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Severe malnutrition children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905971/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#1
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
November 14, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895846/antibiotics-as-part-of-the-management-of-severe-acute-malnutrition
#2
Indi Trehan, Hayley S Goldbach, Lacey N LaGrone, Guthrie J Meuli, Richard J Wang, Kenneth M Maleta, Mark J Manary
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition contributes to 1 million deaths among children annually. Adding routine antibiotic agents to nutritional therapy may increase recovery rates and decrease mortality among children with severe acute malnutrition treated in the community. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned Malawian children, 6 to 59 months of age, with severe acute malnutrition to receive amoxicillin, cefdinir, or placebo for 7 days in addition to ready-to-use therapeutic food for the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894303/integrated-agriculture-programs-to-address-malnutrition-in-northern-malawi
#3
Rachel Bezner Kerr, Emmanuel Chilanga, Hanson Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Isaac Luginaah, Esther Lupafya
BACKGROUND: In countries where the majority of undernourished people are smallholder farmers, there has been interest in agricultural interventions to improve nutritional outcomes. Addressing gender inequality, however, is a key mechanism by which agriculture can improve nutrition, since women often play a crucial role in farming, food processing and child care, but have limited decision-making and control over agricultural resources. This study examines the approaches by which gender equity in agrarian, resource-poor settings can be improved using a case study in Malawi...
November 28, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892446/assessment-of-nutritional-status-of-children-under-five-years-of-age-in-rural-nepal
#4
J Chataut, K Khanal
Background Nutritional status of children is one of the major predictors of child survival. However, malnutrition is a major public health problem in most of the developing countries and occurs prominently among under-five children. In context of Nepal, nearly 37% children are suffering from underweight, 41% from stunting and 11% are suffering from wasting. These children are at a substantially greater risk of severe acute malnutrition and death. Objective The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of children under five years of age and to find the factors associated with malnutrition...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891065/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#5
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888055/dietary-choline-levels-modify-the-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#6
Nirelia M Idrus, Kristen R Breit, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor...
November 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885962/parental-history-of-moderate-to-severe-infantile-malnutrition-is-associated-with-cognitive-deficits-in-their-adult-offspring
#7
Deborah P Waber, Cyralene P Bryce, Jonathan M Girard, Laura K Fischer, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Janina R Galler
OBJECTIVES: We compared the IQ and academic achievement of the young adult offspring of parents malnourished in infancy and those of a healthy control group in order to test the hypothesis that the offspring of previously malnourished individuals would show IQ and academic deficits that could be related to reduced parental socioeconomic status. METHODS: We conducted a group comparison study based on a community sample in Barbados (Barbados Nutrition Study). Participants were adult children ≥16 years of age whose parents had been malnourished during the first year of life (n = 64; Mean age 19...
November 25, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882009/functional-and-structural-abnormalities-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract-in-severely-malnourished-children-a-hospital-based-study
#8
Misbah Anjum, Khemchand N Moorani, Ifra Sameen, Muhammad Ayaz Mustufa, Shazia Kulsoom
OBJECTIVES: The association of malnutrition and systemic diseases like chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known. Various urinary tract abnormalities may be associated with malnutrition. So objective of current study was to determine the frequency of functional and structural urinary tract abnormalities in severely malnourished children admitted in Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit (NRU) of a tertiary care facility, Karachi. METHODS: This descriptive cases series of 78 children was conducted in NRU from October 2014 - March 2015...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881690/acceptability-of-outpatient-ready-to-use-food-based-protocols-in-hiv-infected-senegalese-children-and-adolescents-within-the-maggsen-cohort-study
#9
Cecile Cames, Marie Varloteaux, Ndeye Ngone Have, Alhadji Bassine Diom, Philippe Msellati, Ngagne Mbaye, Helene Mbodj, Haby Sy Signate, Aminata Diack
OBJECTIVES: To assess the acceptability of ready-to-use food (RUF)-based outpatient protocols in HIV-infected children and adolescents with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). METHODS: Plumpy Nut and Plumpy Sup were supplied every 2 weeks and prescribed by weight to SAM and MAM children, respectively. Forty-three children, 24 MAM and 19 SAM, were enrolled. Organoleptic appreciation, feeding modalities, and perceptions surrounding RUF were recorded at week 2...
