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meningitis prevention and treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617817/prevalence-of-cryptococcal-infection-among-advanced-hiv-patients-in-argentina-using-lateral-flow-immunoassay
#1
Claudia Frola, Liliana Guelfand, Gabriela Blugerman, Edgardo Szyld, Sara Kaufman, Pedro Cahn, Omar Sued, Héctor Pérez
BACKGROUND: Globally, Latin America ranks third among regions with most cases of AIDS related cryptococcal meningitis. In 2009, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) for the detection of cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) was developed as a potential point-of-care test for diagnosis of cryptococcal infection. In 2011 World Health Organizations recommended on CrAg screening for HIV positive persons with CD4 below 100 cells/μL, followed by preemptive fluconazole treatment. However, in Argentina no formal recommendations for CrAg screening have been issued...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613408/pre-admission-antibiotics-for-suspected-cases-of-meningococcal-disease
#2
REVIEW
Thambu D Sudarsanam, Priscilla Rupali, Prathap Tharyan, Ooriapadickal Cherian Abraham, Kurien Thomas
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal disease can lead to death or disability within hours after onset. Pre-admission antibiotics aim to reduce the risk of serious disease and death by preventing delays in starting therapy before confirmation of the diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To study the effectiveness and safety of pre-admission antibiotics versus no pre-admission antibiotics or placebo, and different pre-admission antibiotic regimens in decreasing mortality, clinical failure, and morbidity in people suspected of meningococcal disease...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584980/heat-killed-yeast-as-a-pan-fungal-vaccine
#3
Marife Martinez, Karl V Clemons, David A Stevens
Fungal infections continue to rise worldwide. Antifungal therapy has long been a mainstay for the treatment of these infections, but often can fail for a number of reasons. These include acquired or innate drug resistance of the causative agent, poor drug penetration into the affected tissues, lack of cidal activity of the drug and drug toxicities that limit therapy. In some instances, such as coccidioidal meningitis, therapy is life-long. In addition, few new antifungal drugs are under development. In light of this information a preventative vaccine is highly desirable...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570459/alar-pinning-in-rigid-external-distraction-for-midfacial-hypoplasia
#4
Jenny L Yu, Albert S Woo
BACKGROUND: Distraction osteogenesis with a rigid external distractor is a widely accepted treatment for midfacial hypoplasia. In this study, the authors introduce the utilization of alar pinning with the external halo distractor for maxillary advancement, in place of an oral splint. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 7 patients who successfully underwent distraction osteogenesis using the alar pinning technique. Midfacial hypoplasia was secondary to Crouzon syndrome (n = 4), Apert syndrome (n = 1), Pfeiffer syndrome (n = 1), or bacterial meningitis (n = 1)...
May 31, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569141/disease-burden-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-invasive-group-b-streptococcus-among-infants-in-china-a-protocol-for-a-national-prospective-observational-study
#5
Wenjing Ji, Haiying Liu, Zhengjiang Jin, Aimin Wang, Xiaoping Mu, Xiaosong Qin, Weidong Wang, Chunyan Gao, Yuning Zhu, Xiaodan Feng, Jine Lei, Shangyang She, Lan Jiang, Jing Liu, Shuhua Yang, Zeshi Liu, Gang Li, Qiuhong Li, Dawen Guo, Muhammad Majid Aziz, Ali Hassan Gillani, Yu Fang
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis that can lead to neurological sequelae in infants less than 3 months of age. The GBS disease burden is not known in China, therefore it cannot receive major attention. The main objectives of this study are the evaluation of the incidence of neonatal GBS infection, GBS case-fatality ratio, its serotypes and genotypes, bacterial resistance, clinical treatment and outcomes in China. METHODS: We are conducting a nation-wide, population-based, multi-center, prospective, observational cohort study in China from May 2016 to December 2017...
May 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551737/recurrent-meningitis
#6
REVIEW
Jon Rosenberg, Benjamin T Galen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recurrent meningitis is a rare clinical scenario that can be self-limiting or life threatening depending on the underlying etiology. This review describes the causes, risk factors, treatment, and prognosis for recurrent meningitis. As a general overview of a broad topic, the aim of this review is to provide clinicians with a comprehensive differential diagnosis to aide in the evaluation and management of a patient with recurrent meningitis. RECENT FINDINGS: New developments related to understanding the pathophysiology of recurrent meningitis are as scarce as studies evaluating the treatment and prevention of this rare disorder...
