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Circadian Clock

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087932/the-complexity-of-fungal-vision
#1
Reinhard Fischer, Jesus Aguirre, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Luis M Corrochano
Life, as we know it, would not be possible without light. Light is not only a primary source of energy, but also an important source of information for many organisms. To sense light, only a few photoreceptor systems have developed during evolution. They are all based on an organic molecule with conjugated double bonds that allows energy transfer from visible (or UV) light to its cognate protein to translate the primary physical photoresponse to cell-biological actions. The three main classes of receptors are flavin-based blue-light, retinal-based green-light (such as rhodopsin), and linear tetrapyrrole-based red-light sensors...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087763/circadian-kinetics-of-cell-cycle-progression-in-adult-neurogenic-niches-of-a-diurnal-vertebrate
#2
Veronica Akle, Alexander J Stankiewicz, Vasili Kharchenko, Lili Yu, Peter V Kharchenko, Irina V Zhdanova
: The circadian system may regulate adult neurogenesis via intracellular molecular clock mechanisms or by modifying the environment of neurogenic niches, with daily variation in growth factors or nutrients depending on the animal's diurnal or nocturnal life-style. In a diurnal vertebrate, zebrafish, we studied circadian distribution of immunohistochemical markers of the cell division cycle (CDC) in five of the sixteen neurogenic niches of adult brain, the dorsal telencephalon, habenula, preoptic area, hypothalamus and cerebellum...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087238/lymphocyte-circadian-clocks-control-lymph-node-trafficking-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#3
David Druzd, Olga Matveeva, Louise Ince, Ute Harrison, Wenyan He, Christoph Schmal, Hanspeter Herzel, Anthony H Tsang, Naoto Kawakami, Alexei Leliavski, Olaf Uhl, Ling Yao, Leif Erik Sander, Chien-Sin Chen, Kerstin Kraus, Alba de Juan, Sophia Martina Hergenhan, Marc Ehlers, Berthold Koletzko, Rainer Haas, Werner Solbach, Henrik Oster, Christoph Scheiermann
Lymphocytes circulate through lymph nodes (LN) in search for antigen in what is believed to be a continuous process. Here, we show that lymphocyte migration through lymph nodes and lymph occurred in a non-continuous, circadian manner. Lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes peaked at night onset, with cells leaving the tissue during the day. This resulted in strong oscillations in lymphocyte cellularity in lymph nodes and efferent lymphatic fluid. Using lineage-specific genetic ablation of circadian clock function, we demonstrated this to be dependent on rhythmic expression of promigratory factors on lymphocytes...
January 6, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076761/timing-is-everything
#4
Anna Mae Diehl
In a recent issue of Cancer Cell, Kettner and colleagues (2016) link disruption of normal circadian rhythms to NASH and associated liver cancer, suggesting that molecular clocks, as well as their regulators and target genes, might provide novel therapeutic targets in these diseases.
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076760/enriching-the-circadian-proteome
#5
Joseph S Takahashi
Circadian clocks regulate most aspects of physiology and metabolism. Genome-wide approaches have uncovered widespread circadian rhythms in the transcriptome, cistrome, and epigenome of mice, and now two proteomics studies in this issue (Robles et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016) reveal extensive circadian regulation of the nuclear and phosphoproteome.
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076377/comparative-analysis-of-vertebrate-diurnal-circadian-transcriptomes
#6
Greg Boyle, Kerstin Richter, Henry D Priest, David Traver, Todd C Mockler, Jeffrey T Chang, Steve A Kay, Ghislain Breton
From photosynthetic bacteria to mammals, the circadian clock evolved to track diurnal rhythms and enable organisms to anticipate daily recurring changes such as temperature and light. It orchestrates a broad spectrum of physiology such as the sleep/wake and eating/fasting cycles. While we have made tremendous advances in our understanding of the molecular details of the circadian clock mechanism and how it is synchronized with the environment, we still have rudimentary knowledge regarding its connection to help regulate diurnal physiology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074918/regulation-of-plasma-histamine-levels-by-the-mast-cell-clock-and-its-modulation-by-stress
#7
Yuki Nakamura, Kayoko Ishimaru, Shigenobu Shibata, Atsuhito Nakao
At steady state, plasma histamine levels exhibit circadian variations with nocturnal peaks, which is implicated in the nighttime exacerbation of allergic symptoms. However, the regulatory mechanisms are largely unexplored. This study determined how steady-state plasma histamine levels are regulated and affected by environmental factors. We found that plasma histamine levels decreased in mast cell-deficient mice and their circadian variations were lost in mast cell-deficient mice reconstituted with bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) harboring a mutation in the circadian gene Clock...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074036/redox-crisis-underlies-conditional-light-dark-lethality-in-cyanobacterial-mutants-that-lack-the-circadian-regulator-rpaa
#8
Spencer Diamond, Benjamin E Rubin, Ryan K Shultzaberger, You Chen, Chase D Barber, Susan S Golden
