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Circadian Clock

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351477/mathematical-analysis-of-circadian-disruption-and-metabolic-re-entrainment-of-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-the-intertwining-entraining-roles-of-light-and-feeding
#1
Seul-A Bae, Ioannis P Androulakis
The circadian rhythms influence the metabolic activity from molecular level to tissue, organ, and host level. Disruption of the circadian rhythms manifest to the host's health as metabolic syndromes including obesity, diabetes, and elevated plasma glucose, eventually leading to cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the mechanism behind the relationship between circadian rhythms and metabolism. To start answering this question, we propose a semi-mechanistic mathematical model to study the effect of circadian disruption on hepatic gluconeogenesis in humans...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351294/a-had-family-phosphatase-csp-6-regulates-the-circadian-output-pathway-in-neurospora-crassa
#2
Xiaoying Zhou, Bin Wang, Jillian M Emerson, Carol S Ringelberg, Scott A Gerber, Jennifer J Loros, Jay C Dunlap
Circadian clocks are ubiquitous in eukaryotic organisms where they are used to anticipate regularly occurring diurnal and seasonal environmental changes. Nevertheless, little is known regarding pathways connecting the core clock to its output pathways. Here, we report that the HAD family phosphatase CSP-6 is required for overt circadian clock output but not for the core oscillation. The loss of function Δcsp-6 deletion mutant is overtly arrhythmic on race tubes under free running conditions; however, reporter assays confirm that the FREQUENCY-WHITE COLLAR COMPLEX core circadian oscillator is functional, indicating a discrete block between oscillator and output...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348553/night-eating-model-shows-time-specific-depression-like-behavior-in-the-forced-swimming-test
#3
Atsushi Haraguchi, Miyabi Fukuzawa, Shiho Iwami, Yutaro Nishimura, Hiroaki Motohashi, Yu Tahara, Shigenobu Shibata
The circadian clock system is associated with feeding and mood. Patients with night eating syndrome (NES) delay their eating rhythm and their mood declines during the evening and night, manifesting as time-specific depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that the NES feeding pattern might cause time-specific depression. We established new NES model by restricted feeding with high-fat diet during the inactive period under normal-fat diet ad libitum. The FST (forced swimming test) immobility time in the NES model group was prolonged only after lights-on, corresponding to evening and early night for humans...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344005/biological-clocks-their-relevance-to-immune-allergic-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Roberto Paganelli, Claudia Petrarca, Mario Di Gioacchino
The 2017 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for the discoveries made in the past 15 years on the genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating many physiological functions, has renewed the attention to the importance of circadian rhythms. These originate from a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, photoentrained via direct connection with melanopsin containing, intrinsically light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells, and it projects to periphery, thus creating an inner circadian rhythm...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339832/clock%C3%AE-19-mutation-modifies-the-manner-of-synchrony-among-oscillation-neurons-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#5
Mitsugu Sujino, Takeshi Asakawa, Mamoru Nagano, Satoshi Koinuma, Koh-Hei Masumoto, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi
In mammals, the principal circadian oscillator exists in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In the SCN, CLOCK works as an essential component of molecular circadian oscillation, and ClockΔ19 mutant mice show unique characteristics of circadian rhythms such as extended free running periods, amplitude attenuation, and high-magnitude phase-resetting responses. Here we investigated what modifications occur in the spatiotemporal organization of clock gene expression in the SCN of ClockΔ19 mutants...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339768/the-characterization-of-the-circadian-clock-in-the-olive-fly-bactrocera-oleae-diptera-tephritidae-reveals-a-drosophila-like-organization
#6
Enrico Bertolini, Christa Kistenpfennig, Pamela Menegazzi, Alexander Keller, Martha Koukidou, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the single most important pest for the majority of olive plantations. Oxitec's self-limiting olive fly technology (OX3097D-Bol) offers an alternative management approach to this insect pest. Because of previously reported asynchrony in the mating time of wild and laboratory strains, we have characterized the olive fly circadian clock applying molecular, evolutionary, anatomical and behavioural approaches. Here we demonstrate that the olive fly clock relies on a Drosophila melanogaster-like organization and that OX3097D-Bol carries a functional clock similar to wild-type strains, confirming its suitability for operational use...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338692/emerging-roles-for-microrna-in-the-regulation-of-drosophila-circadian-clock
#7
REVIEW
Yongbo Xue, Yong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The circadian clock, which operates within an approximately 24-h period, is closely linked to the survival and fitness of almost all living organisms. The circadian clock is generated through a negative transcription-translation feedback loop. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs comprised of approximately 22 nucleotides that post-transcriptionally regulate target mRNA by either inducing mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. RESULTS: In recent years, miRNAs have been found to play important roles in the regulation of the circadian clock, especially in Drosophila...
