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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437153/diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-recently-commenced-on-sglt-2-inhibitors-an-ongoing-concern
#1
Mohamed Ahmed, Malachi J McKenna, Rachel K Crowley
OBJECTIVE: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are increasingly used as an adjunctive treatment for type 2 diabetes. We report the occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in 3 patients with type 2 diabetes recently commenced on SGLT-2 inhibitors. METHODS: Clinical presentation, laboratory data, and treatment outcomes of all 3 cases are described. RESULTS: All 3 patients had documented history of longstanding type 2 diabetes...
April 2, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437012/leptin-and-ngf-in-saliva-of-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-a-pilot-study
#2
Tvarijonaviciute Asta, Candela Castillo, Jose J Ceron, Silvia Martinez-Subiela, Fernando Tecles, Pia López-Jornet
AIMS: This study aimed to measure salivary levels of leptin and NGF in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to compare with healthy subjects. In addition, markers previously evaluated in diabetes, including insulin, HGF and MCP-1, and markers of inflammation (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α), were also measured in saliva in order to evaluate possible relationship of these markers with the new analytes evaluated in the study. METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva was collected by passive drooling from a total of 65 individuals (34 controls and 31 with T2D) and used for leptin, NGF, HGF, MCP-1, insulin, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α determination...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435305/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-a-systematic-review-of-comparative-effectiveness-research
#3
REVIEW
Philip A Levin, Hiep Nguyen, Eric T Wittbrodt, Seoyoung C Kim
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) act by increasing insulin secretion, decreasing glucagon secretion, slowing gastric emptying, and increasing satiety. OBJECTIVE: Published evidence directly comparing GLP-1RAs with other approved treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2D) was systematically reviewed. METHODS: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE and Embase databases to identify papers comparing GLP-1RAs with other classes of glucose-lowering therapy in patients with T2D...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435021/the-mtorc2-pkc-pathway-sustains-compensatory-insulin-secretion-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-in-response-to-metabolic-stress
#4
Yun Xie, Canqi Cui, Aifang Nie, Yan Wang, Qicheng Ni, Yun Liu, Qinglei Yin, Hongli Zhang, Yong Li, Qidi Wang, Yanyun Gu, Guang Ning
BACKGROUND: Compensation of the pancreatic β cell functional mass in response to metabolic stress is key to the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes. The mTORC2 pathway governs fuel metabolism and β cell functional mass. It is unknown whether mTORC2 is required for regulating metabolic stress-induced β cell compensation. METHODS: We challenged four-week-old β-cell-specific Rictor (a key component of mTORC2)-knockout mice with a high fat diet (HFD) for 4weeks and measured metabolic and pancreatic morphological parameters...
April 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432754/intraclass-differences-in-the-risk-of-hospitalisazion-for-heart-failure-among-type-2-diabetic-patients-initiating-a-dipeptydil-peptidase-4-inhibitor-or-a-sulphonylurea-results-from-the-osmed-health-db-registry
#5
Gian Paolo Fadini, Stefania Saragoni, Pierluigi Russo, Luca Degli Esposti, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Mario Melazzini, Angelo Avogaro
AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is frequent in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and several glucose-lowering medications may increase HF risk. In the SAVOR-TIMI trial, patients on Saxagliptin experienced a 27% higher risk of hospitalisation for HF (HHF). In a retrospective study on 127,555 patients, we showed that DPP-4i therapy was associated with a lower HHF risk than sulphonylurea (SU) therapy. We herein re-analyzed such data to evaluate intraclass differences among DPP-4i and SU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included T2D patients initiating DPP-4i or SU alone or in combination with metformin...
April 21, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432619/assessment-of-saxagliptin-efficacy-meta-analysis-of-14-phase-2-and-3-clinical-trials
#6
Mikaela Sjöstrand, Cheryl Wei, William Cook, Kristina Johnsson, Pia S Pollack, Christina Stahre, Boaz Hirshberg
INTRODUCTION: This meta-analysis of data from 14 phase 2 and 3, double-blind, randomized, controlled 12- and 24-week studies (N = 4632) summarizes saxagliptin efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) across treatment regimens. METHODS: Patients received saxagliptin 5 mg/d or control as either monotherapy (n = 1196 vs placebo), add-on therapy (n = 2139 vs placebo and n = 514 vs uptitrated sulfonylurea), or initial combination therapy (n = 619 vs control monotherapy)...
