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Circadian Clock

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448626/genetic-background-dependent-effects-of-murine-micro-rnas-on-circadian-clock-function
#1
Silke Kiessling, Ahmet Ucar, Kamal Chowdhury, Henrik Oster, Gregor Eichele
MicroRNAs (miRs) are important regulators of a wide range of biological processes. Antagomir studies suggest an implication of miR-132 in the functionality of the mammalian circadian clock. miR-212 and miR-132 are tandemly processed from the same transcript and share the same seed region. We found the clock modulator miR-132 and miR-212 to be expressed rhythmically in the central circadian clock. Consequently, mRNAs implicated in circadian functions may likely be targeted by both miRs. To further characterize the circadian role we generated mice with stable deletion of the miR-132/212 locus and compared the circadian behavior of mutant and wild-type control animals on two genetic backgrounds frequently used in chronobiological research, C57BL/6N and 129/Sv...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447065/circadian-clocks-diets-and-aging
#2
REVIEW
Amol Chaudhari, Richa Gupta, Kuldeep Makwana, Roman Kondratov
Diets and feeding regimens affect many physiological systems in the organism and may contribute to the development or prevention of various pathologies including cardiovascular diseases or metabolic syndromes. Some of the dietary paradigms, such as calorie restriction, have many well-documented positive metabolic effects as well as the potential to extend longevity in different organisms. Recently, the circadian clocks were put forward as integral components of the calorie restriction mechanisms. The circadian clocks generate the circadian rhythms in behavior, physiology, and metabolism; circadian disruption is associated with reduced fitness and decreased longevity...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444394/tissue-specific-dissociation-of-diurnal-transcriptome-rhythms-during-sleep-restriction-in-mice
#3
Jana Husse, Jana-Thabea Kiehn, Johanna L Barclay, Nadine Naujokat, Judit Meyer-Kovac, Hendrik Lehnert, Henrik Oster
Study objectives: Shortened or mistimed sleep affects metabolic homeostasis, which may in part be mediated by dysregulation of endogenous circadian clocks. In this study, we assessed the contribution of sleep disruption to metabolic dysregulation by analysing diurnal transcriptome regulation in metabolic tissues of mice subjected to a sleep restriction paradigm. Methods: Male mice were subjected to 2x5 days of sleep restriction (SR) with enforced waking during the first six hours of the light phase...
April 24, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443630/accelerating-recovery-from-jet-lag-prediction-from-a-multi-oscillator-model-and-its-experimental-confirmation-in-model-animals
#4
Hiroshi Kori, Yoshiaki Yamaguchi, Hitoshi Okamura
The endogenous circadian clock drives oscillations that are completely synchronized with the environmental day-night rhythms with a period of approximately 24 hours. Temporal misalignment between one's internal circadian clock and the external solar time often occurs in shift workers and long-distance travelers; such misalignments are accompanied by sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal distress. Repeated exposure to jet lag and rotating shift work increases the risk of lifestyle-related diseases, such as cardiovascular complaints and metabolic insufficiencies...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442402/chromatic-clocks-color-opponency-in-non-image-forming-visual-function-review
#5
REVIEW
Manuel Spitschan, Robert J Lucas, Timothy M Brown
During dusk and dawn, the ambient illumination undergoes drastic changes in irradiance (or intensity) and spectrum (or color). While the former is a well-studied factor in synchronizing behavior and physiology to the earth's 24-hour rotation, color sensitivity in the regulation of circadian rhythms has not been systematically studied. Drawing on the concept of color opponency, a well-known property of image-forming vision in many vertebrates (including humans), we consider how the spectral shifts during twilight are encoded by a color-opponent sensory system for non-image-forming (NIF) visual functions including phase shifting and melatonin suppression...
April 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440906/familial-longevity-is-characterized-by-high-circadian-rhythmicity-of-serum-cholesterol-in-healthy-elderly-individuals
#6
Rosa van den Berg, Raymond Noordam, Sander Kooijman, Steffy W M Jansen, Abimbola A Akintola, P Eline Slagboom, Hanno Pijl, Patrick C N Rensen, Nienke R Biermasz, Diana van Heemst
The biological clock, whose function deteriorates with increasing age, determines bodily circadian (i.e. 24h) rhythms, including that of cholesterol metabolism. Dampening of circadian rhythms has been associated with aging and disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that individuals with a familial predisposition for longevity have a higher amplitude circadian serum cholesterol concentration rhythm. The aim of this study was to investigate circadian rhythmicity of serum cholesterol concentrations in offspring of nonagenarian siblings and their partners...