January 16, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337078/circadian-waves-of-transcriptional-repression-shape-pif-regulated-photoperiod-responsive-growth-in-arabidopsis
#8
Guiomar Martín, Arnau Rovira, Nil Veciana, Judit Soy, Gabriela Toledo-Ortiz, Charlotte M M Gommers, Marc Boix, Rossana Henriques, Eugenio G Minguet, David Alabadí, Karen J Halliday, Pablo Leivar, Elena Monte
Plants coordinate their growth and development with the environment through integration of circadian clock and photosensory pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, rhythmic hypocotyl elongation in short days (SD) is enhanced at dawn by the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) directly inducing expression of growth-related genes [1-6]. PIFs accumulate progressively during the night and are targeted for degradation by active phytochromes in the light, when growth is reduced...
January 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331582/inositol-polyphosphates-contribute-to-cellular-circadian-rhythms-implications-for-understanding-lithium-s-molecular-mechanism
#9
Heather Wei, Dominic Landgraf, George Wang, Michael J McCarthy
Most living organisms maintain cell autonomous circadian clocks that synchronize critical biological functions with daily environmental cycles. In mammals, the circadian clock is regulated by inputs from signaling pathways including glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). The drug lithium has actions on GSK3, and also on inositol metabolism. While it is suspected that lithium's inhibition of GSK3 causes rhythm changes, it is not known if inositol polyphosphates can also affect the circadian clock. We examined whether the signaling molecule inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) has effects on circadian rhythms...
January 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331507/adropin-an-endocrine-link-between-the-biological-clock-and-cholesterol-homeostasis
#10
Sarbani Ghoshal, Joseph R Stevens, Cyrielle Billon, Clemence Girardet, Sadichha Sitaula, Arthur S Leon, D C Rao, James S Skinner, Tuomo Rankinen, Claude Bouchard, Marinelle V Nuñez, Kimber L Stanhope, Deborah A Howatt, Alan Daugherty, Jinsong Zhang, Matthew Schuelke, Edward P Weiss, Alisha R Coffey, Brian J Bennett, Praveen Sethupathy, Thomas P Burris, Peter J Havel, Andrew A Butler
OBJECTIVE: Identify determinants of plasma adropin concentrations, a secreted peptide translated from the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene linked to metabolic control and vascular function. METHODS: Associations between plasma adropin concentrations, demographics (sex, age, BMI) and circulating biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism were assessed in plasma obtained after an overnight fast in humans. The regulation of adropin expression was then assessed in silico, in cultured human cells, and in animal models...
December 30, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330012/basophil-testing-with-cd63-in-pollen-sensitised-patients-is-independent-of-the-circadian-clock
#11
Cecilie Lind, Søren Helbo Skaarup, Axel Lorentz, Hans Jürgen Hoffmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325176/dynamic-motif-occupancy-dynamo-analysis-identifies-transcription-factors-and-their-binding-sites-driving-dynamic-biological-processes
#12
Zheng Kuang, Zhicheng Ji, Jef D Boeke, Hongkai Ji
Biological processes are usually associated with genome-wide remodeling of transcription driven by transcription factors (TFs). Identifying key TFs and their spatiotemporal binding patterns are indispensable to understanding how dynamic processes are programmed. However, most methods are designed to predict TF binding sites only. We present a computational method, dynamic motif occupancy analysis (DynaMO), to infer important TFs and their spatiotemporal binding activities in dynamic biological processes using chromatin profiling data from multiple biological conditions such as time-course histone modification ChIP-seq data...