Cyanobacteria evolved a robust circadian clock, which has a profound influence on fitness and metabolism under daily light-dark (LD) cycles. In the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a functional clock is not required for diurnal growth, but mutants defective for the response regulator that mediates transcriptional rhythms in the wild-type, regulator of phycobilisome association A (RpaA), cannot be cultured under LD conditions. We found that rpaA-null mutants are inviable after several hours in the dark and compared the metabolomes of wild-type and rpaA-null strains to identify the source of lethality...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072817/drosophila-clock-is-required-in-brain-pacemaker-neurons-to-prevent-premature-locomotor-aging-independently-of-its-circadian-function
#9
Alexandra Vaccaro, Abdul-Raouf Issa, Laurent Seugnet, Serge Birman, André Klarsfeld
Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0) and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071711/transient-anhedonia-phenotype-and-altered-circadian-timing-of-behaviour-during-night-time-dim-light-exposure-in-per3-mice-but-not-wildtype-mice
#10
Bruno Jacson Martynhak, Alexandra L Hogben, Panos Zanos, Polymnia Georgiou, Roberto Andreatini, Ian Kitchen, Simon N Archer, Malcolm von Schantz, Alexis Bailey, Daan R van der Veen
Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are 'direct' effects of light on affect, an 'indirect' pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3(-/-) mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3(-/-)) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2-3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067410/the-photolyase-cryptochrome-family-of-proteins-as-dna-repair-enzymes-and-transcriptional-repressors
#11
REVIEW
Ibrahim Halil Kavakli, Ibrahim Baris, Mehmet Tardu, Şeref Gül, Haşimcan Öner, Sibel Çal, Selma Bulut, Darya Yarparvar, Çağlar Berkel, Pınar Ustaoğlu, Cihan Aydın
Light is a very important environmental factor that governs many cellular responses in organisms. As a consequence, organisms possess different kinds of light-sensing photoreceptors to regulate their physiological variables and adapt to a given habitat. The cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) includes photoreceptors that perform different functions in different organisms. Photolyases repair ultraviolet-induced DNA damage by a process known as photoreactivation using photons absorbed from the blue end of the light spectrum...
November 16, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065650/network-dynamics-mediate-circadian-clock-plasticity
#12
Abdelhalim Azzi, Jennifer A Evans, Tanya Leise, Jihwan Myung, Toru Takumi, Alec J Davidson, Steven A Brown
A circadian clock governs most aspects of mammalian behavior. Although its properties are in part genetically determined, altered light-dark environment can change circadian period length through a mechanism requiring de novo DNA methylation. We show here that this mechanism is mediated not via cell-autonomous clock properties, but rather through altered networking within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the circadian "master clock," which is DNA methylated in region-specific manner. DNA methylation is necessary to temporally reorganize circadian phasing among SCN neurons, which in turn changes the period length of the network as a whole...
January 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064405/a-systematic-review-of-circadian-function-chronotype-and-chronotherapy-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Andrew N Coogan, Niall M McGowan
Reports of sleep disturbances in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common in both children and adults; however, the aetiology of such disturbances is poorly understood. One potentially important mechanism which may be implicated in disrupted sleep in ADHD is the circadian CLOCK, a known key regulator of the sleep/wake cycle. In this systematic review, we analyse the evidence for circadian rhythm changes associated with ADHD, as well as assessing evidence for therapeutic approaches involving the circadian CLOCK in ADHD...
January 7, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060940/clock-genes-regulate-the-circadian-expression-of-piezo1-trpv4-connexin26-and-vnut-in-an-ex-vivo-mouse-bladder-mucosa
#14
Tatsuya Ihara, Takahiko Mitsui, Yuki Nakamura, Satoru Kira, Hiroshi Nakagomi, Norifumi Sawada, Yuri Hirayama, Keisuke Shibata, Eiji Shigetomi, Yoichi Shinozaki, Mitsuharu Yoshiyama, Karl-Erik Andersson, Atsuhito Nakao, Masayuki Takeda, Schuichi Koizumi
OBJECTIVES: ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice is an experimental model mouse for nocturia (NOC). Using the bladder mucosa obtained from ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice, we investigated the gene expression rhythms of mechanosensory cation channels such as transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) and Piezo1, and main ATP release pathways including vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) and Connexin26(Cx26), in addition to clock genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight- to twelve-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (WT) and age- and sex-matched C57BL/6 ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice, which were bred under 12-h light/dark conditions for 2 weeks, were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060565/paraspeckles-as-rhythmic-nuclear-mrna-anchorages-responsible-for-circadian-gene-expression
#15
Manon Torres, Denis Becquet, Marie-Pierre Blanchard, Séverine Guillen, Bénédicte Boyer, Mathias Moreno, Jean-Louis Franc, Anne-Marie François-Bellan
Circadian clocks regulate rhythmic gene expression levels by means of mRNA oscillations that are mainly driven by post-transcriptional regulation. We identified a new post-transcriptional mechanism, which involves nuclear bodies called paraspeckles. Major components of paraspeckles including the long noncoding RNA Neat1, which is the structural component, and its major protein partners, as well as the number of paraspeckles, follow a circadian pattern in pituitary cells. Paraspeckles are known to retain within the nucleus RNAs containing inverted repeats of Alu sequences...
