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Circadian Clock

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732105/shining-a-light-on-the-arabidopsis-circadian-clock
#1
REVIEW
Rachael J Oakenfull, Seth J Davis
The circadian clock provides essential timing information to ensure optimal growth to prevailing external environmental conditions. A major time-setting mechanism (zeitgeber) in clock synchronisation is light. Differing light wavelengths, intensities and photoperiodic duration are processed for the clock-setting mechanism. Many studies on light-input pathways to the clock have focused on Arabidopsis thaliana. Photoreceptors are specific chromic proteins that detect light signals and transmit this information to the central circadian oscillator through a number of different signalling mechanisms...
July 21, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731140/integrated-analysis-of-genome%C3%A2-wide-gene-expression-and-dna-methylation-microarray-of-diffuse-large-b%C3%A2-cell-lymphoma-with-tet-mutations
#2
Pengfei Liu, Wenhua Jiang, Jinkun Zhao, Huilai Zhang
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most frequently occurring type of lymphoid malignancy, has been demonstrated to be associated with mutations of Ten‑Eleven Translocation (TET). In order to explore the association between DLBCL and TET mutations, the present study analyzed the gene expression and methylation profiles in human DLBCL biopsy tissues with wildtype and mutated TET2. The microarray dataset GSE37365, containing two subseries: the genome‑wide gene expression dataset GSE37362 and the DNA methylation microarray dataset GSE37363, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730830/preventive-effect-of-l-carnitine-on-the-disorder-of-lipid-metabolism-and-circadian-cclock-of-mice-subjected-to-chronic-jet-lag
#3
X Xie, A Guo, T Wu, Q Hu, L Huang, C Yao, B Zhao, W Zhang, B Chi, P Lu, Z Zhao, Z Fu
Circadian clock plays an essential role in orchestrating daily physiology, and its disruption can evoke metabolic diseases such as obesity. L-Carnitine can reduce blood lipid levels, and ameliorate fatty liver through regulating lipid metabolism. However, whether L-Carnitine administration may affect the disturbance of lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm of mice induced by prolonged circadian disruption is still unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of L-Carnitine on conditions of circadian clock and lipid metabolism through a chronic jet-lag mice model which was developed by reversing12 h light/12 h dark cycle every 4 days for a continuous 12 weeks...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729421/the-small-g-protein-ras2-is-involved-in-the-metabolic-compensation-of-the-circadian-clock-in-the-circadian-model-neurospora-crassa
#4
Norbert Gyöngyösi, Anita Szöke, Krisztina Ella, Krisztina Káldi
Accumulating evidence from both experimental and clinical investigations indicate a tight interaction between metabolism and circadian timekeeping; however, knowledge of the underlying mechanism is still incomplete. Metabolic compensation allows circadian oscillators to run with a constant speed at different substrate levels and therefore is a substantial criterion of a robust rhythm in a changing environment. Because previous data have suggested a central role of RAS2-mediated signaling in the adaptation of yeast to different nutritional environments, we examined the involvement of RAS2 in the metabolic regulation of the clock in the circadian model organism Neurospora crassa...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729066/the-effect-of-high-fat-diet-on-daily-rhythm-of-the-core-clock-genes-and-muscle-functional-genes-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-chinese-soft-shelled-turtle-trionyx-sinensis
#5
Liu Li, Jiang Guomin, Peng Zhitao, Li Yulong, Li Jinlong, Zou Li, He Zhigang, Wang Xiaoqing, Chu Wuying
In the present study, we sought to investigate the influence of high fat diet on the core clock genes and the muscle functional genes daily expression in the skeletal muscle of Chinese soft-shelled turtle. The turtles were fed by two diets including a control fat diet (the CON treatment, 7.98% lipid) and a high fat diet (the HFD treatment, 13.86% lipid) for six weeks and administrated by the photophase regimen of 24 h light/dark (12L:12D) cycle. After the feeding trial experiment, we measured the daily expression levels of 17 core clock genes (Clock, Bmal1/2, NPAS2, Tim, Cry1/2, Per1/2, DBP, AANAT, NIFL3, BHLHE40, NR1D2, RORA, RORB, RORC) and 12 muscle functional genes (FBXO32, MBNL1, MSTN, Myf5, Myf6, MyoD, MyoG, MyoM1, PPARa, PDK4, Trim63, UCP3) in the skeletal muscle of the two treatments...