July 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536811/listeriosis-during-pregnancy
#7
REVIEW
Mitko Madjunkov, Shahnaz Chaudhry, Shinya Ito
PURPOSE: Listeriosis is a rare foodborne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes. It can be transmitted by consuming contaminated ready-to-eat food, long shelf-life products, deli meats, and soft cheeses. Listeria has a predilection to affect immunocompromised patients, elderly people, pregnant women and neonates. In particular, pregnant women are at ~18 times greater risk of infection than general population due to specific pregnancy-related suppressed cell-mediated immunity and placental tropism of L...
May 23, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515075/pigr-and-pecam-1-bind-to-pneumococcal-adhesins-rrga-and-pspc-mediating-bacterial-brain-invasion
#8
Federico Iovino, Joo-Yeon Engelen-Lee, Matthijs Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek, Arie van der Ende, Merche Valls Seron, Peter Mellroth, Sandra Muschiol, Jan Bergstrand, Jerker Widengren, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of bacterial meningitis, a life-threating disease with a high case fatality rate despite treatment with antibiotics. Pneumococci cause meningitis by invading the blood and penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Using stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy of brain biopsies from patients who died of pneumococcal meningitis, we observe that pneumococci colocalize with the two BBB endothelial receptors: polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492211/raised-adenosine-deaminase-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-a-tool-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-meningitis-in-developing-countries
#9
Purti A Saini, Preeti R Chakrabarti, Dosi Shilpi, Gambhir Shankhini, Gupta Priyanka, Tignath Gargi
CONTEXT: The rapid diagnosis followed by the early treatment of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is important in preventing fatal outcomes. The mainstay of diagnosis lies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, radiological investigations, and clinical findings. AIM: The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy, sensitivity, and specificity of raised adenosine deaminase (ADA) level in CSF to differentiate TBM from non-TBM cases as a rapid, cost-effective, and noninvasive test...
January 2017: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483415/global-burden-of-disease-of-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-an-updated-analysis
#10
Radha Rajasingham, Rachel M Smith, Benjamin J Park, Joseph N Jarvis, Nelesh P Govender, Tom M Chiller, David W Denning, Angela Loyse, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus is the most common cause of meningitis in adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Global burden estimates are crucial to guide prevention strategies and to determine treatment needs, and we aimed to provide an updated estimate of global incidence of HIV-associated cryptococcal disease. METHODS: We used 2014 Joint UN Programme on HIV and AIDS estimates of adults (aged >15 years) with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage...
May 5, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482385/-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-study-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-in-the-prevention-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-in-infants-and-young-children
#11
C M Wan, H Yu, G Liu, H M Xu, Z Q Mao, Y Xu, Y Jin, R P Luo, W J Wang, F Fang
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in infants and young children. Method: From November 2012 to September 2013, ten research units of large teaching hospitals or children's hospitals participated in this multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial. Hospitalized young children aged between 1 month and 3 years (nongastrointestinal infection and antibiotic therapy required)were involved in our study. The children were randomly divided into control group and prevention group by means of block random allocation method...
May 4, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430673/antimicrobial-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-prevalence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#12
Regine Cherazard, Marcia Epstein, Thien-Ly Doan, Tanzila Salim, Sheena Bharti, Miriam A Smith
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, bacteremia, and otitis media. S. pneumoniae has developed increased resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review of prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications in S. pneumoniae resistance. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Since S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was first reported with subsequent development of resistance to other classes of drugs, selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment is challenging...
May 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428929/treatment-of-posttubercular-syringomyelia-not-responsive-to-antitubercular-therapy-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#13
Giuseppe Canova, Alessandro Boaro, Enrico Giordan, Pierluigi Longatti
Posttubercular adhesive arachnoiditis is a rare, late complication of tubercular meningitis. Syringomyelia can develop as a consequence of intramedullary cystic lesions and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow disturbance around the spinal cord, even after successful chemotherapy. We reviewed the literature related to posttubercular syringomyelia treatment and suggest a new combined surgical approach. A 25-year-old Nigerian male patient presented with legs numbness, urinary disturbance, and legs weakness. Spinal magnetic resonance revealed a T5-T7 syringomyelia, secondary to adhesive spinal arachnoiditis related to a history of tuberculous meningitis...
