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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322435/vaccine-associated-paralytic-poliomyelitis-in-a-patient-with-acute-lymphocytic-leukemia
#1
Reza Taherkhani, Fatemeh Farshadpour, Mohammad Reza Ravanbod
We report a case of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in an immunocompromised patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia who was initially diagnosed with aseptic meningitis. Isolation of Sabin-like type 1 poliovirus from the patient's cerebrospinal fluid made this a case of vaccine-related poliovirus (VRPV) infection. The patient developed paralysis and respiratory distress and deceased a few months after onset of paralysis with respiratory failure. This tragic case report highlights the emergence of VAPP and indicates the importance of timely diagnosis of VRPV infections to improve clinical management of VRPV-infected patients and to prevent the devastating consequences of silent introduction of VRPVs in treatment wards and eventually in the society...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289900/new-advances-in-cns-immunity-against-viral-infection
#2
REVIEW
Monica Manglani, Dorian B McGavern
The central nervous system (CNS) is an immunologically specialized organ where restrictive barrier structures protect the parenchyma from inflammation and infection. This protection is important in preventing damage to non-renewable resident cell populations, such as neurons, responsible for functions ranging from executive to autonomic. Despite these barriers, the CNS can be infected through several entry portals, giving rise to meningitis and encephalitis. Following infection, resident cells recruit peripherally derived immune cells to sites of viral infection...
December 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282438/management-of-unruptured-traumatic-middle-meningeal-artery-pseudoaneurysms-through-onyx-embolization
#3
Nicolas K Khattar, Andrew C White, Enzo M Fortuny, Rob T Hruska, Robert F James
Traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) represent less than 1% of all intracranial aneurysms, and occur mostly in association with temporal bone fractures following head trauma. Given the unknown natural history, it is unclear whether they should be treated. We present two cases of MMA pseudoaneurysms discovered during trauma workups. The first patient is a 44-year-old male with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) following a motor vehicle accident. The patient was found to have two right-sided middle meningeal artery pseudoaneurysms that were treated successfully with Onyx® (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) embolization...
October 23, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211821/elizabethkingia-in-children-a-comprehensive-review-of-symptomatic-cases-reported-from-1944-2017
#4
Eric J Dziuban, Jessica Franks, Marvin So, Georgina Peacock, David D Blaney
Elizabethkingia species often exhibit extensive antibiotic resistance and result in high morbidity and mortality, yet no systematic reviews exist that thoroughly characterize and quantify concerns for infected infants and children. We performed a review of literature and identified an initial 902 articles; 96 articles reporting 283 pediatric cases met our inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Case reports spanned 28 countries and ranged from 1944 to 2017. Neonatal meningitis remains the most common presentation of this organism in children, along with a range of other clinical manifestations...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203096/meningococcal-disease-a-clinical-and-epidemiological-review
#5
REVIEW
Rodrigo Siqueira Batista, Andréia Patrícia Gomes, Jorge Luiz Dutra Gazineo, Paulo Sérgio Balbino Miguel, Luiz Alberto Santana, Lisa Oliveira, Mauro Geller
Meningococcal disease is the acute infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis, which has humans as the only natural host. The disease is widespread around the globe and is known for its epidemical potential and high rates of lethality and morbidity. The highest number of cases of the disease is registered in the semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa. In Brazil, it is endemic with occasional outbreaks, epidemics and sporadic cases occurring throughout the year, especially in the winter. The major epidemics of the disease occurred in Brazil in the 70's caused by serogroups A and C...
