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meningococcal meningitis prevention and treatment

B C Millar, L Banks, T W Bourke, M Cunningham, Jsg Dooley, S Elshibly, C E Goldsmith, D Fairley, K Jackson, S Lamont, L Jessop, E McCrudden, D McConnell, K McAuley, J P McKenna, Pja Moore, R Smithson, J Stirling, M Shields, J E Moore
Meningococcal disease has had devastating consequences in Northern Ireland since its first description locally in 1859. The incidence of this disease has significantly declined in recent years, however it is important to understand reasons for this changing epidemiology and to acknowledge the diagnostic and clinical management developments that have been made locally. This review aims to examine the changing face of this disease in Northern Ireland over the years, with particular reference to local disease prevention, epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical treatment and management, post-disease sequelae and the role of meningitis charities locally, in terms of patient support and research...
May 2018: Ulster Medical Journal
Ewelina Gowin, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
BACKGROUND: There are many studies analysing the effect of SNPs in genes coding proteins which are involved in innate immune response on susceptibility to invasive bacterial disease. Many of them gave inconclusive results. Regarding the complexity of immune response and cooperation between particular elements, number of SNPs may have a cumulative effect on the susceptibility to bacterial meningitis. FINDINGS: In most studies cooccurrence of several SNPs was not analysed...
May 12, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Mitsuko Seki, Paul E Kilgore, Eun Jin Kim, Makoto Ohnishi, Satoshi Hayakawa, Dong Wook Kim
The rapid, accurate, and efficient identification of an infectious disease is critical to ensure timely clinical treatment and prevention in public health settings. In 2015, meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae , and Neisseria meningitidis was responsible for 379,200 (range: 322,700-444,700) deaths. Clinical features alone cannot determine whether bacterial meningitis is present; an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is essential. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a nucleic acid amplification method offering an alternative to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Donnchadh O'Sullivan, Barry Linnane, Amanda Mostyn, Nteimam Jonathan, Marie Lenihan, Nuala H O'Connell, Colum P Dunne
BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is associated with meningitis and septicemia. Septic meningococcal arthritis is relatively uncommon and its diagnosis associated with clinical and microbiological challenges. Early recognition and treatment is required to prevent joint destruction. PURPOSE: We describe a case of an eleven-year-old boy with septic arthritis and the first reported use of a multiplexed diagnostic PCR test, capable of simultaneous rapid detection of 14 pathogens directly from CSF samples, to determine presence of N...
March 23, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Rodrigo Siqueira Batista, Andréia Patrícia Gomes, Jorge Luiz Dutra Gazineo, Paulo Sérgio Balbino Miguel, Luiz Alberto Santana, Lisa Oliveira, Mauro Geller
Meningococcal disease is the acute infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis, which has humans as the only natural host. The disease is widespread around the globe and is known for its epidemical potential and high rates of lethality and morbidity. The highest number of cases of the disease is registered in the semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa. In Brazil, it is endemic with occasional outbreaks, epidemics and sporadic cases occurring throughout the year, especially in the winter. The major epidemics of the disease occurred in Brazil in the 70's caused by serogroups A and C...
November 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Fortress Y Aku, Fernanda C Lessa, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Phoebe Balagumyetime, Winfred Ofosu, Jennifer Farrar, Mahamoudou Ouattara, Jeni T Vuong, Kofi Issah, Joseph Opare, Sally-Ann Ohene, Charles Okot, Ernest Kenu, Donne K Ameme, David Opare, Abass Abdul-Karim
Bacterial meningitis is a severe, acute infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord that can rapidly lead to death. Even with recommended antibiotic treatment, up to 25% of infected persons in Africa might experience neurologic sequelae (1). Three regions in northern Ghana (Upper East, Northern, and Upper West), located in the sub-Saharan "meningitis belt" that extends from Senegal to Ethiopia, experienced periodic outbreaks of meningitis before introduction of serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac) in 2012 (2,3)...