April 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440811/evaluation-of-circadian-phenotypes-utilizing-fibroblasts-from-patients-with-circadian-rhythm-sleep-disorders
#7
A Hida, Y Ohsawa, S Kitamura, K Nakazaki, N Ayabe, Y Motomura, K Matsui, M Kobayashi, A Usui, Y Inoue, H Kusanagi, Y Kamei, K Mishima
We evaluated the circadian phenotypes of patients with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) and non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), two different circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs) by measuring clock gene expression rhythms in fibroblast cells derived from individual patients. Bmal1-luciferase (Bmal1-luc) expression rhythms were measured in the primary fibroblast cells derived from skin biopsy samples of patients with DSWPD and N24SWD, as well as control subjects. The period length of the Bmal1-luc rhythm (in vitro period) was distributed normally and was 22...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440582/phytochrome-interacting-factors-mediate-metabolic-control-of-the-circadian-system-in-arabidopsis
#8
Ekaterina Shor, Inyup Paik, Shlomit Kangisser, Rachel Green, Enamul Huq
The circadian (c. 24 h) system has a central role in regulating the timing and coordination of photosynthesis, and in turn photosynthesis and photosynthetic products which are controlled by the circadian clock feedback to affect the circadian oscillator that generates rhythms. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which this feedback occurs. One group of likely candidates for signal transduction to the circadian clock are the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family of transcription factors which have been shown to be involved in numerous signaling pathways in Arabidopsis...
April 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439297/the-influence-of-day-night-cycles-on-biomass-yield-and-composition-of-neochloris-oleoabundans
#9
Lenneke de Winter, Iago Teles Dominguez Cabanelas, Dirk E Martens, René H Wijffels, Maria J Barbosa
BACKGROUND: Day/night cycles regulate the circadian clock of organisms to program daily activities. Many species of microalgae have a synchronized cell division when grown under a day/night cycle, and synchronization might influence biomass yield and composition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the influence of day/night cycle on biomass yield and composition of the green microalgae Neochloris oleoabundans. Hence, we compared continuous turbidostat cultures grown under continuous light with cultures grown under simulated day/night cycles...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439257/high-resolution-recording-of-the-circadian-oscillator-in-primary-mouse-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cell-culture
#10
Volodymyr Petrenko, Yvan Gosmain, Charna Dibner
Circadian clocks have been developed in evolution as an anticipatory mechanism allowing for adaptation to the constantly changing light environment due to rotation of the Earth. This mechanism is functional in all light-sensitive organisms. There is a considerable body of evidence on the tight connection between the circadian clock and most aspects of physiology and metabolism. Clocks, operative in the pancreatic islets, have caught particular attention in the last years due to recent reports on their critical roles in regulation of insulin secretion and etiology of type 2 diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437590/plant-dual-specificity-tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated-kinase-optimizes-light-regulated-growth-and-development-in-arabidopsis
#11
Wen-Yu Huang, Yi-Chen Wu, Hsin-Yi Pu, Ying Wang, Geng-Jen Jang, Shu-Hsing Wu
Light controls vegetative and reproductive development of plants. For a plant, sensing the light input properly ensures coordination with the ever-changing environment. Previously, we found that LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) and LWD2 regulate the circadian clock and photoperiodic flowering. Here we identified Arabidopsis YET ANOTHER KINASE1 (AtYAK1), an evolutionarily conserved protein and a member of dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs), as an interacting protein of LWDs. Our study revealed that AtYAK1 is an important regulator for various light responses, including the circadian clock, photomorphogenesis and reproductive development...
April 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435104/drosophila-pink1-and-parkin-loss-of-function-mutants-display-a-range-of-non-motor-parkinson-s-disease-phenotypes
#12
Hannah Julienne, Edgar Buhl, David S Leslie, James J L Hodge
Parkinson's disease (PD) is more commonly associated with its motor symptoms and the related degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that PD patients also display a wide range of non-motor symptoms, including memory deficits and disruptions of their sleep-wake cycles. These have a large impact on their quality of life, and often precede the onset of motor symptoms, but their etiology is poorly understood. The fruit fly Drosophila has already been successfully used to model PD, and has been used extensively to study relevant non-motor behaviours in other contexts, but little attention has yet been paid to modelling non-motor symptoms of PD in this genetically tractable organism...
April 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434151/cbf2a-cbf4b-genomic-region-copy-numbers-alongside-the-circadian-clock-play-key-regulatory-mechanisms-driving-expression-of-fr-h2-cbfs
#13
Taniya Dhillon, Kengo Morohashi, Eric J Stockinger
The C-Repeat Binding Factors (CBFs) are DNA-binding transcriptional activators that were identified using Arabidopsis thaliana. In barley, Hordeum vulgare, a cluster of CBF genes reside at FROST RESISTANCE-H2, one of two loci having major effects on winter-hardiness. FR-H2 was revealed in a population derived from the winter barley 'Nure' and the spring barley 'Trèmois'. 'Nure' harbors two to three copies of CBF2A and CBF4B as a consequence of tandem iteration of the genomic region encompassing these genes whereas 'Trèmois' harbors single copies, and these copy number differences are associated with their transcript level differences...