January 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324865/association-of-circadian-rhythm-genes-arntl-bmal1-and-clock-with-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Polona Lavtar, Gorazd Rudolf, Aleš Maver, Alenka Hodžić, Nada Starčević Čizmarević, Maja Živković, Saša Šega Jazbec, Zalika Klemenc Ketiš, Miljenko Kapović, Evica Dinčić, Ranko Raičević, Juraj Sepčić, Luca Lovrečić, Aleksandra Stanković, Smiljana Ristić, Borut Peterlin
Prevalence of multiple sclerosis varies with geographic latitude. We hypothesized that this fact might be partially associated with the influence of latitude on circadian rhythm and consequently that genetic variability of key circadian rhythm regulators, ARNTL and CLOCK genes, might contribute to the risk for multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to analyse selected polymorphisms of ARNTL and CLOCK, and their association with multiple sclerosis. A total of 900 Caucasian patients and 1024 healthy controls were compared for genetic signature at 8 SNPs, 4 for each of both genes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321394/-chrono-nutrition-and-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid
#14
Shigenobu Shibata, Akiko Furutani
Circadian clock system has been widely maintained in many spices from prokaryote to mammals. "Circadian" means "approximately day" in Latin, thus circadian rhythm means about 24 hour rhythms. The earth revolves once every 24 hours, and our circadian system has been developed for adjusting to this 24 hour cycles, to get sun light information for getting their foods or for alive in birds or mammals. We have two different circadian systems so-called main oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and local oscillator located in the various peripheral organ tissues such as liver, kidney and skeletal muscle...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321240/pigment-dispersing-factor-expressing-neurons-convey-circadian-information-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#15
Katharina Beer, Esther Kolbe, Noa B Kahana, Nadav Yayon, Ron Weiss, Pamela Menegazzi, Guy Bloch, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is an important neuropeptide in the brain circadian network of Drosophila and other insects, but its role in bees in which the circadian clock influences complex behaviour is not well understood. We combined high-resolution neuroanatomical characterizations, quantification of PDF levels over the day and brain injections of synthetic PDF peptide to study the role of PDF in the honey bee Apis mellifera We show that PDF co-localizes with the clock protein Period (PER) in a cluster of laterally located neurons and that the widespread arborizations of these PER/PDF neurons are in close vicinity to other PER-positive cells (neurons and glia)...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320480/pharmacological-activation-of-rev-erbs-is-lethal-in-cancer-and-oncogene-induced-senescence
#16
Gabriele Sulli, Amy Rommel, Xiaojie Wang, Matthew J Kolar, Francesca Puca, Alan Saghatelian, Maksim V Plikus, Inder M Verma, Satchidananda Panda
The circadian clock imposes daily rhythms in cell proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and DNA damage response. Perturbations of these processes are hallmarks of cancer and chronic circadian rhythm disruption predisposes individuals to tumour development. This raises the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of the circadian machinery may be an effective therapeutic strategy for combating cancer. REV-ERBs, the nuclear hormone receptors REV-ERBα (also known as NR1D1) and REV-ERBβ (also known as NR1D2), are essential components of the circadian clock...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319223/zmcol3-a-cct-gene-represses-flowering-in-maize-by-interfering-circadian-clock-and-activating-expression-of-zmcct
#17
Minliang Jin, Xiangguo Liu, Wei Jia, Haijun Liu, Wenqiang Li, Yong Peng, Yanfang Du, Yuebin Wang, Yuejia Yin, Xuehai Zhang, Qing Liu, Min Deng, Nan Li, Xiyan Cui, Dongyun Hao, Jianbing Yan
Flowering time is a trait vital to the adaptation of flowering plants to different environments. Here, we report that CCT domain genes play an important role in flowering in maize (Zea mays L.). Among the 53 CCT family genes we identified in maize, 28 were located in flowering time quantitative trait locus regions and 15 were significantly associated with flowering time based on candidate-gene association mapping analysis. Furthermore, a CCT gene named ZmCOL3 was shown to be a repressor of flowering. Overexpressing ZmCOL3 delayed flowering time by approximately 4 days, in either long-day or short-day conditions...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318856/-effect-of-acupuncture-at-points-in-heel-vessel-for-circadian-clock-genes-of-period-1-and-period-2-mrnas-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-in-insomnia-rats
#18
Bao-Jun Guo, Si-Yi Yu, Zhi-Fu Shen, You-Ping Hu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence and mechanism of acupuncture at the points in Heel Vessel for the circadian clock genes of Period (Per) 1 and Per 2 mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in insomnia rats. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were randomly divided into blank, model, acupuncture groups, 10 rats in each group. Insomnia model was established by intraperitoneal injection of PCPA (suspension, 1 mL/100 g). Acupuncture at "Shenmai" (BL 62) and "Zhaohai" (KI 6) was used in the acupuncture group for continuous 7 days, 15 min/day and once daily...
December 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318587/new-perspectives-on-the-role-of-melatonin-in-human-sleep-circadian-rhythms-and-their-regulation
#19
REVIEW
N Zisapel
In mammals a central circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus, tunes the innate circadian physiological rhythms to the ambient 24h light-dark cycle to invigorate and optimize the internal temporal order. The SCN-activated, light- inhibited production of melatonin conveys the message of darkness to the clock and induces night state in physiological function, e.g., sleep/wake blood pressure and metabolism. Clinically meaningful effects of melatonin treatment have been demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials in humans, particularly in disorders associated with diminished or misaligned melatonin rhythms, e...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318394/genetic-association-of-hcrtr2-adh4-and-clock-genes-with-cluster-headache-a-chinese-population-based-case-control-study
#20
Zhiliang Fan, Lei Hou, Dongjun Wan, Ran Ao, Dengfa Zhao, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH), a rare primary headache disorder, is currently thought to be a genetic susceptibility which play a role in CH susceptibility. A large numbers of genetic association studies have confirmed that the HCRTR2 (Hypocretin Receptor 2) SNP rs2653349, and the ADH4 (Alcohol Dehydrogenase 4) SNP rs1126671 and rs1800759 polymorphisms are linked to CH. In addition, the CLOCK (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput) gene is becoming a research hotspot for CH due to encoding a transcription factor that serves as a basic driving force for circadian rhythm in humans...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
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