Manitoba and 1429 Ontario FNs were analyzed. The consumption of fish was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Fish samples were analyzed for dichloro diphenyldichloro ethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) content...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues Coy, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: The glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1/GLP-2) are gut hormones that may directly affect the glucose homeostasis and their activity seems to be significantly affected by chronic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1/GLP-2), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the postprandial glucose and insulin levels among individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and healthy controls. METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study, which involved individuals awaiting for bariatric/metabolic surgery and healthy controls...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Keshav Gopal, Malak Almutairi, Rami Al Batran, Farah Eaton, Manoj Gandhi, John Reyes Ussher
Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase the risk for cardiomyopathy, which is the presence of ventricular dysfunction in the absence of underlying coronary artery disease and/or hypertension. As myocardial energy metabolism is altered during obesity/T2D (increased fatty acid oxidation and decreased glucose oxidation), we hypothesized that restricting myocardial glucose oxidation in lean mice devoid of the perturbed metabolic milieu observed in obesity/T2D would produce a cardiomyopathy phenotype, characterized via diastolic dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Gaëlle Cheisson, Sophie Jacqueminet, Emmanuel Cosson, Carole Ichai, Anne-Marie Leguerrier, Bogdan Nicolescu-Catargi, Alexandre Ouattara, Igor Tauveron, Paul Valensi, Dan Benhamou
Diabetes mellitus is defined by chronic elevation of blood glucose linked to insulin resistance and/or insulinopaenia. Its diagnosis is based on a fasting blood-glucose level of ≥1.26g/L or, in some countries, a blood glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level of >6.5%. Of the several forms of diabetes, type-2 diabetes (T2D) is the most common and is found in patients with other risk factors. In contrast, type-1 diabetes (T1D) is linked to the auto-immune destruction of β-pancreatic cells, leading to insulinopaenia...
March 17, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Gaëlle Cheisson, Sophie Jacqueminet, Emmanuel Cosson, Carole Ichai, Anne-Marie Leguerrier, Bogdan Nicolescu-Catargi, Alexandre Ouattara, Igor Tauveron, Paul Valensi, Dan Benhamou
In diabetic patients undergoing surgery, we recommend assessing glycaemic control preoperatively by assessing glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and recent capillary blood sugar (glucose) levels, and to adjust any treatments accordingly before surgery, paying particular attention to specific complications of diabetes. Gastroparesis creates a risk of stasis and aspiration of gastric content at induction of anaesthesia requiring the use of a rapid sequence induction technique. Cardiac involvement can be divided into several types...
March 17, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Petter Bjornstad, David Z Cherney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Compared to adult-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D), youth with T2D have a more aggressive phenotype with greater insulin resistance (IR), more rapid β cell decline, and higher prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Hyperfiltration is common in youth with T2D and predicts progressive DKD. Hyperfiltration is a consequence of early changes in intrarenal hemodynamic function, including increased renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular pressure...
March 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Lars Wilkinson, Barnaby Hunt, Pierre Johansen, Neeraj N Iyer, Tam Dang-Tan, Richard F Pollock
INTRODUCTION: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys show that many people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the USA fail to achieve recommended treatment targets. In the SUSTAIN 7 randomized controlled trial, once-weekly semaglutide (0.5 and 1.0 mg) was superior to comparative doses of dulaglutide (0.75 and 1.5 mg) in reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body weight in people with T2D. The present study estimated the cost per patient achieving HbA1c treatment targets and weight loss responses with once-weekly semaglutide and dulaglutide in the USA...
March 19, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Kristina H Jackson, William S Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fatty acid (FA) profiles in different blood compartments are reflections of both diet and metabolism, and some FA levels are related to disease risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Perhaps the most studied FA-disease relationship is between long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite null results from recent large omega-3 FA supplementation trials, new research continues to support past studies showing that blood levels of EPA + DHA are inversely related to risk for total mortality and fatal CVD events...
March 20, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Gaëlle Cheisson, Sophie Jacqueminet, Emmanuel Cosson, Carole Ichai, Anne-Marie Leguerrier, Bogdan Nicolescu-Catargi, Alexandre Ouattara, Igor Tauveron, Paul Valensi, Dan Benhamou
Follow on from continuous intravenous administration of insulin with an electronic syringe (IVES) is an important element in the postoperative management of a diabetic patient. The basal-bolus scheme is the most suitable taking into account the nutritional supply and variable needs for insulin, reproducing the physiology of a normal pancreas: (i) slow (long-acting) insulin (= basal) which should immediately take over from IVES insulin simulating basal secretion; (ii) ultra-rapid insulin to simulate prandial secretion (= bolus for the meal); and (iii) correction of possible hyperglycaemia with an additional ultra-rapid insulin bolus dose...
March 16, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Cheisson Gaëlle, Jacqueminet Sophie, Cosson Emmanuel, Ichai Carole, Leguerrier Anne-Marie, Nicolescu-Catargi Bogdan, Ouattara Alexandre, Tauveron Igor, Valensi Paul, Benhamou Dan
Perioperative hyperglycaemia (>1.80g/L or 10 mmol/L) increases morbidity (particularly due to infection) and mortality. Hypoglycaemia can be managed in the perioperative period by decreasing blood sugar levels with insulin between 0.90 and 1.80g/l but it may occur more frequently when the goal is strict normoglycaemia. We propose continuous administration of insulin therapy via an electronic syringe (IVES) in type-1 diabetes (T1D) and type-2 diabetes (T2D) patients if required or in cases of stress hyperglycaemia...