July 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726633/bmal1-function-in-skeletal-muscle-regulates-sleep
#6
J Christopher Ehlen, Allison J Brager, Julie Baggs, Lennisha Pinckney, Cloe L Gray, Jason P DeBruyne, Karyn A Esser, Joseph S Takahashi, Ketema N Paul
Sleep loss can severely impair the ability to perform, yet the ability to recover from sleep loss is not well understood. Sleep regulatory processes are assumed to lie exclusively within the brain mainly due to the strong behavioral manifestations of sleep. Whole-body knockout of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 in mice affects several aspects of sleep, however, the cells/tissues responsible are unknown. We found that restoring Bmal1 expression in the brains of Bmal1-knockout mice did not rescue Bmal1-dependent sleep phenotypes...
July 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724246/health-consequences-of-electric-lighting-practices-in-the-modern-world-a-report-on-the-national-toxicology-program-s-workshop-on-shift-work-at-night-artificial-light-at-night-and-circadian-disruption
#7
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, David E Blask, Andrew N Coogan, Mariana G Figueiro, Michael R Gorman, Janet E Hall, Johnni Hansen, Randy J Nelson, Satchidananda Panda, Michael H Smolensky, Richard G Stevens, Fred W Turek, Roel Vermeulen, Tania Carreón, Claire C Caruso, Christina C Lawson, Kristina A Thayer, Michael J Twery, Andrew D Ewens, Sanford C Garner, Pamela J Schwingl, Windy A Boyd
The invention of electric light has facilitated a society in which people work, sleep, eat, and play at all hours of the 24-hour day. Although electric light clearly has benefited humankind, exposures to electric light, especially light at night (LAN), may disrupt sleep and biological processes controlled by endogenous circadian clocks, potentially resulting in adverse health outcomes. Many of the studies evaluating adverse health effects have been conducted among night- and rotating-shift workers, because this scenario gives rise to significant exposure to LAN...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721811/moving-to-the-rhythm-with-clock-circadian-genes-autophagy-mtor-and-sirt1-in-degenerative-disease-and-cancer
#8
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: The mammalian circadian clock and its associated clock genes are increasingly be recognized as critical components for a number of physiological and disease processes that extend beyond hormone release, thermal regulation, and sleep-wake cycles. New evidence suggests that clinical behavior disruptions that involve prolonged shift work and even space travel may negatively impact circadian rhythm and lead to multi-system disease. METHODS: In light of the significant role circadian rhythm can hold over the body's normal physiology as well as disease processes, we examined and discussed the impact circadian rhythm and clock genes hold over lifespan, neurodegenerative disorders, and tumorigenesis...
July 17, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721450/smad3-and-bmal1-regulate-p21-and-s100a4-expression-in-myocardial-stromal-fibroblasts-via-tnf-%C3%AE
#9
Fuyuki Sato, Akira Kohsaka, Kana Takahashi, Saki Otao, Yusuke Kitada, Yoshiyuki Iwasaki, Yasuteru Muragaki
Bmal1, a clock gene, is associated with depression, hypertrophy, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Smad3, which is involved in the TGF-β signaling pathway, plays an important role in the regulation of tumor progression, fibrosis, obesity and diabetes. Our previous report showed that Smad3 has circadian expression in mouse livers. In the current study, we focused on the heart, especially on the myocardial stromal fibroblasts because the roles of Bmal1 and Smad3 in this tissue are poorly understood. Bmal1 and Smad3 have circadian expression in mouse hearts, and their circadian expression patterns were similar...