August 4, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Thambu D Sudarsanam, Priscilla Rupali, Prathap Tharyan, Ooriapadickal Cherian Abraham, Kurien Thomas
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal disease can lead to death or disability within hours after onset. Pre-admission antibiotics aim to reduce the risk of serious disease and death by preventing delays in starting therapy before confirmation of the diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To study the effectiveness and safety of pre-admission antibiotics versus no pre-admission antibiotics or placebo, and different pre-admission antibiotic regimens in decreasing mortality, clinical failure, and morbidity in people suspected of meningococcal disease...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jun Hirai, Takeshi Kinjo, Takaaki Tome, Mao Hagihara, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hideta Nakamura, Shusaku Haranaga, Hiroshige Mikamo, Jiro Fujita
Neisseria meningitidis often causes meningitis and meningococcemia; however, meningococcal pneumonia is quite rare. Herein, we report a case of non-invasive meningococcal pneumonia initially misdiagnosed as pneumonia due to Moraxella catarrhalis on the basis of a Gram stain in a 43-year-old woman with asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and schizophrenia. She visited our hospital following a 3-day history of fever, productive cough, and shortness of breath. Since her sputum smear revealed Gram-negative diplococcus and the chest radiograph showed infiltration in the lower right lung field, her initial diagnosis was pneumonia caused by M...
December 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Sergiu Straticiuc, Ancuta Ignat, Elena Hanganu, Vasile Valeriu Lupu, Alexandru Bogdan Ciubara, Roxana Cretu
INTRODUCTION: Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) is associated with severe invasive infections such as meningitis and fulminant septicemia. Septic arthritis due to N. meningitidis is rare and bone infections have been reported exceptionally. We report the case of a 1-year old girl who presented with a painful, swollen right knee, accompanied by fever and agitation. Arthrocentesis of the right knee, while patient was under anesthesia, yielded grossly purulent fluid, so we made arthrotomy and drainage...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Saber Yezli, Abdulaziz A Bin Saeed, Abdullah M Assiri, Rafat F Alhakeem, Muslim A Yunus, Abdulhafiz M Turkistani, Robert Booy, Badriah M Alotaibi
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD). KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools...
June 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Karen L Roos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bacterial infections of the central nervous system are neurologic emergencies. Prompt recognition and treatment are essential not only to prevent mortality, but also to decrease neurologic sequelae. This article focuses on the two most common central nervous system bacterial infections, bacterial meningitis and spinal epidural abscess. RECENT FINDINGS: Two outbreaks of serogroup B meningococcal disease have occurred on US college campuses. The meningococcal vaccine given to young adults does not contain serogroup B...
December 2015: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Brian H Harcourt, Raydel D Anderson, Henry M Wu, Amanda C Cohn, Jessica R MacNeil, Thomas H Taylor, Xin Wang, Thomas A Clark, Nancy E Messonnier, Leonard W Mayer
Background.  Antimicrobial treatment and chemoprophylaxis of patients and their close contacts is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality and prevent secondary cases of meningococcal disease. Through the 1990's, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antimicrobials among Neisseria meningitidis was low in the United States. Susceptibility testing was performed to ascertain whether the proportions of isolates with reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials commonly used for N meningitidis have increased since 2004 in the United States...
September 2015: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
L Telisinghe, T D Waite, M Gobin, O Ronveaux, K Fernandez, J M Stuart, R J P M Scholten
Household contacts of an index case of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) are at increased risk of acquiring disease. In revising WHO guidance on IMD in sub-Saharan Africa, a systematic review was undertaken to assess the effect of chemoprophylaxis and of vaccination in preventing subsequent cases of IMD in household contacts following an index case. A literature search for systematic reviews identified a single suitable review on chemoprophylaxis in 2004 (three studies meta-analysed). A search for primary research papers published since 2004 on chemoprophylaxis and without a date limit on vaccination was therefore undertaken...