March 16, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Gaëlle Cheisson, Sophie Jacqueminet, Emmanuel Cosson, Carole Ichai, Anne-Marie Leguerrier, Bogdan Nicolescu-Catargi, Alexandre Ouattara, Igor Tauveron, Paul Valensi, Dan Benhamou
Ambulatory surgery can be carried out in diabetic patients. By using a strict organisational and technical approach, the risk of glycaemic imbalance is minimised, allowing the patients to return to their previous way of life more quickly. Taking into account the context of ambulatory surgery, with a same day discharge, the aims are to minimise the changes to antidiabetic treatment, to maintain adequate blood sugar control and to resume oral feeding as quickly as possible. The preoperative evaluation is the same as for a hospitalised patient and recent glycaemic control (HbA1c) is necessary...
March 16, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
M Urpi-Sarda, E Almanza-Aguilera, R Llorach, R Vázquez-Fresno, R Estruch, D Corella, J V Sorli, F Carmona, A Sanchez-Pla, J Salas-Salvadó, C Andres-Lacueva
AIM: To characterize the urinary metabolomic fingerprint and multi-metabolite signature associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and to classify the population into metabotypes related to T2D. METHODS: A metabolomics analysis using the1 H-NMR-based, non-targeted metabolomic approach was conducted to determine the urinary metabolomic fingerprint of T2D compared with non-T2D participants in the PREDIMED trial. The discriminant metabolite fingerprint was subjected to logistic regression analysis and ROC analyses to establish and to assess the multi-metabolite signature of T2D prevalence, respectively...
February 20, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
J Jin, W Wang, T Gu, C Chen, J Sun, W Chen, Y Bi, D Zhu
AIM: To investigate the association between serum bilirubin and distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: A total of 1800 inpatients with T2D (including 68 with 1-year follow-ups) were consecutively enrolled between June 2014 and March 2017. DSPN was diagnosed according to criteria recommended by the Toronto Diabetic Neuropathy Expert Group in 2010. Clinical data were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Patients with vs...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
Olga Press-Sandler, Yifat Miller
Amyloidogenic proteins are related to a variety of amyloid diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The amyloid proteins in which this review focuses include amylin, Aβ, tau and α-synuclein. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in which these amyloidogenic proteins interact with membranes is a challenging research to both experimental and computational studies. This review illustrates recent studies on amyloid-membrane interactions, but it mainly focuses on the challenge issues related to experimental techniques to investigate at the molecular level these interactions and provides thoughts and outlook for future computational studies...
March 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Owaid M Almalki, Wei-Jei Lee, Keong Chong, Kong-Han Ser, Yi-Chih Lee, Shu-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND: In recent years, gastric bypass surgery has been found to have therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the difference between 2 bypass procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and another single anastomosis gastric bypass (SAGB), is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences between SAGB and RYGB in the efficacy of T2D remission in obese patients. SETTING: Tertiary teaching hospital...
April 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Jacqueline H Parilla, Rebecca L Hull, Sakeneh Zraika
Neprilysin (NEP) is an endopeptidase known to modulate nervous, cardiovascular, and immune systems via inactivation of regulatory peptides. In addition, it may also contribute to impaired glucose homeostasis as observed in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Specifically, we and others have shown that NEP is upregulated under conditions associated with T2D, whereas NEP deficiency and/or inhibition improves glucose homeostasis via enhanced glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β-cell function. Whether increased β-cell mass also occurs with lack of NEP activity is unknown...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Chi Zhang, Huaigao Liu, Shangwu Chen, Yongkang Luo
Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is a serine exo-peptidase that can inactivate incretins by removing N-terminal dipeptides. Currently, inhibiting the DPP-IV activity is a common treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The goal of this study is to investigate whether IADHFL, a novel DPP-IV inhibitory peptide identified from bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), has the potential to modulate T2D. IADHFL remained stable after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and significantly decreased the activity and expression of both soluble and membrane-bound DPP-IV after 24 h and 48 h of treatment...
March 19, 2018: Food & Function
Alexandra Moraru, Janica Wiederstein, Daniel Pfaff, Thomas Fleming, Aubry K Miller, Peter Nawroth, Aurelio A Teleman
The molecular causes of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are not well understood. Both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and T2D are characterized by impaired insulin signaling and hyperglycemia. From analogy to T1D, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are thought to also play causal roles in T2D. Recent clinical studies, however, found that T2D patients treated to maintain glycemia below the diabetes definition threshold (HbA1c  < 6.5%) still develop diabetic complications. This suggests additional insulin- and glucose-independent mechanisms could be involved in T2D progression and/or initiation...
February 28, 2018: Cell Metabolism
David Guwatudde, Pilvikki Absetz, Peter Delobelle, Claes-Göran Östenson, Josefien Olmen Van, Helle Molsted Alvesson, Roy William Mayega, Elizabeth Ekirapa Kiracho, Juliet Kiguli, Carl Johan Sundberg, David Sanders, Göran Tomson, Thandi Puoane, Stefan Peterson, Meena Daivadanam
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasingly contributing to the global burden of disease. Health systems in most parts of the world are struggling to diagnose and manage T2D, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, and among disadvantaged populations in high-income countries. The aim of this study is to determine the added benefit of community interventions onto health facility interventions, towards glycaemic control among persons with diabetes, and towards reduction in plasma glucose among persons with prediabetes...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Jingjing Zhou, Yiran Wang, Yifei He, Ye Gao, Renhui Wan, Mengxi Cai, Wenwen Li, Rong Chen, Emma Walker, Xiao Zhai, Qijin Wang
Most current studies of type 2 diabetes (T2D) focus on obesity in the pathogenesis of the disease. However, many individuals develop T2D at non-obese body mass index (BMI) level. It is yet unclear whether certain etiological mechanisms discovered in these obese models can apply to non-obese T2D patients. In the present study, we focused on one aspect that was potentially involved in T2D development, the intestinal inflammation, and examined the difference between non-obese T2D patients and BMI-matched healthy controls...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Immunology
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