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J K Kiecolt-Glaser, C P Fagundes, R Andridge, J Peng, W B Malarkey, D Habash, M A Belury
Depression, stress and diet can all alter inflammation. This double-blind, randomized crossover study addressed the impact of daily stressors and a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on inflammatory responses to high-fat meals. During two separate 9.5 h admissions, 58 healthy women (38 breast cancer survivors and 20 demographically similar controls), mean age 53.1 years, received either a high saturated fat meal or a high oleic sunflower oil meal. The Daily Inventory of Stressful Events assessed prior day stressors and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV evaluated MDD...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Elena Milanesi, Carlo Maj, Luisella Bocchio-Chiavetto, Elisabetta Maffioletti
Preclinical Research Alterations in small non-coding RNAs have been observed in many human disease states including cancer, cardiovascular, developmental, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. These molecules have recently raised the interest of the scientific community for novel therapeutic approaches. Nanotechnologies, including the development of sophisticated nanoparticles, offer new ways for the delivery of small RNA-based therapies. The nanoparticle delivery method appears attractive, but so far most of the work in this area has been conducted in the context of cancer...
September 16, 2016: Drug Development Research
D Leguay
This article attempts to identify and put into perspective the different approaches that could globally prevent the suffering induced by schizophrenia, from the detection of early psychosis to the impact on individual and family functioning and emotional health. Schizophrenia causes, at the community level, a number of difficult consequences and associated costs, which likely could be reduced if specific strategies, already known and documented internationally, were applied. Two areas not explored in this article: the role of medication and the issue of suicide prevention...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
E Mahmoudi, M J Cairns
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent an important class of small regulatory RNAs that control gene expression posttranscriptionally by targeting mRNAs for degradation or translation inhibition. Early studies have revealed a complex role for miRNAs in major biological processes such as development, differentiation, growth and metabolism. MiR-137 in particular, has been of great interest due to its critical role in brain function and putative involvement in the etiology of both neuropsychiatric disorders and cancer. Several lines of evidence suggest that development, differentiation and maturation of the nervous system is strongly linked to the expression of miR-137 and its regulation of a large number of downstream target genes in various pathways...
September 13, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Jacob T Ark, Kelvin A Moses
Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a condition in which a 46, XY male displays masculine external genitalia, but internally retains developed Müllerian duct structures (uterus, fallopian tubes, and upper two-thirds vagina). Thoughtful operative consideration is needed to maximize the therapeutic benefit while minimizing the risk of hypogonadism, infertility, and erectile dysfunction. We report a 53-year-old male with a pelvic mass incidentally discovered on routine ultrasound, intra-operatively discovered to be PMDS...
July 2016: Urology Annals
Caitlin R Meeker, Daniel M Geynisman, Brian L Egleston, Michael J Hall, Karen Y Mechanic, Marijo Bilusic, Elizabeth R Plimack, Lainie P Martin, Margaret von Mehren, Bianca Lewis, Yu-Ning Wong
PURPOSE: Recent studies have demonstrated increasing rates of financial toxicities and emotional distress related to cancer treatment. This study assessed and characterized the relationships among financial distress, emotional symptoms, and overall distress in patients with cancer. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of patients with cancer who visited our outpatient medical oncology and psychiatry clinics completed a pen-and-paper survey. The survey assessed demographics; cost concerns; and financial, emotional, and overall distress...
July 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
Pedro-Antonio Regidor, Claus D Volko, Adolf E Schindler, Uwe D Rohr
There are two forms of immune defense, the specific or adaptive immune defense and the unspecific innate immune defense. Vaccination is utilized against specific bacteria via the adaptive immune system. The innate immunity DNA stress defense is a non-toxic mechanism developed in yeasts and conserved in mammals and in plants. Although the steroidal hormone cascade has overtaken the stress response and allows superfast response via non-genomic receptors, the old innate immunity response is still mediated via the steroidal hormones cascade...