November 22, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881597/assessment-of-regression-models-for-adjustment-of-iron-status-biomarkers-for-inflammation-in-children-with-moderate-acute-malnutrition-in-burkina-faso
#10
Bernardette Cichon, Christian Ritz, Christian Fabiansen, Vibeke Brix Christensen, Suzanne Filteau, Henrik Friis, Pernille Kæstel
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of iron status are affected by inflammation. In order to interpret them in individuals with inflammation, the use of correction factors (CFs) has been proposed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of regression models as an alternative to the CF approach. METHODS: Morbidity data were collected during clinical examinations with morbidity recalls in a cross-sectional study in children aged 6-23 mo with moderate acute malnutrition...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878805/pancreatic-enzyme-replacement-therapy-for-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#11
REVIEW
Usha Rani Somaraju, Arturo Solis-Moya
BACKGROUND: Most people with cystic fibrosis (80% to 90%) need pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy to prevent malnutrition. Enzyme preparations need to be taken whenever food is taken, and the dose needs to be adjusted according to the food consumed. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is needed to guide clinical practice, as there is variability between centres with respect to assessment of pancreatic function, time of commencing treatment, dose and choice of supplements...
November 23, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872656/nutritional-situation-among-syrian-refugees-hosted-in-iraq-jordan-and-lebanon-cross-sectional-surveys
#12
S M Moazzem Hossain, Eva Leidman, James Kingori, Abdullah Al Harun, Oleg O Bilukha
BACKGROUND: Ongoing armed conflict in Syria has caused large scale displacement. Approximately half of the population of Syria have been displaced including the millions living as refugees in neighboring countries. We sought to assess the health and nutrition of Syrian refugees affected by the conflict. METHODS: Representative cross-sectional surveys of Syrian refugees were conducted between October 2 and November 30, 2013 in Lebanon, April 12 and May 1, 2014 in Jordan, and May 20 and 31, 2013 in Iraq...
2016: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857525/association-of-body-mass-index-with-dental-caries-among-malnourished-tribal-children-of-indore-division
#13
Astha Chauhan, Sandesh Nagarajappa, Pralhad L Dasar, Prashant Mishra
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Nutrition is an essential component in human growth, development and maintenance of healthy life. Tribal communities are highly disease prone and do not have the required access to basic health facilities, also having a high degree of malnutrition. The aim of this study was to determine the association of body mass index with dental caries among malnourished tribal children of Indore division (M.P.). METHODS: A cross-sectional house to house survey was carried out among 275 study subjects, 6-15 years old tribal children in two major tribal districts of Indore division...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856449/invited-commentary-improving-estimates-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-requires-more-data
#14
REVIEW
Alexis Hure, Christopher Oldmeadow, John Attia
In this issue of the Journal, Isanaka et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;000(00):000-000) set out to update an incidence correction factor used for estimating numbers of cases of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children aged 6-59 months. The total number of current SAM cases (prevalent cases) increases by the number of new (incident) cases and decreases as a result of recovery or death. Prevalence estimates are obtained from cross-sectional surveys. Calculation of incidence typically requires longitudinal data, which evidently are rarely collected for SAM, and so a correction factor is applied instead...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856446/improving-estimates-of-numbers-of-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-using-cohort-and-survey-data
#15
Sheila Isanaka, Ellen O'Neal Boundy, Rebecca F Grais, Mark Myatt, André Briend
Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is reported to affect 19 million children worldwide. However, this estimate is based on prevalence data from cross-sectional surveys and can be expected to miss some children affected by an acute condition such as SAM. The burden of acute conditions is more appropriately represented by cumulative incidence data. In the absence of incidence data, a method for burden estimation has been proposed that corrects available prevalence estimates to account for incident cases using an "incidence correction factor...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846837/prevalence-aetiology-treatment-and-outcomes-of-shock-in-children-admitted-to-kenyan-hospitals
#16
George Mbevi, Philip Ayieko, Grace Irimu, Samuel Akech, Mike English
BACKGROUND: Shock may complicate several acute childhood illnesses in hospitals within low-income countries and has a high case fatality. Hypovolemic shock secondary to diarrhoea/dehydration and septic shock are thought to be common, but there are few reliable data on prevalence or treatment that differ for the two major forms of shock. Examining prevalence and treatment practices has become important since reports suggest high risks from liberal use of fluid boluses in African children...