August 2015: Epidemiology and Infection
Irene Rivero Calle, Carmen Rodriguez-Tenreiro Sánchez, Federico Martinón-Torres
N. meningitidis is a major cause of meningitis and septicemia and a major public health problem in many countries. The disease, that can be fulminant, has a high mortality and may cause serious sequelae, even in cases of apparently optimal medical treatment. Chemoprophylaxis may prevent secondary cases among those in close contact with the ill, but, since secondary cases represent only 1%-2% of all meningococcal disease, chemoprophylaxis has a small impact when fighting most of endemic and epidemic forms. Given that al least 5% -15% of children and young adults are carriers, the fight against meningococcal disease based on chemotherapeutic elimination of nasopharyngeal colonization is virtually impossible...
April 2015: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Marta Ciofi degli Atti, Susanna Esposito, Luciana Parola, Lucilla Ravà, Gianluigi Gargantini, Riccardo Longhi
BACKGROUND: Over the years 2009-2013, we conducted a prospective study within a network established by the Italian Society of Pediatrics to describe the in-hospital management of children hospitalized for acute bacterial meningitis in 19 Italian hospitals with pediatric wards. METHODS: Hospital adherence to the study was voluntary; data were derived from clinical records. Information included demographic data, dates of onset of first symptoms, hospitalization and discharge; diagnostic evaluation; etiology; antimicrobial treatment; treatment with dexamethasone; in-hospital complications; neurological sequelae and status at hospital discharge...
November 14, 2014: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Hernando Pinzón-Redondo, Wilfrido Coronell-Rodriguez, Inés Díaz-Martinez, Angel Guzmán-Corena, Dagna Constenla, Nelson Alvis-Guzmán
Meningococcal disease is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), and it can cause meningitis, meningococcaemia outbreaks and epidemics. The disease is fatal in 9-12% of cases and with a death rate of up to 40% among patients with meningococcaemia. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in a Caribbean city of Colombia. We contacted experts involved in the outbreak and asked them specific questions about the diagnosis and treatment for meningococcal cases during the outbreak...
September 2014: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Thomas L Snelling, Peter B McIntyre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Sandra C Bernard, Nandi Simpson, Olivier Join-Lambert, Christian Federici, Marie-Pierre Laran-Chich, Nawal Maïssa, Haniaa Bouzinba-Ségard, Philippe C Morand, Fabrice Chretien, Saïd Taouji, Eric Chevet, Sébastien Janel, Frank Lafont, Mathieu Coureuil, Audrey Segura, Florence Niedergang, Stefano Marullo, Pierre-Olivier Couraud, Xavier Nassif, Sandrine Bourdoulous
Neisseria meningitidis is a cause of meningitis epidemics worldwide and of rapidly progressing fatal septic shock. A crucial step in the pathogenesis of invasive meningococcal infections is the adhesion of bloodborne meningococci to both peripheral and brain endothelia, leading to major vascular dysfunction. Initial adhesion of pathogenic strains to endothelial cells relies on meningococcal type IV pili, but the endothelial receptor for bacterial adhesion remains unknown. Here, we report that the immunoglobulin superfamily member CD147 (also called extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) or Basigin) is a critical host receptor for the meningococcal pilus components PilE and PilV...
July 2014: Nature Medicine
L Petrousová, L Roznovský
Neisseria meningitidis is a rare cause of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Systemic meningococcal disease follows meningococcal conjunctivitis in approximately one quarter of patients. Systemic antibiotic treatment is indicated in the case of meningococcal conjunctivitis to prevent spread of infection. We report 6-month-old boy who presented with meningococcal conjunctivitis and developed sepsis and meningitis in 24 hours. The course of the disease was favorable.
September 2013: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
B P Paudyal
Recurrent bacterial meningitis is potentially life-threatening; resultant complications and adverse events during management take their extra toll on the patient. A rare case with 12 consecutive episodes of pyogenic meningitis, probably the maximum number ever reported in the literature, has been presented. A minor head injury but with no subsequent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak during childhood was the index event in this patient. High resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) scan of the base of the skull clearly revealed a bony dehiscence missed on numerous previous imagings...
April 2007: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
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