June 7, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Andreas Buck, Clemens Decristoforo
The EANM 2015 Annual Congress, held from October 10th to 14th in Hamburg, Germany, was outstanding in many respects. With 5550 participants, this was by far the largest European congress concerning nuclear medicine. More than 1750 scientific presentations were submitted, with more than 250 abstracts from young scientists, indicating that the future success of our discipline is fuelled by a high number of young individuals becoming involved in a multitude of scientific activities. Significant improvements have been made in molecular imaging of cancer, particularly in prostate cancer...
September 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Michael C Mithoefer, Charles S Grob, Timothy D Brewerton
4-phosphorloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (psilocybin) and methylenedioxymethamfetamine (MDMA), best known for their illegal use as psychedelic drugs, are showing promise as therapeutics in a resurgence of clinical research during the past 10 years. Psilocybin is being tested for alcoholism, smoking cessation, and in patients with advanced cancer with anxiety. MDMA is showing encouraging results as a treatment for refractory post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety in autistic adults, and anxiety associated with a life-threatening illness...
May 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
C C Minicã, H Mbarek, R Pool, C V Dolan, D I Boomsma, J M Vink
By running gene and pathway analyses for several smoking behaviours in the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (TAG) sample of 74 053 individuals, 21 genes and several chains of biological pathways were implicated. Analyses were carried out using the HYbrid Set-based Test (HYST) as implemented in the Knowledge-based mining system for Genome-wide Genetic studies software. Fifteen genes are novel and were not detected with the single nucleotide polymorphism-based approach in the original TAG analysis. For quantity smoked, 14 genes passed the false discovery rate of 0...
March 29, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Jared K Woods, Blanka Rogina
The epigenetic regulation of DNA structure and function is essential for changes in gene expression involved in development, growth, and maintenance of cellular function. Epigenetic changes include histone modifications such as methylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins have a major role in epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure. HDACs are enzymes that catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from lysine residues within histones, as well as a range of other proteins including transcriptional factors...
February 26, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Ángel L Montejo, Celso Arango, Miguel Bernardo, José L Carrasco, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Juan J Cruz, Javier Del Pino, Miguel A García Escudero, Clemente García Rizo, Ana González-Pinto, Ana I Hernández, Manuel Martín Carrasco, Fermin Mayoral Cleries, Jaqueline Mayoral van Son, M Teresa Mories, Isabella Pachiarotti, Salvador Ros, Eduard Vieta
INTRODUCTION: Iatrogenic hyperprolactinaemia (IHPRL) has been more frequently related to some antipsychotic drugs that provoke an intense blockade of dopamine D2 receptors. There is a wide variation in clinical practice, and perhaps some more awareness between clinicians is needed. Due to the high frequency of chronic treatment in severe mental patients, careful attention is recommended on the physical risk. IHPRL symptoms could be underestimated without routine examination. METHODOLOGY: An intense scientific literature search was performed in order to draw up a multidisciplinary consensus, including different specialists of psychiatry, endocrinology, oncology and internal medicine, and looking for a consensus about clinical risk and detection of IHPRL following evidence-based medicine criteria levels (EBM I- IV)...
July 2016: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
P Tuppin, S Samson, N Colinot, C Gastaldi-Menager, A Fagot-Campagna, C Gissot
BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate healthcare use among people covered by one of the two complementary healthcare insurance schemes available for people with low annual income: CMUC (universal complementary healthcare insurance) and, for people whose income exceeds the CMUC ceiling, ACS (aid for complementary healthcare insurance). Comparisons were made between CMUC and ACS beneficiaries versus CMUC and ACS non-beneficiaries and between CMUC beneficiaries and ACS beneficiaries...
April 2016: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Christian Imboden, Martin Hatzinger
Suicidality is a common problem in the general hospital. Patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders or during a psychosocial crisis can develop suicidal ideation during their stay at the general hospital, especially if they suffer from chronic disease. Some somatic disorders, such as cancer, epilepsy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, stroke and chronic pain conditions are associated with an increased risk of suicide. The fact that (1) a major part of patients are treated in the emergency room (ER) after a suicide attempt and (2) a suicide attempt is the strongest predictor for later completed suicide emphasizes the importance of expertise in dealing with suicidal patients in the ER...