July 18, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721279/age-related-circadian-disorganization-caused-by-sympathetic-dysfunction-in-peripheral-clock-regulation
#10
Yu Tahara, Yuta Takatsu, Takuya Shiraishi, Yosuke Kikuchi, Mayu Yamazaki, Hiroaki Motohashi, Aya Muto, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Atsushi Haraguchi, Daisuke Kuriki, Takahiro J Nakamura, Shigenobu Shibata
The ability of the circadian clock to adapt to environmental changes is critical for maintaining homeostasis, preventing disease, and limiting the detrimental effects of aging. To date, little is known about age-related changes in the entrainment of peripheral clocks to external cues. We therefore evaluated the ability of the peripheral clocks of the kidney, liver, and submandibular gland to be entrained by external stimuli including light, food, stress, and exercise in young versus aged mice using in vivo bioluminescence monitoring...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720596/elongator-regulates-hypocotyl-growth-in-darkness-and-during-photomorphogenesis
#11
Magdalena Woloszynska, Olimpia Gagliardi, Filip Vandenbussche, Steven De Groeve, Luis Alonso Baez, Pia Neyt, Sabine Le Gall, Jorge Fung, Paloma Mas, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Mieke Van Lijsebettens
Elongator promotes RNA polymerase II-mediated transcript elongation through epigenetic activities such as histone acetylation. Elongator regulates growth, development, immune response, sensitivity to drought and abscisic acid. We demonstrate that elo mutants exhibit defective hypocotyl elongation but have a normal apical hook in darkness and are hyposensitive to light during photomorphogenesis. These elo phenotypes are supported by transcriptome changes, i.e. downregulation of circadian clock components, positive regulators of skoto- or photomorphogenesis, hormonal pathways and cell wall biogenesis-related factors...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720252/the-cryptochrome-photolyase-protein-family-in-diatoms
#12
Sarah König, Matthias Juhas, Stefanie Jäger, Tilman Kottke, Claudia Büchel
The cryptochrome - photolyase family (CPF) consists of homologous flavoproteins having completely different functions involving DNA repair, circadian rhythm and/or photoreception. From the original photolyases, working either as (6-4) or cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyases, the animal- and plant-type cryptochromes, respectively, evolved and also the more intermediate DASH cryptochromes. Whereas animal cryptochromes work mostly in clock-related functions, plant cryptochromes are also directly involved in developmental processes such as hypocotyl elongation or flower induction...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715917/self-reported-discomfort-associated-with-daylight-saving-time-in-brazilian-tropical-and-subtropical-zones
#13
João Carlos Nascimento de Alencar, Mario André Leocardio-Miguel, Leandro Lourenção Duarte, Fernando Louzada, John Fontenele Araujo, Mario Pedrazzoli
BACKGROUND: Daylight Saving Time (DST) annually moves clocks one hour forward, when daytime is longer than night. Previous studies from medium and high latitude locations have pointed to a disruptive effect of DST on human circadian rhythms. Since Brazil is an equatorial country implementing DST, a different relationship between photic and social synchronizers may interfere with DST effects. AIM: To explore the prevalence and duration of self-reported discomfort related to DST among Brazilian residents (lat...
July 17, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715496/transition-of-phase-response-properties-and-singularity-in-the-circadian-limit-cycle-of-cultured-cells
#14
Satoshi Koinuma, Hiroshi Kori, Isao T Tokuda, Kazuhiro Yagita, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi
The circadian system has been regarded as a limit cycle oscillator constructed by the integrated interaction of clock genes and proteins. Here, we investigated a mammalian circadian oscillation geometrically before and after a perturbation. We detected the singular point and transition from a type 1 to type 0 phase response curve (PRC) and determined the embedding dimension to show how many variables are needed to describe the limit cycle oscillation and relaxation process after a perturbation. As a perturbation, forskolin (FK) was administered to Rat-1 cells expressing the Per2::luc gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712565/circadian-clock-involvement-in-zooplankton-diel-vertical-migration
#15
N Sören Häfker, Bettina Meyer, Kim S Last, David W Pond, Lukas Hüppe, Mathias Teschke
Biological clocks are a ubiquitous ancient and adaptive mechanism enabling organisms to anticipate environmental cycles and to regulate behavioral and physiological processes accordingly [1]. Although terrestrial circadian clocks are well understood, knowledge of clocks in marine organisms is still very limited [2-5]. This is particularly true for abundant species displaying large-scale rhythms like diel vertical migration (DVM) that contribute significantly to shaping their respective ecosystems [6]. Here we describe exogenous cycles and endogenous rhythms associated with DVM of the ecologically important and highly abundant planktic copepod Calanus finmarchicus...
