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Circadian Clock

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916681/circannual-testis-and-moult-cycles-persist-under-photoperiods-that-disrupt-circadian-activity-and-clock-gene-cycles-in-spotted-munia
#1
Neha Agarwal, Ila Mishra, Ruchi Komal, Sangeeta Rani, Vinod Kumar
We investigated if circannual rhythms underlying annual testis maturation and moult cycles were independent of the duration and frequency of light period and the circadian clock control in non-photoperiodic spotted munia. Birds were subjected to an aberrant light-dark (LD) cycle (3.5L:3.5D; T7, T=period length of LD cycle) and continuous light (LL, 24L:0D), with controls on 12L:12D (T24, 24 h LD cycle). Initial experiment measured the activity pattern and 24 h mRNA oscillations of circadian clock genes (bmal1, clock, per2, cry1, cry2) in the hypothalamus, putative site of the seasonal timing...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915789/rapid-transcriptional-and-metabolic-regulation-of-the-deacclimation-process-in-cold-acclimated-arabidopsis-thaliana
#2
Majken Pagter, Jessica Alpers, Alexander Erban, Joachim Kopka, Ellen Zuther, Dirk K Hincha
BACKGROUND: During low temperature exposure, temperate plant species increase their freezing tolerance in a process termed cold acclimation. This is accompanied by dampened oscillations of circadian clock genes and disrupted oscillations of output genes and metabolites. During deacclimation in response to warm temperatures, cold acclimated plants lose freezing tolerance and resume growth and development. While considerable effort has been directed toward understanding the molecular and metabolic basis of cold acclimation, much less information is available about the regulation of deacclimation...
September 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913566/adar-rna-editing-in-human-disease-more-to-it-than-meets-the-i
#3
REVIEW
Angela Gallo, Dragana Vukic, David Michalík, Mary A O'Connell, Liam P Keegan
We review the structures and functions of ADARs and their involvements in human diseases. ADAR1 is widely expressed, particularly in the myeloid component of the blood system, and plays a prominent role in promiscuous editing of long dsRNA. Missense mutations that change ADAR1 residues and reduce RNA editing activity cause Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome, a childhood encephalitis and interferonopathy that mimics viral infection and resembles an extreme form of Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus (SLE). In Adar1 mouse mutant models aberrant interferon expression is prevented by eliminating interferon activation signaling from cytoplasmic dsRNA sensors, indicating that unedited cytoplasmic dsRNA drives the immune induction...
September 14, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912257/nurse-honeybee-workers-tend-capped-brood-which-does-not-require-feeding-around-the-clock
#4
Moshe Nagari, Yafit Brenner, Guy Bloch
"Nurse" honeybees tend brood around-the-clock with attenuated or no circadian rhythms, but the brood signals inducing this behavior remain elusive. We first tested the hypothesis that worker circadian rhythms are regulated by brood pheromones. We monitored locomotor activity of individually isolated nurse bees that were either exposed to various doses of larval extracts or synthetic brood ester pheromone (BEP). Bees orally treated with larvae extracts showed attenuated circadian rhythms in one of four tested colonies; a similar but statistically non-significant trend was seen in two additional colonies...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912161/disruption-of-bmal1-impairs-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-via-pericyte-dysfunction
#5
Ryota Nakazato, Kenji Kawabe, Daisuke Yamada, Shinsuke Ikeno, Michihiro Mieda, Shigeki Shimba, Eiichi Hinoi, Yukio Yoneda, Takeshi Takarada
Circadian rhythm disturbances are well-established in neurological diseases. However, how these disruptions cause homeostatic imbalances remains poorly understood. Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (Bmal1) is a major circadian clock transcriptional activator, and Bmal1 deficiency in male Bmal1nestin(-/-) mice induced marked astroglial activation without affecting the number of astrocytes in the brain and spinal cord. Bmal1 deletion caused blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability with an age-dependent loss of pericyte coverage of blood vessels in the brain...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911179/deciphering-the-function-of-the-blunt-circadian-rhythm-of-melatonin-in-the-newborn-lamb-impact-on-adrenal-and-heart
#6
Maria Seron-Ferre, Claudia Torres-Farfan, Francisco J Valenzuela, Sebastian Castillo-Galan, Auristela Rojas, Natalia Mendez, Henry Reynolds, Guillermo J Valenzuela, Anibal J Llanos
Neonatal lambs, as with human and other neonates, have low arrhythmic endogenous levels of melatonin for several weeks until they start their own pineal rhythm of melatonin production at approximately 2 weeks of life. During pregnancy, daily rhythmic transfer of maternal melatonin to the fetus has important physiological roles in sheep, nonhuman primates, and rats. This melatonin rhythm provides a circadian signal and also participates in adjusting the physiology of several organs in preparation for extrauterine life...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911177/deoxycorticosterone-salt-mediated-cardiac-inflammation-and-fibrosis-are-dependent-on-functional-clock-signaling-in-male-mice
#7
Elizabeth K Fletcher, James Morgan, David R Kennaway, Laura A Bienvenu, Amanda J Rickard, Lea M D Delbridge, Peter J Fuller, Colin D Clyne, Morag J Young
Activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) promotes inflammation, fibrosis, and hypertension. Clinical and experimental studies show that MR antagonists have significant therapeutic benefit for all-cause heart failure; however, blockade of renal MRs limits their widespread use. Identification of key downstream signaling mechanisms for the MR in the cardiovascular system may enable development of targeted MR antagonists with selectivity for pathological MR signaling and lower impact on physiological renal electrolyte handling...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910542/effect-of-monochromatic-light-on-circadian-rhythmic-expression-of-clock-genes-and-arylalkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-in-chick-retina
#8
Jing Cao, Jiang Bian, Zixu Wang, Yulan Dong, Yaoxing Chen
Birds have more developed visual function. They not only have the ability to detect light and darkness but also have the color vision. Previous study showed that monochromatic light influenced avian physiological processes, which were controlled by clock genes. Therefore, bird's eye is a good model to studying the impact of color of light on circadian rhythms. Avian retina is one of the most important central oscillations. The study was designed to investigate the effect of color of light on the expression of clock genes and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) mRNA expression in chick retina...