October 2015: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Hiroki Kawashima, Eizaburo Ohno, Daijuro Hayashi, Takamichi Kuwahara, Tomomasa Morishima, Manabu Kawai, Hiroki Suhara, Tomoaki Takeyama, Takeshi Yamamura, Kohei Funasaka, Masanao Nakamura, Ryoji Miyahara, Osamu Watanabe, Masatoshi Ishigami, Miho Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kimura, Norio Ozaki, Senju Hashimoto, Hidemi Goto, Yoshiki Hirooka
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer have severe pain, anxiety, and depression, and these symptoms deteriorate quality of life (QOL). Previous study reported that early psychiatric intervention for advanced cancer patients may improve QOL. We evaluated the trajectory of health-related QOL (HRQOL) in patients with pancreatic cancer after an early psychiatric intervention. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed in 108 pancreatic cancer patients who received consultation liaison psychiatry from November, 2011 to October, 2014 at Nagoya University Hospital...
March 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Luigi Grassi, Maria Alejandra Berardi, Federica Ruffilli, Elena Meggiolaro, Elisabeth Andritsch, Agustina Sirgo, Rosangela Caruso, Eva Juan Linares, Marta Bellé, Sara Massarenti, Maria Giulia Nanni
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) continue to be a distressing problem still reported by cancer patients, with negative consequences on quality of life (QoL). AIMS: To prospectively explore the association of psychosocial variables, including emotional distress, maladaptive coping styles and the doctor-patient relationship, with CINV and QoL among cancer outpatients. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 302 consecutive cancer patients (response rate 80...
2015: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Ritu Lakhtakia, Ikram Burney, Asim Qureshi, Sinan Al-Azawi, Hamid Al-Badi, Shaikha Al-Hajri
This article narrates a multifaceted educational journey undertaken by a medical student through a weekly SCRAPS (surgery, clinical disciplines, radiology, anatomy, psychiatry and laboratory sciences) clinico-pathological meeting held in the College of Medicine & Health Sciences at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman. Through a presentation titled 'Unveiling Cancer', the multidisciplinary and interprofessional audience witnessed a simulated interaction between a medical student, a technologist peer and tutors in medicine, pathology and radiology...
August 2015: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Bernard J Crespi, Matthew C Go
Tradeoffs centrally mediate the expression of human adaptations. We propose that tradeoffs also influence the prevalence and forms of human maladaptation manifest in disease. By this logic, increased risk for one set of diseases commonly engenders decreased risk for another, diametric, set of diseases. We describe evidence for such diametric sets of diseases from epidemiological, genetic and molecular studies in four clinical domains: (i) psychiatry (autism vs psychotic-affective conditions), (ii) rheumatology (osteoarthritis vs osteoporosis), (iii) oncology and neurology (cancer vs neurodegenerative disorders) and (iv) immunology (autoimmunity vs infectious disease)...
2015: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Flávia Lima Osório, Manuela Polidoro Lima, Marcos Hortes N Chagas
This study evaluated sensitivity/specificity of self-report instruments for the screening of psychiatric disorders/symptoms in cancer outpatients like: current/past major depression, dysthymia, alcohol abuse and dependence, tobacco abuse and dependence, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, phobias, current mania, delusion and hallucination. First, 1384 patients responded to several self-assessment instruments. Then, 400 patients, were then interviewed by telephone to confirm the presence/absence of psychiatric diagnosis...
October 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
M Adas, G Adas, B Koc, F Ozulker
AIM: Thyroid incidentaloma is defined as an unsuspected, asymptomatic thyroid lesion that is discovered on an imaging study. The purpose of this study is to determine incidentally identified thyroid lesions by FDG-PET/CT in cancer patients by virtue of preoperative staging and to pay attention how should be the management of these patients with thyroid lesion. METHODS: From January 2011 to January 2013, 2654 patients underwent FDG-PET/CT in our institution. Among them, 34 patients had thyroid incidentaloma...
September 2015: Minerva Endocrinologica
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