April 21, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431670/use-of-glp-1-receptor-agonists-for-type-2-diabetes-treatment-intensification-after-basal-insulin-failure
#7
M Joubert, Y Reznik
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are part of the armamentarium for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), although recent guidelines have mainly recommended their use on top of oral treatments when a single or combination of two or three oral hypoglycaemic agents has failed to lower HbA1c levels below the individualized target range. In such situations, the decision to use GLP-1RAs is mostly driven by their high level of efficacy, their effect on body weight balance and their safety considerations, such as low hypoglycaemic risk...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431668/glp-1-receptor-agonists-in-nafld
#8
J-M Petit, B Vergès
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is very common in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with approximately two-thirds having a diagnosis of the disease. Currently, the only validated treatment for NAFLD is weight loss. A number of studies of animal models and human trials have evaluated the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) on liver fat content and suggest that the treatment could represent a new alternative for NAFLD management. In this review, our focus is on the main studies regarding the effects of GLP-1RAs on NAFLD...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431666/glp-1-receptor-agonists-and-heart-failure-in-diabetes
#9
André J Scheen
The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is increasing in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and glucose-lowering agents have distinctive effects on the risk of developing HF that requires hospitalization. Such an increased risk has been consistently reported with thiazolidinediones (glitazones) and perhaps also with the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor saxagliptin (at least in SAVOR - TIMI 53), whereas a markedly decreased risk was highlighted with the sodium - glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin in EMPA-REG OUTCOME...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428363/phlpp-a-putative-cellular-target-during-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#10
Alpana Mathur, Vivek Kumar Pandey, Poonam Kakkar
Progressive research in the past decade converges to the impact of PHLPP (Pleckstrin homology domain and leucine rich repeat protein phosphatase) in regulating the cellular metabolism through PI3K/Akt inhibition. Defects in the PKB/Akt signaling coordinates with impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance, identified during T2D, obesity and cardiovascular disorders which brings in the relevance of PHLPPs in the metabolic paradigm. In this review, we discuss the impact of PHLPP isoforms in insulin signaling and its associated cellular events including mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage, autophagy and cell death...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428224/familial-hypercholesterolemia-and-type-2-diabetes-in-the-old-order-amish
#11
Huichun Xu, Kathleen A Ryan, Thomas J Jaworek, Lorraine Southam, Jeffrey G Reid, John D Overton, Aris Baras, Marja K Puurunen, Eleftheria Zeggini, Simeon I Taylor, Alan R Shuldiner, Braxton D Mitchell
Alleles associated with lower levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have recently been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), highlighting the complex relationship between LDL-C and diabetes. This observation begs the question whether LDL-C-raising alleles are associated with a decreased risk of T2D. This issue was recently addressed in a large familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) screening study, which reported a lower prevalence of self-reported diabetes in FH subjects than age-matched relatives without FH...
April 20, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428013/-the-monophasic-pattern-in-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-as-a-predictive-risk-factor-of-type-2-diabetes-in-obese-paediatric-patients
#12
Aura D Herrera-Martínez, Patricia Enes, María Martín-Frías, Belén Roldán, Rosa Yelmo, Raquel Barrio
INTRODUCTION: The onset of obesity at young ages is strongly associated with the early development of type 2diabetes (T2D). The shape of the curves of glucose and insulin curves during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) could predict the risk of developing T2D. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the morphology of the OGTT and determine T2D risk factors in a mainly Caucasian population of children and adolescents. METHODS: Observational retrospective study including 588 patients (309 males, 279 females) with a mean age of 11...
April 17, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427311/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-clinic-based-mediterranean-style-diet-intervention-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk-for-hispanic-americans-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Laura Cubillos, Yanire Estrada Del Campo, Khalil Harbi, Thomas Keyserling, Carmen Samuel-Hodge, Daniel S Reuland
Purpose The purpose of the study was to modify a previously tested Spanish language version of a Mediterranean (Med)-style dietary intervention so that the dietary recommendations align with the cultural and social needs of Hispanic Americans (HAs) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and evaluate the modified intervention's feasibility and acceptability. Methods In phase I (formative), semi-structured interviews and focus groups were used to refine the intervention content and format for delivery to HAs with T2D receiving care at a large primary care practice...