November 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200666/prevention-of-memory-impairment-and-neurotrophic-factors-increased-by-lithium-in-wistar-rats-submitted-to-pneumococcal-meningitis-model
#6
Lutiana R Simões, Roberta R E S Abreu, Jaqueline S Generoso, Jéssica A Goularte, Allan Collodel, Vijayasree Vayalanellore Giridharan, Anitha Christy Sigamani Arumanayagam, Samira S Valvassori, João Quevedo, Tatiana Barichello
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lithium on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression in the hippocampus and on memory in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. The mood-stabilizer lithium is known as a neuroprotective agent with many effects on the brain. In this study, animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension at a concentration of 5 × 109 CFU/mL...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160642/neonatal-bacterial-meningitis-a-systematic-review-of-european-available-data
#7
Antonio DI Mauro, Francesca Cortese, Nicola Laforgia, Beatrice Pantaleo, Rachele Giuliani, Donato Bonifazi, Marco M Ciccone, Paola Giordano
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in neonatal intensive care and the improvements in surveillance, prevention and vaccination programs, neonatal meningitis still represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants, with the highest mortality in the newborn population. AIM: To summarize current knowledge about this topic with particular attention to management of neonatal meningitis in order to provide a useful tool for clinicians. METHODS: We reviewed the existent literature from five European Countries (France, German, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom) on the effectiveness of treatments for bacterial meningitis in newborns taking into consideration the antibiotic resistance phenomenon...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146635/antibiotic-use-and-bacterial-complications-following-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-a-population-based-study
#8
Thomas Cars, Irene Eriksson, Anna Granath, Björn Wettermark, Jenny Hellman, Christer Norman, Anders Ternhag
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if use of antibiotics was associated with bacterial complications following upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). DESIGN: Ecological time-trend analysis and a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Primary, outpatient specialist and inpatient care in Stockholm County, Sweden. All analyses were based on administrative healthcare data on consultations, diagnoses and dispensed antibiotics from January 2006 to January 2016...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140996/childhood-tuberculosis-is-associated-with-decreased-abundance-of-t-cell-gene-transcripts-and-impaired-t-cell-function
#9
Cheryl Hemingway, Maurice Berk, Suzanne T Anderson, Victoria J Wright, Shea Hamilton, Hariklia Eleftherohorinou, Myrsini Kaforou, Greg M Goldgof, Katy Hickman, Beate Kampmann, Johan Schoeman, Brian Eley, David Beatty, Sandra Pienaar, Mark P Nicol, Michael J Griffiths, Simon J Waddell, Sandra M Newton, Lachlan J Coin, David A Relman, Giovanni Montana, Michael Levin
The WHO estimates around a million children contract tuberculosis (TB) annually with over 80 000 deaths from dissemination of infection outside of the lungs. The insidious onset and association with skin test anergy suggests failure of the immune system to both recognise and respond to infection. To understand the immune mechanisms, we studied genome-wide whole blood RNA expression in children with TB meningitis (TBM). Findings were validated in a second cohort of children with TBM and pulmonary TB (PTB), and functional T-cell responses studied in a third cohort of children with TBM, other extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) and PTB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123886/sudden-cerebral-depression-detected-by-bispectral-index-monitoring-in-cryptococcal-meningitis-with-elevated-near-fatal-cerebrospinal-fluid-pressure
#10
Hironori Matsumoto, Suguru Annen, Kensuke Umakoshi, Jun Takeba, Satoshi Kikuchi, Yuki Nakabayashi, Naoki Moriyama, Muneaki Ohshita, Mayuki Aibiki
Case: An increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) is usually prominent in cryptococcal meningitis, which has a high mortality rate, so aggressive management to control CSFP is crucial. In this case, a 40-year-old-man survived cryptococcal meningitis treated with continuous spinal drainage under bispectral index (BIS) monitoring. He unexpectedly showed hypertension, went into a coma, and even loss his light reflexes due to CSFP elevation. His BIS values had abruptly dropped before developing these symptoms, but dramatically recovered after lumbar puncture drainage, suggesting that BIS monitoring could reflect cerebral function changes due to CSFP alternations...
July 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111302/-cryopyrin-associated-periodic-syndromes
#11
P Quartier, F Rodrigues, S Georgin-Lavialle
Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are linked to one single gene mutations, however they are associated with 3 syndromes, which are, from the mildest to the most severe phenotype familial cold urticaria, Muckle-Wells syndrome and chronic, infantile, neurologic, cutaneous, articular (CINCA) syndrome also called neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). Autosomic dominant inheritance is present in most cases but in CINCA/NOMID syndrome where neomutations are more common. Mutations in the gene encoding cryopyrin, NLRP3, are associated with deregulation of caspase-1 activity, excessive interleukin-1 production and an autoinflammatory syndrome, which in familial cold urticaria and Muckle-Wells syndrome may be triggered or worsened by exposure to coldness...
October 27, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098104/late-onset-streptococcus-agalactiae-meningitis-following-early-onset-septicemia-a-preventable-disease
#12
Kam Lun Hon, King Hang Chan, Pak Long Ko, King Woon So, Alexander K C Leung
We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GBS meningitis following an early onset GBS infection...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096648/inhibition-of-damp-signaling-as-an-effective-adjunctive-treatment-strategy-in-pneumococcal-meningitis
#13
Ilias Masouris, Matthias Klein, Susanne Dyckhoff, Barbara Angele, H W Pfister, Uwe Koedel