July 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710114/circadian-rhythm-disruption-impairs-tissue-homeostasis-and-exacerbates-chronic-inflammation-in-the-intestine
#16
René Pagel, Florian Bär, Torsten Schröder, Annika Sünderhauf, Axel Künstner, Saleh M Ibrahim, Stella E Autenrieth, Kathrin Kalies, Peter König, Anthony H Tsang, Dominik Bettenworth, Senad Divanovic, Hendrik Lehnert, Klaus Fellermann, Henrik Oster, Stefanie Derer, Christian Sina
Endogenous circadian clocks regulate 24 h rhythms of physiology and behavior. Circadian rhythm disruption (CRD) is suggested as a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Intestinal biopsies from Per1/2 mutant and wild-type (WT) mice were investigated by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments. TNF-α was injected intraperitoneally, with or without necrostatin-1, into Per1/2 mice or rhythmic and externally desynchronized WT mice to study intestinal epithelial cell death...
July 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709906/effects-of-feeding-time-on-daily-rhythms-of-neuropeptide-and-clock-gene-expression-in-the-rat-hypothalamus
#17
Dawei Wang, Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Jane Reznick, Nigel Turner, Yan Su, Gregory J Cooney, Andries Kalsbeek
Shiftworkers are exposed to several adverse health conditions, one being eating at night. Food consumption at an unnatural time-of-day is thought to be one of the main factors responsible for the increased risk of developing metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. The underlying mechanism is considered to include disruption of the circadian organization of physiology, leading to disruption of metabolism. When food is consumed at night, the hypothalamus, a brain region central to homeostasis, receives contradicting input from the central clock and the systemic circulation...
July 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708501/bmal1-interference-impairs-hormone-synthesis-and-promotes-apoptosis-in-porcine-granulosa-cells
#18
Wusu Wang, Lin Yin, Long Bai, Guangjun Ma, Cunzhen Zhao, Aoqi Xiang, Weijun Pang, Gongshe Yang, Guiyan Chu
In mammals, granulosa cell proliferation, differentiation, luteinization, apoptosis, and hormone synthesis are tightly related to oocyte maturation, follicular development and ovarian function. In current study, we investigated the role of the key circadian clock gene, brain and muscle arnt-like protein-1 (Bmal1), on porcine granulosa cell hormone secretion and apoptosis. The transcription levels of circadian clock genes, including Bmal1 and period circadian clock 2 (Per2), were detected by RT-qPCR. We found that the circadian clock genes exhibited rhythmic change and were further enhanced by dexamethasone synchronization in granulosa cells...
May 23, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708429/effects-of-altered-photoperiod-on-circadian-clock-and-lipid-metabolism-in-rats
#19
Xiaoxian Xie, Binggong Zhao, Liangfeng Huang, Qichen Shen, Lingyan Ma, Yangyang Chen, Tao Wu, Zhengwei Fu
Disruption of circadian clock timekeeping due to changes in the photoperiod enhances the risk of lipid metabolism disorders and metabolic syndrome. However, the effects of altered photoperiods on the circadian clock and lipid metabolism are not well understood. To explore the effects of altered photoperiods, we developed a rat model where rats were exposed to either short-day or long-day conditions. Our findings demonstrated that altered photoperiods mediated circadian clocks by partly disrupting rhythmicity and shifting phase values of clock genes...
July 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707700/deleting-the-arntl-clock-gene-in-the-granular-layer-of-the-mouse-cerebellum-impact-on-the-molecular-circadian-clockwork
#20
Tenna Bering, Mikkel Bloss Carstensen, Martin Fredensborg Rath
The suprachiasmatic nucleus houses the central circadian clock and is characterized by the timely regulated expression of clock genes. However, neurons of the cerebellar cortex also contain a circadian oscillator with circadian expression of clock genes being controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. It has been suggested that the cerebellar circadian oscillator is involved in food anticipation, but direct molecular evidence of the role of the circadian oscillator of the cerebellar cortex is currently unavailable...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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