April 1, 2017: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427059/the-burden-of-diabetes-emerging-data
#14
Paola Maffi, Antonio Secchi
In recent times, the global prevalence of diabetes has increased substantially, reaching 8.3% in 2014, which corresponds to 387 million patients. Studies in Europe and USA have shown increased incidence of type 1 Diabetes (T1D) over time at a rate of 3-5% per year. Another most worrying feature of the rapid increase of diabetes is the emergence of type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in children, adolescents, and young adults. The well-known behavioral risks factors and epigenetic mechanisms recently observed require an integrated approach to prevent T2D...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425473/2d-dige-as-a-strategy-to-identify-serum-biomarkers-in-mexican-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-with-different-body-mass-index
#15
Erik E Gómez-Cardona, Eric E Hernández-Domínguez, Aída J Velarde-Salcedo, Alberto-Barrera- Pacheco, Agustín Diaz-Gois, Antonio De León-Rodríguez, Ana P Barba de la Rosa
Obesity and type 2 diabetes(T2D) are the most prevalent and serious metabolic diseases affecting people worldwide. However racial and ethnic disparities seems to be a risk factor for their development. Mexico has been named as one of the largest populations with the highest prevalence of diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to identify novel T2D-associated proteins in Mexican patients. Blood samples were collected from 62 Mexican patients with T2D and they were grouped according to their body mass index(BMI)...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424732/evidence-for-loss-in-identity-de-differentiation-and-trans-differentiation-of-islet-%C3%AE-cells-in-type-2-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Chad S Hunter, Roland W Stein
The two main types of diabetes mellitus have distinct etiologies, yet a similar outcome: loss of islet β-cell function that is solely responsible for the secretion of the insulin hormone to reduce elevated plasma glucose toward euglycemic levels. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has traditionally been characterized by autoimmune-mediated β-cell death leading to insulin-dependence, whereas type 2 diabetes (T2D) has hallmarks of peripheral insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and cell death. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that, especially during T2D, key components of β-cell failure involves: (1) loss of cell identity, specifically proteins associated with mature cell function (e...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424290/skin-derived-precursors-from-human-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-yield-dysfunctional-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#17
Sarah Katherina Steinbach, Terrence M Yau, Maral Ouzounian, Husam Abdel-Qadir, Mark Chandy, Thomas Waddell, Mansoor Husain
Objective: Few methods enable molecular and cellular studies of vascular aging or type-2 diabetes (T2D). Here we report a new approach to studying human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) pathophysiology by examining VSMCs differentiated from progenitors found in skin. Approach and Results: Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) were cultured from biopsies (N=164, ~1 cm(2)) taken from the edges of surgical incisions of older adults (N=158; males 72%; mean age 62.7±13 years) undergoing cardiothoracic surgery, and differentiated into VSMCs at high efficiency (>80% yield)...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424160/heterogeneous-nuclear-ribonucleoprotein-f-stimulates-sirtuin-1-gene-expression-and-attenuates-nephropathy-progression-in-diabetic-mice
#18
Chao-Sheng Lo, Yixuan Shi, Isabelle Chenier, Anindya Ghosh, Chin-Han Wu, Jean-Francois Cailhier, Jean Ethier, Jean-Baptiste Lattouf, Janos G Filep, Julie R Ingelfinger, Shao-Ling Zhang, John S D Chan
We investigated the mechanism of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) renoprotective action on a type 2 diabetic (T2D) (db/db) mice. Immortalized rat renal proximal tubular cells (IRPTCs) and human T2D kidneys were also studied. Db/db mice developed hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and nephropathy at age 20 weeks compared to their db/m littermates. These abnormalities, with the exception of hyperglycemia, were attenuated in db/db hnRNP F-transgenic (Tg) mice specifically overexpressing hnRNP F in their RPTCs...
April 19, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423036/metabolic-syndrome-serum-uric-acid-and-renal-risk-in-patients-with-t2d
#19
Francesca Viazzi, Pamela Piscitelli, Carlo Giorda, Antonio Ceriello, Stefano Genovese, Giuseppina Russo, Pietro Guida, Paola Fioretto, Salvatore De Cosmo, Roberto Pontremoli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolic Syndrome (Mets) and increased serum uric acid (SUA), are well known renal risk predictors and often coexist in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether they independently contribute to the onset of CKD is at present unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Within the AMD Annals database we identified patients with T2D and normal renal function and urine albumin excretion at baseline and regular follow-up visits during a 4-year period. Blood pressure, BMI, HDL, triglycerides, and SUA were available in 14,267 patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422298/bridging-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-assembling-the-puzzle-pieces-in-the-quest-for-the-molecules-with-therapeutic-and-preventive-potential
#20
REVIEW
Ana Marta de Matos, Maria Paula de Macedo, Amélia Pilar Rauter
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two age-related amyloid diseases that affect millions of people worldwide. Broadly supported by epidemiological data, the higher incidence of AD among type 2 diabetic patients led to the recognition of T2D as a tangible risk factor for the development of AD. Indeed, there is now growing evidence on brain structural and functional abnormalities arising from brain insulin resistance and deficiency, ultimately highlighting the need for new approaches capable of preventing the development of AD in type 2 diabetic patients...
April 19, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
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