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal meningitis remains a potentially lethal and debilitating disease, mainly due to brain damage from sustained inflammation. The release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), like myeloid-related protein 14 (MRP14) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), plays a major role in persistence of inflammation. In this study, we evaluated if paquinimod, an MRP14-inhibitor, and an anti-HMGB1 antibody can improve clinical outcome as adjunctive therapeutics in pneumococcal meningitis...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095719/novel-and-preclinical-treatment-strategies-in-pneumococcal-meningitis
#14
Jan P Bewersdorf, Denis Grandgirard, Uwe Koedel, Stephen L Leib
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumococcal meningitis is the most frequent form of bacterial meningitis in Europe and the United States. Although early antimicrobial and adjuvant therapy with dexamethasone have helped to improve disease outcome in adults, mortality and morbidity rates remain unsatisfactorily high, emphasizing the need for additional treatment options. Promising targets for adjuvant therapy have been identified recently and will be the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain disease in pneumococcal meningitis is caused by direct bacterial toxicity and excessive meningeal inflammation...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073137/integration-of-enteric-fever-surveillance-into-the-who-coordinated-invasive-bacterial-vaccine-preventable-diseases-ib-vpd-platform-a-low-cost-approach-to-track-an-increasingly-important-disease
#15
Senjuti Saha, Maksuda Islam, Mohammad J Uddin, Shampa Saha, Rajib C Das, Abdullah H Baqui, Mathuram Santosham, Robert E Black, Stephen P Luby, Samir K Saha
BACKGROUND: Lack of surveillance systems and accurate data impede evidence-based decisions on treatment and prevention of enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi. The WHO coordinates a global Invasive Bacterial-Vaccine Preventable Diseases (IB-VPD) surveillance network but does not monitor enteric fever. We evaluated the feasibility and sustainability of integrating enteric fever surveillance into the ongoing IB-VPD platform. METHODOLOGIES: The IB-VPD surveillance system uses WHO definitions to enroll 2-59 month children hospitalized with possible pneumonia, sepsis or meningitis...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059089/refractory-giant-cell-arteritis-complicated-by-vision-loss-from-optic-atrophy-and-maculopathy-associated-with-pachymeningitis
#16
Jorge A Uribe, Ishita Aggarwal, Juthamat Witthayaweerasak, Y Joyce Liao, Gerald J Berry, Umesh K Sab, Cornelia M Weyand
BACKGROUND: We describe a 75-year-old woman who experienced vision loss in her left eye due to biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis (GCA). She subsequently developed pachymeningitis causing refractory headaches and bilateral optic neuropathy and maculopathy. METHODS: Case report with literature review. RESULTS: Eighteen months after the initial diagnosis of GCA, imaging studies in our patient demonstrated pachymeningeal enhancement, and meningeal biopsy confirmed lymphoplasmacytic tissue infiltrates with low frequencies of IgG4+ plasma cells...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991759/the-importance-of-perioperative-prophylaxis-with-cefuroxime-or-ceftriaxone-in-the-surgical-site-infections-prevention-after-cranial-and-spinal-neurosurgical-procedures
#17
Aleksandra Dimovska-Gavrilovska, Aleksandar Chaparoski, Andreja Gavrilovski, Zvonko Milenkovikj
Introduction Surgical site infections pose a significant problem in the treatment of neurosurgical procedures, regardless of the application of perioperative prophylaxis with systemic antibiotics. The infection rate in these procedures ranges from less than 1% to above 15%. Different antibiotics and administration regimes have been used in the perioperative prophylaxis so far, and there are numerous comparative studies regarding their efficiency, however, it is generally indicated that the choice thereof should be based on information and local specifics connected to the most probable bacterial causers, which would possibly contaminate the surgical site and cause infection, and moreover, the mandatory compliance with the principles of providing adequate concentration of the drug at the time of the anticipated contamination...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975470/infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-returning-travelers-and-immigrants
#18
REVIEW
Haley Thompson, Kiran Thakur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights current knowledge in travel-related neuroinfectious diseases, providing insight on approaches to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in travelers and immigrants. RECENT FINDINGS: Updates on travel vaccine recommendations including vaccine-specific interactions with immunosuppressive agents, advances in Zika virus and dengue virus vaccine development, new diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, updates on treatment approaches for tuberculosis meningitis...
October 3, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972120/fremanezumab-a-humanized-monoclonal-anti-cgrp-antibody-inhibits-thinly-myelinated-a%C3%AE-but-not-unmyelinated-c-meningeal-nociceptors
#19
Agustin Melo-Carrillo, Andrew M Strassman, Rony-Reuven Nir, Aaron J Schain, Rodrigo Noseda, Jennifer Stratton, Rami Burstein
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), the most abundant neuropeptide in primary afferent sensory neurons, is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine headache, but its role in migraine is still equivocal. As a new approach to migraine treatment, humanized anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies (CGRP-mAbs) were developed to reduce the availability of CGRP, and were found effective in reducing the frequency of chronic and episodic migraine. We recently tested the effect of fremanezumab (TEV-48125), a CGRP-mAb, on the activity of second-order trigeminovascular dorsal horn neurons that receive peripheral input from the cranial dura, and found a selective inhibition of high-threshold but not wide-dynamic range class of neurons...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932685/pig-s-ear-streptococcus-suis-meningitis-and-its-associated-inner-ear-implications
#20
S Sena Esteves, J Carvalho de Almeida, J Abrunhosa, C Almeida E Sousa, Q Arshad
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a zoonotic pathogen commonly found in Asian countries. Infection with this bacterium typically clinically presents as meningitis and individuals whom handle swine are at increased risk of developing infections. We present a case of a patient with a S. suis meningitis who worked as a butcher. The 48-year-old man was admitted to our department with headaches, fevers, nausea and bilateral hearing loss. According to his medical history, the patient had sustained a cut on his finger while preparing pork meat...
2017: IDCases
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