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Andrew B Rosenkrantz, James S Babb, Samir S Taneja, Justin M Ream
Purpose To test the impact of existing Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 (V2) decision rules, as well as of proposed adjustments to these decision rules, on detection of Gleason score (GS) 7 or greater (GS ≥7) prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Two radiologists independently provided PI-RADS V2 scores for the dominant lesion on 343 prostate magnetic resonance (MR) examinations. Diagnostic performance for GS ≥7 tumor was assessed by using MR imaging-ultrasonography fusion-targeted biopsy as the reference...
October 26, 2016: Radiology
Adelazil de Brito Fabricio Neta, Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento, Caroline Miranda Biondi, Peter van Straaten, Sheila Maria Bretas Bittar
Fernando de Noronha is a small volcanic archipelago in the Southern Atlantic, some 350 km NE of the city of Natal in NE Brazil. These remote volcanic islands represent a largely pristine environment, distant from sources of anthropogenic contamination. This study was carried out to determine the natural concentrations of Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn in the A and B horizons of soils of Fernando de Noronha. The aims of the study were twofold: determine whether there is a relationship between the bedrock geology and soils and to establish quality reference values for soils from Fernando de Noronha...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Oliver J Gurney-Champion, Thijs Bruins Slot, Eelco Lens, Astrid van der Horst, Remy Klaassen, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven, Geertjan van Tienhoven, Jeanin E van Hooft, Aart J Nederveen, Arjan Bel
PURPOSE: Biliary stents may cause susceptibility artifacts, gradient-induced artifacts, and radio frequency (RF) induced artifacts on magnetic resonance images, which can hinder accurate target volume delineation in radiotherapy. In this study, the authors investigated and quantified the magnitude of these artifacts for stents of different materials. METHODS: Eight biliary stents made of nitinol, platinum-cored nitinol, stainless steel, or polyethylene from seven vendors, with different lengths (57-98 mm) and diameters (3...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Marco Bonetti, Jean-Marc Zanotti
Nanometric confinement of fluids in porous media is a classical way to stabilize metastable states. Calorimetric studies give insight on the behavior of confined liquids compared to bulk liquids. We have developed and built a simple quasi-adiabatic AC calorimeter for heat capacity measurement of confined liquids in porous media in a temperature range between 150 K and 360 K. Taking the fully hydrated porous medium as a reference, we address the thermal behavior of water as a monolayer on the surface of a porous silica glass (Vycor)...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Iam Choon Khoo, Chun-Wei Chen, Tsung-Jui Ho
In this paper, we show that photosensitive azo-dye doped Blue-phase liquid crystals (BPLC) formed by natural molecular self-assembly are capable of high diffraction efficiency holographic recording with memory that can be prolonged from few seconds to several minutes by uniform illumination with the reference beam. Operating in the Bragg regime, we have observed 50 times improvement in the grating diffraction efficiency and shorter recording time compared to previous investigations. The enabling mechanism is BPLC's lattice distortion and index modulation caused by the action of light on the azo-dopant; upon photo-excitation, the azo-molecules undergo transformation from the oblong-shaped Trans-state to the bent-shaped Cis-state, imparting disorder and also cause the surrounding BPLC molecules to undergo coupled flow &reorientation leading to lattice distortion and index modulation...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yoshiya Horimoto, Takuo Hayashi, Atsushi Arakawa
Several aspects of the article by Morita et al. (Cancer Medicine 5:1607-18, 2016), examining the spontaneous healing phenomenon with reference to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), require clarification. The concept of "healing", which can perhaps be more accurately termed "regressive change", remains controversial due to a lack of concrete evidence. Since regressive change is characterized by fibrosis and lymphocytes, a cancer nest that appears to lack a distinct basement membrane, surrounded only by lymphocytes, as in Morita et al's Figure 2F, should be meticulously examined because the appearance may correspond to a tumor having just completed the process of invasion...