January 6, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057520/molecular-basis-for-the-regulation-of-the-circadian-clock-kinases-ck1%C3%AE-and-ck1%C3%AE%C2%B5
#16
REVIEW
Yu Yang, Tingting Xu, Yunfei Zhang, Ximing Qin
CK1δ and CK1ε are unique in the casein kinase 1 family and play critical roles in a number of physiological intracellular pathways. In particular, these kinases are involved in composing the mammalian circadian clock by phosphorylating core clock proteins. Considering that CK1δ/ε phosphorylate other key biological molecules, such as β-catenin and p53, understanding how the kinase activity is regulated would be greatly significant, since they are potential targets to develop pharmacological agents against cancer, pain, and circadian disorders...
January 3, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055273/higher-scores-in-the-extraversion-personality-trait-are-associated-with-a-functional-polymorphism-in-the-per3-gene-in-healthy-subjects
#17
Karen M Jiménez, Angela J Pereira-Morales, Diego A Forero
A polymorphism in the PER3 (period circadian clock 3) gene has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and endophenotypes. We evaluated the possible association of personality domains with the PER3 polymorphism in a sample of healthy subjects: 271 individuals were evaluated with the Big Five Inventory and genotyped for the PER3 Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) polymorphism. We found a significant association between the PER3 polymorphism and the extraversion personality trait (p = 0.0093). The 5/5 genotype carriers showed higher scores for extraversion...
January 5, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054361/the-metabolic-sensor-akin10-modulates-the-arabidopsis-circadian-clock-in-a-light-dependent-manner
#18
Jieun Shin, Alfredo Sánchez-Villarreal, Amanda M Davis, Shen-Xiu Du, Kenneth W Berendzen, Csaba Koncz, Zhaojun Ding, Cuiling Li, Seth J Davis
Plants generate rhythmic metabolism during the repetitive day/night cycle. The circadian clock produces internal biological rhythms to synchronize numerous metabolic processes such that they occur at the required time of day. Metabolism conversely influences clock function by controlling circadian period and phase, and the expression of core-clock genes. Here we show that AKIN10, a catalytic subunit of the evolutionarily conserved key energy sensor Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) complex, plays an important role in the circadian clock...
January 5, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053647/the-plant-leaf-movement-analyzer-palma-a-simple-tool-for-the-analysis-of-periodic-cotyledon-and-leaf-movement-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Lucas Wagner, Christoph Schmal, Dorothee Staiger, Selahattin Danisman
BACKGROUND: The analysis of circadian leaf movement rhythms is a simple yet effective method to study effects of treatments or gene mutations on the circadian clock of plants. Currently, leaf movements are analysed using time lapse photography and subsequent bioinformatics analyses of leaf movements. Programs that are used for this purpose either are able to perform one function (i.e. leaf tip detection or rhythm analysis) or their function is limited to specific computational environments...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052921/the-circadian-oscillator-of-the-cerebral-cortex-molecular-biochemical-and-behavioral-effects-of-deleting-the-arntl-clock-gene-in-cortical-neurons
#20
Tenna Bering, Mikkel Bloss Carstensen, Gitta Wörtwein, Pia Weikop, Martin Fredensborg Rath
A molecular circadian oscillator resides in neurons of the cerebral cortex, but its role is unknown. Using the Cre-LoxP method, we have here abolished the core clock gene Arntl in those neurons. This mouse represents the first model carrying a deletion of a circadian clock component specifically in an extrahypothalamic cell type of the brain. Molecular analyses of clock gene expression in the cerebral cortex of the Arntl conditional knockout mouse revealed disrupted circadian expression profiles, whereas clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus was still rhythmic, thus showing that Arntl is required for normal function of the cortical circadian oscillator...
January 3, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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