November 16, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814707/serum-phosphate-and-magnesium-in-children-recovering-from-severe-acute-undernutrition-in-ethiopia-an-observational-study
#17
Anne-Louise Hother, Tsinuel Girma, Maren J H Rytter, Alemseged Abdissa, Christian Ritz, Christian Mølgaard, Kim F Michaelsen, André Briend, Henrik Friis, Pernille Kæstel
BACKGROUND: Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have increased requirements for phosphorus and magnesium during recovery. If requirements are not met, the children may develop refeeding hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia. However, little is known about the effect of current therapeutic diets (F-75 and F-100) on serum phosphate (S-phosphate) and magnesium (S-magnesium) in children with SAM. METHODS: Prospective observational study, with measurements of S-phosphate and S-magnesium at admission, prior to rehabilitation phase and at discharge in children aged 6-59 months admitted with SAM to Jimma Hospital, Ethiopia...
November 5, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807038/metabolomic-changes-in-serum-of-children-with-different-clinical-diagnoses-of-malnutrition
#18
Valeria Di Giovanni, Celine Bourdon, Dominic X Wang, Swapna Seshadri, Edward Senga, Christian J Versloot, Wieger Voskuijl, Richard D Semba, Indi Trehan, Ruin Moaddel, M Isabel Ordiz, Ling Zhang, John Parkinson, Mark J Manary, Robert Hj Bandsma
BACKGROUND: Mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) remains high despite standardized rehabilitation protocols. Two forms of SAM are classically distinguished: kwashiorkor and marasmus. Children with kwashiorkor have nutritional edema and metabolic disturbances, including hypoalbuminemia and hepatic steatosis, whereas marasmus is characterized by severe wasting. The metabolic changes underlying these phenotypes have been poorly characterized, and whether homeostasis is achieved during hospital stay is unclear...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806980/linear-growth-trajectories-in-zimbabwean-infants
#19
Ethan K Gough, Erica Em Moodie, Andrew J Prendergast, Robert Ntozini, Lawrence H Moulton, Jean H Humphrey, Amee R Manges
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition in early life underlies 45% of child deaths globally. Stunting malnutrition (suboptimal linear growth) also has long-term negative effects on childhood development. Linear growth deficits accrue in the first 1000 d of life. Understanding the patterns and timing of linear growth faltering or recovery during this period is critical to inform interventions to improve infant nutritional status. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the pattern and determinants of linear growth trajectories from birth through 24 mo of age in a cohort of Zimbabwean infants...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806810/childhood-acute-bacterial-meningitis-clinical-spectrum-bacteriological-profile-and-outcome
#20
Attia Bari, Fatima Zeeshan, Aiza Zafar, Hassan Ejaz, Aisha Iftikhar, Ahsan Waheed Rathore
OBJECTIVE: To determine the disease pattern, etiological agents and outcome of childhood acute bacterial meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: Adescriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Paediatric Medicine, The Children's Hospital, Lahore, from January to December 2012. METHODOLOGY: Atotal of 199 children between the ages of 1 month and 5 years, admitted with the diagnosis of meningitis on the basis of clinical findings and positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), were included...
October 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
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