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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936178/a-comparison-of-oral-sensory-effects-of-three-trpa1-agonists-in-young-adult-smokers-and-non-smokers
#1
Eva Ø Hansen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Shellie A Boudreau
This study profiled intra-oral somatosensory and vasomotor responses to three different transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) agonists (menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde) in smoking and non-smoking young adults. Healthy non-smokers (N = 30) and otherwise healthy smokers (N = 25) participated in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of three experimental sessions in which they received menthol (30 mg), nicotine (4 mg), or cinnamaldehyde (25 mg) chewing gum...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935799/interacting-amino-acid-replacements-allow-poison-frogs-to-evolve-epibatidine-resistance
#2
Rebecca D Tarvin, Cecilia M Borghese, Wiebke Sachs, Juan C Santos, Ying Lu, Lauren A O'Connell, David C Cannatella, R Adron Harris, Harold H Zakon
Animals that wield toxins face self-intoxication. Poison frogs have a diverse arsenal of defensive alkaloids that target the nervous system. Among them is epibatidine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that is lethal at microgram doses. Epibatidine shares a highly conserved binding site with acetylcholine, making it difficult to evolve resistance yet maintain nAChR function. Electrophysiological assays of human and frog nAChR revealed that one amino acid replacement, which evolved three times in poison frogs, decreased epibatidine sensitivity but at a cost of acetylcholine sensitivity...
September 22, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935683/synaptic-activation-of-putative-sensory-neurons-by-hexamethonium-sensitive-nerve-pathways-in-mouse-colon
#3
Timothy James Hibberd, Lee Travis, Lukasz Wiklendt, Marcello C Costa, Simon J H Brookes, Hongzhen Hu, Damien John Keating, Nick J Spencer
The gastrointestinal tract contains its own independent population of sensory neurons within the gut wall. These sensory neurons have been referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs) and can be identified by immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in mice. A common feature of IPANs is a paucity of fast synaptic inputs observed during sharp microelectrode recordings. Whether this is observed using different recording techniques is of particular interest for understanding the physiology of these neurons and neural circuit modelling...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933591/suppression-of-chrn-endocytosis-by-carbonic-anhydrase-car3-in-the-pathogenesis-of-myasthenia-gravis
#4
Ailian Du, Shiqian Huang, Xiaonan Zhao, Kuan Feng, Shuangyan Zhang, Jiefang Huang, Xiang Miao, Fulvio Baggi, Rennolds S Ostrom, Yanyun Zhang, Xiangjun Chen, Congfeng Xu
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction manifested as fatigable muscle weakness, which is typically caused by pathogenic autoantibodies against postsynaptic CHRN/AChR (cholinergic receptor nicotinic) in the endplate of skeletal muscle. Our previous studies have identified CA3 (carbonic anhydrase 3) as a specific protein insufficient in skeletal muscle from myasthenia gravis patients. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of how CA3 insufficiency might contribute to myasthenia gravis...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932481/the-7-aza-norbornane-nucleus-of-epibatidine-7-aza-bicyclo-2-2-1-heptan-7-ium-chloride
#5
Sergey N Britvin, Andrey M Rumyantsev
7-Aza-bicyclo-[2.2.1]heptane (7-aza-norbornane) is a bridged heterocyclic nucleus found in epibatidine, the alkaloid isolated from the skin of the tropical poison frog Epipedobates tricolor. Since epibatidine is known as one of the most potent acetyl-choline nicotinic receptor agonists, a plethora of literature has been devoted to this alkaloid. However, there are no structural data on the unsubstituted 7-aza-norbornane, the parent bicyclic ring of epibatidine and its derivatives. We herein present the structural characterization of the 7-aza-bicyclo-[2...