September 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903626/light-dominates-peripheral-circadian-oscillations-in-drosophila-melanogaster-during-sensory-conflict
#9
Ross E F Harper, Maite Ogueta, Peter Dayan, Ralf Stanewsky, Joerg T Albert
In Drosophila, as in other animals, the circadian clock is a singular entity in name and concept only. In reality, clock functions emerge from multiple processes and anatomical substrates. One distinction has conventionally been made between a central clock (in the brain) and peripheral clocks (e.g., in the gut and the eyes). Both types of clock generate robust circadian oscillations, which do not require external input. Furthermore, the phases of these oscillations remain exquisitely sensitive to specific environmental cues, such as the daily changes of light and temperature...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903391/cancer-testis-antigen-piwil2-suppresses-circadian-rhythms-by-regulating-the-stability-and-activity-of-bmal1-and-clock
#10
Yilu Lu, Xulei Zheng, Wei Hu, Shasha Bian, Zhiwei Zhang, Dachang Tao, Yunqiang Liu, Yongxin Ma
Circadian rhythms are regulated by transcriptional and post-translational feedback loops generated by appropriate functions of clock proteins. Rhythmic degradation of the circadian clock proteins is critical for maintenance of the circadian oscillations. Notably, circadian clock does not work during spermatogenesis and can be disrupted in tumors. However, the underlying mechanism that suppresses circadian rhythms in germ cells and cancer cells remains largely unknown. Here we report that the cancer/testis antigen PIWIL2 can repress circadian rhythms both in the testis and cancer cells...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902457/the-role-of-clock-gene-in-psychiatric-disorders-evidence-from-human-and-animal-research
#11
REVIEW
Jaqueline B Schuch, Julia P Genro, Clarissa R Bastos, Gabriele Ghisleni, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues
The circadian clock system drives daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in mammals. Molecular mechanisms of this system consist of multiple clock genes, with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) as a core member that plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors. Alterations in the CLOCK gene are associated with common psychiatric disorders as well as with circadian disturbances comorbidities. This review addresses animal, molecular, and genetic studies evaluating the role of the CLOCK gene on many psychiatric conditions, namely autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902123/bidirectional-regulation-of-circadian-disturbance-and-inflammation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Xiaojing Liu, Ran Yu, Liangru Zhu, Xiaohua Hou, Kaifang Zou
BACKGROUND: Tight crosstalk between the circadian and immune systems has been reported in several inflammatory diseases. We hypothesized that circadian timekeeping was perturbed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and that the bidirectional regulation of circadian disturbance and inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. METHODS: Patients with ulcerative colitis (51) and Crohn's disease (39) and 42 healthy controls were recruited and their circadian gene expression levels evaluated...
October 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900721/effects-of-per3-clock-gene-polymorphisms-on-aging-related-changes-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#13
Delphine Dewandre, Mercedes Atienza, Mayely P Sanchez-Espinosa, Jose L Cantero
Considerable evidence suggests that circadian rhythmicity is progressively disrupted in senescence. Among clock genes, Period3 (PER3) has been associated with circadian phenotypes, homeostatic regulation of sleep, and cognitive performance in young adults. However, the effects of PER3 genotype on aging-related changes in both cognitive function and cortical integrity remain largely unknown. To shed light into this issue, we have investigated differences in cognitive performance, patterns of cortical thickness, and cortical glucose consumption in normal elderly subjects homozygous carriers of the short (PER3(4/4), n = 32) and long repeat alleles (PER3(5/5), n = 32)...