October 26, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Blair W McPhee, Paul Upchurch, Philip D Mannion, Corwin Sullivan, Richard J Butler, Paul M Barrett
The Early Jurassic of China has long been recognized for its diverse array of sauropodomorph dinosaurs. However, the contribution of this record to our understanding of early sauropod evolution is complicated by a dearth of information on important transitional taxa. We present a revision of the poorly known taxon Sanpasaurus yaoi Young, 1944 from the late Early Jurassic Ziliujing Formation of Sichuan Province, southwest China. Initially described as the remains of an ornithopod ornithischian, we demonstrate that the material catalogued as IVPP V156 is unambiguously referable to Sauropoda...
2016: PeerJ
Wei Feng, Kai Xiao, Wenbing Zhou, Duanwei Zhu, Yiyong Zhou, Yu Yuan, Naidong Xiao, Xiaoqiong Wan, Yumei Hua, Jianwei Zhao
Eichhornia crassipes (EC, water hyacinth) has gained attention due to its alarming reproductive capacity, which subsequently leads to serious ecological damage of water in many eutrophic lakes in the world. The traditional mechanical removal methods have disadvantages. They squander this valuable lignocellulosic resource. Meanwhile, there is a bottleneck for the subsequently reasonable and efficient utilization of EC biomass on a large scale after phytoremediation of polluted water using EC. As a result, the exploration of effective EC utilization technologies has become a popular research field...
October 19, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Steven M Grodsky, Christopher E Moorman, Sarah R Fritts, Steven B Castleberry, T Bently Wigley
Forest regeneration following timber harvest is a principal source of habitat for early-successional birds and characterized by influxes of early-successional vegetation and residual downed woody material. Early-successional birds may use harvest residues for communication, cover, foraging, and nesting. Yet, increased market viability of woody biomass as bioenergy feedstock may intensify harvest residue removal. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate effects of varying intensities of woody biomass harvest on the early-successional bird community; and (2) document early-successional bird use of harvest residues in regenerating stands...
2016: PloS One
Filipa R Fernandes Simoes, Nitin Kumar Batra, Bashir H Warsama, Christian G Canlas, Shashikant Pandurang Patole, Tahir F Yapici, Pedro M F J Costa
Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) is a common, relatively low cost and straightforward analytical technique for the study of trace quantities of metals in solid materials but its applicability to nanocarbons (e.g. graphene and nanotubes) has suffered from the lack of efficient digestion steps and certified reference materials (CRM). Here, various commercial and certified graphitic carbon materials were subjected to a "two-steps" microwave-assisted acid digestion procedure and the concentration of up to 18 elements was analysed by ICP-OES...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Shenglin Yang, Zongfen Wu, Wei Lin, Longxin Xu, Long Cheng, Lin Zhou
In order to understand the status of Salmonella contamination of feed production chain in Karst rural areas, southwest of China, a total of 1077 feed samples including animal feed materials and feed products were randomly collected from different sectors of feed chain covering feed mills, farms, and feed sales in nine regions of Karst rural areas between 2009 and 2012, to conduct Salmonella test. The different positive rates with Salmonella contamination were detected, the highest was 4.7 % in 2009, the lowest was 0...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Carsten R Bjarkam, Andreas N Glud, Dariusz Orlowski, Jens Christian H Sørensen, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher
During the last 20 years pigs have become increasingly popular in large animal translational neuroscience research as an economical and ethical feasible substitute to non-human primates. The anatomy of the pig telencephalon is, however, not well known. We present, accordingly, a detailed description of the surface anatomy and cytoarchitecture of the Göttingen minipig telencephalon based on macrophotos and consecutive high-power microphotographs of 15 μm thick paraffin embedded Nissl-stained coronal sections...