September 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932225/expression-and-function-of-the-cholinergic-system-in-immune-cells
#6
REVIEW
Takeshi Fujii, Masato Mashimo, Yasuhiro Moriwaki, Hidemi Misawa, Shiro Ono, Kazuhide Horiguchi, Koichiro Kawashima
T and B cells express most cholinergic system components-e.g., acetylcholine (ACh), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase, and both muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs, respectively). Using ChAT(BAC)-eGFP transgenic mice, ChAT expression has been confirmed in T and B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. Moreover, T cell activation via T-cell receptor/CD3-mediated pathways upregulates ChAT mRNA expression and ACh synthesis, suggesting that this lymphocytic cholinergic system contributes to the regulation of immune function...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931778/the-anti-inflammatory-pathway-regulated-via-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-rat-intestinal-mesothelial-cells
#7
Taiki Mihara, Wataru Otsubo, Kazuhide Horiguchi, Shoma Mikawa, Noriyuki Kaji, Satoshi Iino, Hiroshi Ozaki, Masatoshi Hori
Regulation of inflammation in intestinal mesothelial cells in the abdominal cavity is important for the pathogeny of clinical conditions, such as postoperative ileus, peritonitis and encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis. Here we have examined the inflammatory effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation in rat intestinal mesothelial cells. LPS upregulated mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928637/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-play-a-predominant-role-in-the-cholinergic-potentiation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-evoked-firing-responses-of-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells
#8
Zsolt K Bali, Lili V Nagy, István Hernádi
The aim of the present study was to identify in vivo electrophysiological correlates of the interaction between cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission underlying memory. Extracellular spike recordings were performed in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats in combination with local microiontophoretic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and acetylcholine (ACh). Both NMDA and ACh increased the firing rate of the neurons. Furthermore, the simultaneous delivery of NMDA and ACh resulted in a more pronounced excitatory effect that was superadditive over the sum of the two mono-treatment effects and that was explained by cholinergic potentiation of glutamatergic neurotransmission...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928157/alteration-of-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-in-rat-with-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-modified-electrophysiological-function-of-heart
#9
Shu-Jie Wu, Yue-Chun Li, Zhe-Wei Shi, Zhong-Hao Lin, Zhi-Heng Rao, Si-Chao Tai, Mao-Ping Chu, Lei Li, Jia-Feng Lin
BACKGROUND: With chronic ischemia after myocardial infarction, the resulting scar tissue result in electrical and structural remodeling vulnerable to an arrhythmogenic substrate. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway elicited by vagal nerve via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR) can modulate local and systemic inflammatory responses. Here, we aimed to clarify a novel mechanism for the antiarrhythmogenic properties of vagal nerve during the ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922590/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-abt-126-in-the-treatment-of-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-schizophrenia-results-from-a-phase-2b-randomized-controlled-study-in-smokers
#10
George M Haig, Deli Wang, Jun Zhao, Ahmed A Othman, Earle E Bain
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the α₇-nicotinic receptor agonist ABT-126 for treatment of cognitive impairment in stable subjects with schizophrenia who smoke. METHODS: A 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted from August 2012 to March 2014. Subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia based on DSM-IV-TR criteria (confirmed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 6.0.0) were randomized 1:1:1 to ABT-126 25 mg, ABT-126 75 mg, or placebo once daily while maintained on their background antipsychotic medication...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918457/effects-of-menthol-and-its-interaction-with-nicotine-conditioned-cue-on-nicotine-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#11
Erin Harrison, Lisa Biswas, Ramachandram Avusula, Meiyu Zhang, Yongzhen Gong, Xiu Liu
RATIONALE: Increasing clinical evidence suggests that menthol, a significant flavoring additive in tobacco products, may contribute to smoking and nicotine dependence. Relapse to smoking behavior presents a formidable challenge for the treatment of tobacco addiction. An unresolved issue is whether the mentholation of tobacco products precipitates relapse to tobacco use in abstinent smokers. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the effects of menthol on the perseverance and relapse of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats...
September 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917942/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-testing-of-native-%C3%AE-conotoxins-from-the-injected-venom-of-conus-purpurascens
#12
REVIEW
Mickelene F Hoggard, Alena M Rodriguez, Herminsul Cano, Evan Clark, Han-Shen Tae, David J Adams, Tanja A Godenschwege, Frank Marí
α-Conotoxins inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and are used as probes to study cholinergic pathways in vertebrates. Model organisms, such as Drosophila melanogaster, express nAChRs in their CNS that are suitable to investigate the neuropharmacology of α-conotoxins in vivo. Here we report the paired nanoinjection of native α-conotoxin PIA and two novel α-conotoxins, PIC and PIC[O7], from the injected venom of Conus purpurascens and electrophysiological recordings of their effects on the giant fiber system (GFS) of D...
September 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912862/astragalus-polysaccharides-combined-with-ibuprofen-exhibit-a-therapeutic-effect-on-septic-rats-via-an-anti-inflammatory-cholinergic-pathway
#13
Li Liu, Shibiao Chen, Xiaoyun Xu, Benchao Hou, Fei Mo
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) in combination with ibuprofen (IBU) in the treatment of sepsis and the underlying mechanism. The combined drug treatment was evaluated in a rat model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and acetylcholine (ACh) were determined. Nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) α7 receptor expression and histopathological changes in the lung tissue were also observed...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911734/both-point-mutations-and-low-expression-levels-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-1-subunit-are-associated-with-imidacloprid-resistance-in-an-aphis-gossypii-glover-population-from-a-bt-cotton-field-in-china
#14
Xuewei Chen, Fen Li, Anqi Chen, Kangsheng Ma, Pingzhuo Liang, Ying Liu, Dunlun Song, Xiwu Gao
Aphis gossypii Glover is a destructive pest of numerous crops throughout the world. Although the expansion of Bt cotton cultivation has helped to control some insect pests, the damage from cotton aphids has not been mitigated. The evolution of aphid resistance to imidacloprid has made its chemical control more difficult since its introduction in 1991. Field populations of A. gossypii that were collected from different transgenic (Bt) cotton planting areas of China in 2014 developed different levels of resistance to imidacloprid...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906438/acetylcholinesterase-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-schistosomes-and-other-parasitic-helminths
#15
REVIEW
Hong You, Chang Liu, Xiaofeng Du, Donald P McManus
Schistosomiasis, which is caused by helminth trematode blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, is a serious health and economic problem in tropical areas, and the second most prevalent parasitic disease after malaria. Currently, there is no effective vaccine available and treatment is entirely dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), raising a significant potential public health threat due to the emergence of PZQ drug resistance. It is thus urgent and necessary to explore novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of schistosomiasis...