September 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900189/misalignment-with-the-external-light-environment-drives-metabolic-and-cardiac-dysfunction
#14
Alexander C West, Laura Smith, David W Ray, Andrew S I Loudon, Timothy M Brown, David A Bechtold
Most organisms use internal biological clocks to match behavioural and physiological processes to specific phases of the day-night cycle. Central to this is the synchronisation of internal processes across multiple organ systems. Environmental desynchrony (e.g. shift work) profoundly impacts human health, increasing cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we characterise the impact of desynchrony between the internal clock and the external light-dark (LD) cycle on mammalian physiology...
September 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899666/stem-cells-and-the-circadian-clock
#15
REVIEW
Meltem Weger, Nicolas Diotel, Anne-Claire Dorsemans, Thomas Dickmeis, Benjamin D Weger
The circadian timing system is a complex biological network of interacting circadian clocks that regulates 24h rhythms of behavioral and physiological processes. One intriguing observation is that stem cell homeostasis is subject to circadian clock regulation. Rhythmic oscillations have been observed in a variety of embryonic and adult stem cell dependent processes, such as hematopoietic progenitor cell migration, the hair follicle cycle, bone remodeling, regenerative myogenesis and neurogenesis. This review aims to discuss the nature of the circadian clock in embryonic stem cells and how it changes during differentiation...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899534/gene-by-environment-interactions-of-the-clock-pemt-and-ghrelin%C3%A2-loci-with-average-sleep-duration-in-relation-to-obesity-traits%C3%A2-using-a-cohort-of-643-new-zealand-european-children
#16
Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N Shelling, Clare R Wall, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M E McCowan, John M D Thompson
OBJECTIVES: Modern technology may have desensitised the 'biological clock' to environmental cues, disrupting the appropriate co-ordination of metabolic processes. Susceptibility to misalignment of circadian rhythms may be partly genetically influenced and effects on sleep quality and duration could predispose to poorer health outcomes. Shorter sleep duration is associated with obesity traits, which are brought on by an increased opportunity to eat and/or a shift of hormonal profile promoting hunger...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894278/agerarin-identified-from-ageratum-houstonianum-stimulates-circadian-clock-mediated-aquaporin-3-gene-expression-in-hacat-keratinocytes
#17
Soon Young Shin, Da Hyun Lee, Ha-Na Gil, Beom Soo Kim, Jeong-Sook Choe, Jung-Bong Kim, Young Han Lee, Yoongho Lim
The juice of Ageratum houstonianum is used in folk medicine as an external wound healing aid for skin injuries. However, the active component of A. houstonianum and its mode of action in skin wound healing has not been investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of A. houstonianum ethanolnolic extract (AHE) on the expression of aquaporin-3 (AQP3), an integral membrane protein for water and glycerol transport in keratinocytes, and to identify the structure of the A. houstonianum bioactive compound...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893860/coordination-between-differentially-regulated-circadian-clocks-generates-rhythmic-behavior
#18
Deniz Top, Michael W Young
Specialized groups of neurons in the brain are key mediators of circadian rhythms, receiving daily environmental cues and communicating those signals to other tissues in the organism for entrainment and to organize circadian physiology. In Drosophila, the "circadian clock" is housed in seven neuronal clusters, which are defined by their expression of the main circadian proteins, Period, Timeless, Clock, and Cycle. These clusters are distributed across the fly brain and are thereby subject to the respective environments associated with their anatomical locations...
September 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893605/oscillator-networks-with-tissue-specific-circadian-clocks-in-plants
#19
REVIEW
Keisuke Inoue, Takashi Araki, Motomu Endo
Many organisms rely on circadian clocks to synchronize their biological processes with the 24-hour rotation of the earth. In mammals, the circadian clock consists of a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral clocks in other tissues. The central clock is tightly coupled to synchronize rhythmicity and can organize peripheral clocks through neural and hormonal signals. In contrast to mammals, it has long been assumed that the circadian clocks in each plant cell is able to be entrained by external light, and they are only weakly coupled to each other...
September 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893254/skip-controls-flowering-time-via-the-alternative-splicing-of-sef-pre-mrna-in-arabidopsis
#20
Zhibo Cui, Aizi Tong, Yiqiong Huo, Zhiqiang Yan, Weiqi Yang, Xianli Yang, Xiao-Xue Wang
BACKGROUND: Similar to other eukaryotes, splicing is emerging as an important process affecting development and stress tolerance in plants. Ski-interacting protein (SKIP), a splicing factor, is essential for circadian clock function and abiotic stress tolerance; however, the mechanisms whereby it regulates flowering time are unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we found that SKIP is required for the splicing of serrated leaves and early flowering (SEF) pre-messenger RNA (mRNA), which encodes a component of the ATP-dependent SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR1-C)...
September 11, 2017: BMC Biology
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