October 24, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
David W Templeton, Justin B Sluiter, Amie Sluiter, Courtney Payne, David P Crocker, Ling Tao, Ed Wolfrum
BACKGROUND: In an effort to find economical, carbon-neutral transportation fuels, biomass feedstock compositional analysis methods are used to monitor, compare, and improve biofuel conversion processes. These methods are empirical, and the analytical variability seen in the feedstock compositional data propagates into variability in the conversion yields, component balances, mass balances, and ultimately the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). We report the average composition and standard deviations of 119 individually extracted National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) bagasse [Reference Material (RM) 8491] run by seven analysts over 7 years...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Guosheng Yang, Hirofumi Tazoe, Masatoshi Yamada
In order to measure trace (236)U and (236)U/(238)U in environmental samples with a high matrix effect, a novel and simple method was developed that makes the digestion and purification procedures compatible with advanced triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A total dissolution of sample with HF + HNO3 + HClO4 was followed by chromatographic separation with a single resin column containing normal type DGA resin (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) as the extractant system. The analytical accuracy and precision of (236)U/(238)U ratios, measured as (236)U(16)O(+)/(238)U(16)O(+), were examined by using the reference materials IAEA-135, IAEA-385, IAEA-447, and JSAC 0471...
November 9, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Hye Jin Yoo, Sung Hwan Hong, Hye Yeon Oh, Ja-Young Choi, Hee Dong Chae, Joong Mo Ahn, Heung Sik Kang
Purpose To determine the agreement of fat-suppressed (FS) fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and contrast material-enhanced (CE) T1-weighted MR imaging for the assessment of peripatellar synovitis. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for patient informed consent. Thirty-three patients with knee pain underwent 3-T MR imaging. The protocol consisted of routine clinical sequences followed by the FLAIR FS sequence (inversion time, 2200 msec) and CE T1-weighted imaging...
October 24, 2016: Radiology
Yiming Zhao, Nong Zhang, Guangyao Si
Monitoring of roof activity is a primary measure adopted in the prevention of roof collapse accidents and functions to optimize and support the design of roadways in underground coalmines. However, traditional monitoring measures, such as using mechanical extensometers or electronic gauges, either require arduous underground labor or cannot function properly in the harsh underground environment. Therefore, in this paper, in order to break through this technological barrier, a novel monitoring system for roof safety control in underground coal mining, using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) material as a perceived element and transmission medium, has been developed...
October 21, 2016: Sensors
Ryuichi Doizaki, Junji Watanabe, Maki Sakamoto
Several pairs of Japanese adjective words pertaining to a material's properties, such as roughness and hardness, have been used in Japanese studies to quantitatively evaluate variations in tactile sensations. This method asks observers to analyze their perceptual experiences one by one. An alternative notion is that human perceptual recognition is performed as a whole rather than by using fragmented factors. Based on this notion, we propose a system that can automatically estimate multidimensional ratings of touch from a single sound-symbolic word that has been spontaneously and intuitively expressed by a user...
October 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
He Huang, Hong Lin, Stephen V Kershaw, Andrei S Susha, Wallace C H Choy, Andrey L Rogach
Beneficial role of an insulating material polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) as a solution additive or an additional hole blocking layer to enhance the performance of electroluminescent green light emitting devices (LEDs) based on CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals is demonstrated. POSS improves the surface coverage and the morphological features of the films deposited either from supernatant or suspension of perovskite nanocrystals. The external quantum efficiency and the luminance efficiency of LEDs with an additional POSS layer reach 0...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Miklós Hegedűs, Edit Tóth-Bodrogi, Szabolcs Németh, János Somlai, Tibor Kovács
The raw materials of the phosphate fertilizer industry are the various apatite minerals. Some of these have high levels of natural radionuclides, and thus phosphate fertilizers contain significant amounts of U-238, K-40 and Ra-226. These can leach out of the fertilizers used in large quantities for resupplying essential nutrients in the soil and can then enter the food chain through plants, thereby increasing the internal dose of the affected population. In the current study, the radiological risk of eight commercially available phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate, NPK, PK) and their leaching behaviours were investigated using different techniques (gamma and alpha spectrometry), and the dose contributions of using these fertilizers were estimated...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Stephanie Wong, Muireann Irish, Eric D Leshikar, Audrey Duarte, Maxime Bertoux, Greg Savage, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Michael Hornberger
Encoding information in reference to the self enhances subsequent memory for the source of this information. In healthy adults, self-referential processing has been proposed to be mediated by the cortical midline structures (CMS), with functional differentiation between anterior-ventral, anterior-dorsal and posterior regions. While both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients show source memory impairment, it remains unclear whether they show a typical memory advantage for self-referenced materials...
October 3, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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