April 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397477/real-time-pcr-detection-of-the-most-common-bacteria-and-viruses-causing-meningitis
#14
Oya Akkaya, Hulya Iren Guvenc, Serife Yuksekkaya, Aysegul Opus, Asuman Guzelant, Meral Kaya, Muhammet Guzel Kurtoglu, Nurettin Kaya
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections require prompt diagnosis, as the clinical condition progresses rapidly and may lead to severe permanent sequelae or death. The causative agents include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study, samples with the diagnosis of CNS infection based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sent to us from other hospitals/labs, were studied by multiplex real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate, retrospectively, the most common bacteria and viruses causing meningitis and seasonal distribution of these agents using the multiplex real-time PCR method in CSF samples...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376817/listeria-monocytogenes-infection-associated-with-alemtuzumab-a-case-for-better-preventive-strategies
#15
Trygve Holmøy, Hedda von der Lippe, Truls Michael Leegaard
BACKGROUND: The mortality of septicaemia, meningitis and encephalitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes is 20-40%. Twenty-one cases of invasive listeriosis associated with alemtuzumab, including at least 16 in patients with multiple sclerosis, have been published or reported to the World Health Organization Case Safety Reports Database. Three cases were fatal, including at least one patient treated for multiple sclerosis in 2016. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a patient with multiple sclerosis who developed pyrexia, nausea and abdominal discomfort few hours after the third and last infusion of her second alemtuzumab cycle...
April 4, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353449/influence-of-socio-economic-inequality-measured-by-the-gini-coefficient-on-meningitis-incidence-caused-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-haemophilus-influenzae-in-colombia-2008-2011
#16
Wilmer F Acevedo-Mendoza, Diana Paola Buitrago Gómez, Miguel Ángel Atehortua-Otero, Miguel Ángel Páez, Manuela Jiménez-Rincón, Guillermo J Lagos-Grisales, Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales
Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of infectious neurological morbidity and mortality. Its incidence has decreased with the introduction of vaccination programmes against preventable agents. However, low-income and middle-income countries with poor access to health care still have a significant burden of the disease. Thus, the relationship between the Gini coefficient and H. influenzae and M. tuberculosis meningitis incidence in Colombia, during 2008-2011, was assessed. In this ecological study, the Gini coefficient was obtained from the Colombian Department of Statistics, incidence rates were calculated (cases/1,000,000 pop) and linear regressions were performed using the Gini coefficient, to assess the relationship between the latter and the incidence of meningitis...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345735/-supratentorial-cavernous-malformations-in-an-argentinian-institution-experience-with-surgical-treatment
#17
G E Vergara, A Cervio, M Farez, R Mormandi, S Condomi-Alcorta, J Salvat
INTRODUCTION: Cavernous malformations are vascular malformations of the central nervous system formed by a group of capillaries not covered by pia mater and communicated to the vascular system at very low pressure with very slow flow. Surgery or radiosurgery are the treatment modalities. AIMS: To analyze our results after surgical treatment of supratentorial cavernous malformations, reviewing clinical presentation, surgical indications and postoperative complications...
April 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339414/update-on-the-application-of-optic-nerve-sheath-fenestration
#18
Hui Chen, Qian Zhang, Song Tan, Huazhu Fu, Bradley K Farris, Zhenglin Yang
BACKGROUND: With the ongoing development of surgical procedures and instruments, the safety of optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) has been improved. OBJECTIVE: Through the past three decades, progress has been made in preventing visual loss from chronic optic nerve swelling in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), secondary intracranial hypertension and local optic nerve diseases. We now review the updated application of ONSF in those diseases. METHODS: The application of ONSF in papilledema due to IIH, secondary intracranial hypertension to cerebral venous sinus occlusion, Cryptococcal meningitis, and intracranial mass or tumors is reviewed...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335769/cost-effectiveness-of-crag-lfa-screening-for-cryptococcal-meningitis-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-uganda
#19
Anu Ramachandran, Yukari Manabe, Radha Rajasingham, Maunank Shah
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) constitutes a significant source of mortality in resource-limited regions. Cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) can be detected in the blood before onset of meningitis. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of implementing CRAG screening using the recently developed CRAG lateral flow assay in Uganda compared to current practice without screening. METHODS: A decision-analytic model was constructed to compare two strategies for cryptococcal prevention among people living with HIV with CD4 < 100 in Uganda: No cryptococcal screening vs...
March 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329667/serious-infections-are-on-the-rise-in-us-inpatients-with-psoriasis
#20
Derek Y Hsu
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with immune dysregulation and use of systemic immunosuppressive treatments that may predispose toward serious infections. We sought to determine the rates of serious infections in hospitalized patients with psoriasis. We analyzed data from the 2002-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, containing a 20% sample of all US hospitalizations. Psoriasis was determined by a validated algorithm using ICD-9-CM codes. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for socio-demographics, psoriasis was associated with multiple serious infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals] 1...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
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