September 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905473/does-multigenerational-exposure-to-hormetic-concentrations-of-imidacloprid-precondition-aphids-for-increased-insecticide-tolerance
#16
Rachel R Rix, G Christopher Cutler
BACKGROUND: Hormetic preconditioning, whereby exposure to mild stress primes an organism to better tolerate subsequent stress, is well documented. It is unknown if exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can trans-generationally prime insects to better tolerate insecticide exposure, or whether exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can induce mutations in genes responsible for insecticide resistance. Using the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and insecticide imidacloprid as a model, we examined if exposure to mildly toxic and hormetic concentrations of imidacloprid reduced aphid susceptibility to insecticides across four generations, and whether such exposures induced mutations in the imidacloprid binding site in post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904985/cholinergic-activity-and-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia-a-multitracer-molecular-imaging-study
#17
Joachim Brumberg, Sebastian Küsters, Ehab Al-Momani, Giorgio Marotta, Kelly P Cosgrove, Christopher H van Dyck, Ken Herrmann, György A Homola, Gianni Pezzoli, Andreas K Buck, Jens Volkmann, Samuel Samnick, Ioannis U Isaias
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between levodopa-induced dyskinesias and striatal cholinergic activity in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: This study included 13 Parkinson's disease patients with peak-of-dose levodopa-induced dyskinesias, 12 nondyskinetic patients, and 12 healthy controls. Participants underwent 5-[(123)I]iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine single-photon emission computed tomography, a marker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, [(123)I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane single-photon emission computed tomography, to measure dopamine reuptake transporter density and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography to assess regional cerebral metabolic activity...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904864/a-g-protein-coupled-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-regulates-signaling-and-tnf-%C3%AE-release-in-microglia
#18
Justin R King, Trudy C Gillevet, Nadine Kabbani
Acetylcholine activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) in microglia attenuates neuroinflammation and regulates TNF-α release. We used lipopolysaccharide to model inflammation in the microglial cell line EOC20 and examined signaling by the α7 nAChR. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirm that α7 nAChRs bind heterotrimeric G proteins in EOC20 cells. Interaction with Gαi mediates α7 nAChR signaling via enhanced intracellular calcium release and a decrease in cAMP, p38 phosphorylation, and TNF-α release...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901722/%C3%AE-6-subunit-containing-nicotinic-receptors-mediate-low-dose-ethanol-effects-on-ventral-tegmental-area-neurons-and-ethanol-reward
#19
Scott C Steffensen, Samuel I Shin, Ashley C Nelson, Stephanie S Pistorius, Stephanie B Williams, Taylor J Woodward, Hyun Jung Park, Lindsey Friend, Ming Gao, Fenfei Gao, Devin H Taylor, M Foster Olive, Jeffrey G Edwards, Sterling N Sudweeks, Lori M Buhlman, J Michael McIntosh, Jie Wu
Dopamine (DA) neuron excitability is regulated by inhibitory GABAergic synaptic transmission and modulated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of α6 subunit-containing nAChRs (α6*-nAChRs) in acute ethanol effects on ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA and DA neurons. α6*-nAChRs were visualized on GABA terminals on VTA GABA neurons, and α6*-nAChR transcripts were expressed in most DA neurons, but only a minority of VTA GABA neurons from GAD67 GFP mice...
September 13, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901528/beyond-symptomatic-effects-donepezil-s-potential-for-neuroprotection-and-disease-modification-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Seung Hyun Kim, Nagaendran Kandiah, Jung-Lung Hsu, Chuthamanee Suthisisang, Chesda Udommongkol, Amitabh Dash
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with neurodegenerative changes resulting clinically in progressive cognitive and functional deficits. The only therapies are the cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine and the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antagonist memantine. Donepezil acts primarily on the cholinergic system as symptomatic treatment, but it also has potential for disease modification and may reduce the rate of progression of AD. This review explores the potential for a disease modifying effect of donepezil...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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