April 22, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433925/low-dose-pollutant-mixture-triggers-metabolic-disturbances-in-female-mice-leading-to-common-and-specific-features-as-compared-to-a-high-fat-diet
#14
Emmanuel Labaronne, Claudie Pinteur, Nathalie Vega, Sandra Pesenti, Benoit Julien, Emmanuelle Meugnier-Fouilloux, Hubert Vidal, Danielle Naville, Brigitte Le Magueresse-Battistoni
Environmental pollutants are potential etiologic factors of obesity and diabetes that reach epidemic proportions worldwide. However, it is important to determine if pollutants could exert metabolic defects without directly inducing obesity. The metabolic disturbances triggered in nonobese mice lifelong exposed to a mixture of low-dose pollutants (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxine, polychlorinated biphenyl 153, diethylhexyl-phthalate, and bisphenol A) were compared with changes provoked by a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet not containing the pollutant mixture...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432873/conditional-deletion-of-bmal1-accentuates-microvascular-and-macrovascular-injury
#15
Ashay D Bhatwadekar, Eleni Beli, Diao Yanpeng, Jonathan Chen, Qianyi Luo, Alpha Alex, Sergio Caballero, James M Dominguez, Tatiana E Salazar, Julia V Busik, Mark S Segal, Maria B Grant
The brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein (BMAL)-1 constitutes a major transcriptional regulator of the circadian clock. Here, we explored the impact of conditional deletion of Bmal1 in endothelium and hematopoietic cells in murine models of microvascular and macrovascular injury. We used two models of Bmal1(fx/fx);Tek-Cre mice, a retinal ischemia/reperfusion model and a neointimal hyperplasia model of the femoral artery. Eyes were enumerated for acellular capillaries and were stained for oxidative damage markers using nitrotyrosine immunohistochemistry...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430521/perinatal-light-imprinting-of-circadian-clocks-and-systems-pliccs-a-signature-of-photoperiod-around-birth-on-circadian-system-stability-and-association-with-cancer
#16
Philip Lewis, Thomas C Erren
Recent findings from animal models suggest that plasticity of human circadian clocks and systems may be differentially affected by different paradigms of perinatal photoperiod exposure to the detriment of health in later life, including cancer development. Focusing on the example of cancer, we carry out a series of systematic literature reviews concerning perinatal light imprinting of circadian clocks and systems (PLICCS) in animal models, and concerning the risk of cancer development with the primary determinants of the perinatal photoperiod, namely season of birth or latitude of birth...
April 21, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429400/the-circadian-clock-component-lhy-tells-a-plant-when-to-respond-photosynthetically-to-light-in-nature
#17
Youngsung Joo, Variluska Fragoso, Felipe Yon, Ian T Baldwin, Sang-Gyu Kim
The circadian clock is known to increase plant growth and fitness, and thought to prepare plants for photosynthesis at dawn and dusk; whether this happens in nature was unknown. We transformed the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata to silence two core clock components, NaLHY (irLHY) and NaTOC1 (irTOC1). We characterized growth and light-and dark-adapted photosynthetic rates (Ac ) throughout a 24 h day in empty vector-transformed (EV), irLHY, and irTOC1 plants in the field, and in NaPhyA-and NaPhyB1-silenced plants in the glasshouse...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425940/circadian-clock-cell-division-and-cancer-from-molecules-to-organism
#18
REVIEW
Anton Shostak
As a response to environmental changes driven by the Earth's axial rotation, most organisms evolved an internal biological timer-the so called circadian clock-which regulates physiology and behavior in a rhythmic fashion. Emerging evidence suggests an intimate interplay between the circadian clock and another fundamental rhythmic process, the cell cycle. However, the precise mechanisms of this connection are not fully understood. Disruption of circadian rhythms has a profound impact on cell division and cancer development and, vice versa, malignant transformation causes disturbances of the circadian clock...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425502/revealing-hidden-conformational-space-of-lov-protein-vivid-through-rigid-residue-scan-simulations
#19
Hongyu Zhou, Brian D Zoltowski, Peng Tao
VIVID(VVD) protein is a Light-Oxygen-Voltage(LOV) domain in circadian clock system. Upon blue light activation, a covalent bond is formed between VVD residue Cys108 and its cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide(FAD), and prompts VVD switching from Dark state to Light state with significant conformational deviation. However, the mechanism of this local environment initiated global protein conformational change remains elusive. We employed a recently developed computational approach, rigid residue scan(RRS), to systematically probe the impact of the internal degrees of freedom in each amino acid residue of VVD on its overall dynamics by applying rigid body constraint on each residue in molecular dynamics simulations...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425198/the-cell-adhesion-molecule-epha4-is-involved-in-circadian-clock-functions
#20
Silke Kiessling, Emma K O'Callaghan, Marlène Freyburger, Nicolas Cermakian, Valérie Mongrain
Circadian (~24 h) rhythms of cellular network plasticity in the central circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), have been described. The neuronal network in the SCN regulates photic resetting of the circadian clock as well as stability of the circadian system during both entrained and constant conditions. EphA4, a cell adhesion molecule regulating synaptic plasticity by controlling connections of neurons and astrocytes, is expressed in the SCN. To address whether EphA4 plays a role in circadian photoreception and influences the neuronal network of the SCN, we have analysed circadian wheel-running behavior of EphA4 knockout (EphA4(-/-) ) mice under different light conditions and upon photic resetting, as well as their light-induced protein response in the SCN...
April 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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