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meningitis prevention and treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791951/nervous-system-infections-and-the-global-traveler
#1
Savina Reid, Haley Thompson, Kiran T Thakur
Neurological complications of infectious diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that neurologists be up-to-date on current developments including typical and atypical presentations of neurological infections in travelers, diagnostic and treatment recommendations, and emerging pathogen resistance patterns to avoid fatal outcomes and long-term sequelae. This article will address concepts of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and will provide updates on the neurological manifestations of select emerging and reemerging infections, including Ebola virus, bacterial meningitis, enterovirus 71, Zika virus, cerebral malaria, and Japanese encephalitis...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#2
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754263/genes-and-their-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-involved-in-innate-immune-response-in-central-nervous-system-in-bacterial-meningitis-review-of-literature-data
#3
REVIEW
Ewelina Gowin, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
BACKGROUND: There are many studies analysing the effect of SNPs in genes coding proteins which are involved in innate immune response on susceptibility to invasive bacterial disease. Many of them gave inconclusive results. Regarding the complexity of immune response and cooperation between particular elements, number of SNPs may have a cumulative effect on the susceptibility to bacterial meningitis. FINDINGS: In most studies cooccurrence of several SNPs was not analysed...
May 12, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701809/receptor-blockade-a-novel-approach-to-protect-the-brain-from-pneumococcal-invasion
#4
Federico Iovino, Sigrun Thorsdottir, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Background: Pneumococci are the major cause of bacterial meningitis globally. To cause meningitis pneumococci interact with the 2 endothelial receptors, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invade the brain. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were infected intravenously with bioluminescent pneumococci, and treated with ceftriaxone (1 hour postinfection) and anti-pIgR and PECAM-1 antibodies (1 or 5 hours postinfection), then monitored for 5 and 10 days...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685116/characterization-treatment-and-prognosis-of-retinoblastoma-with-central-nervous-system-metastasis
#5
Huimin Hu, Weiling Zhang, Yizhuo Wang, Dongsheng Huang, Jitong Shi, Bin Li, Yi Zhang, Yan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor and more and more attention has been paid to the developing countries. This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of retinoblastoma patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastasis in Beijing Tongren Hospital, one of the largest tertiary eye centers in China. METHODS: Clinical data of 31 consecutive retinoblastoma patients with CNS metastases, who were diagnosed at the Department of Pediatrics in Beijing Tongren Hospital between September 2005 and December 2015, were retrospective analyzed...
April 23, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682015/spinal-cerebrospinal-fluid-drainage-for-prevention-of-vasospasm-in-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#6
Sachin Anil Borkar, Manmohanjit Singh, Shashank Sharad Kale, Ashish Suri, Poodipedi Sarat Chandra, Rajender Kumar, Bhawani Shankar Sharma, Shailesh Gaikwad, Ashok Kumar Mahapatra
Introduction: Cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite various treatment modalities, the optimal management of vasospasm remains elusive. In this regard; we undertook a prospective, randomized controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage (LCSFD) for prevention of cerebral vasospasm and its sequelae. Materials and Methods: Patients with aneurysmal SAH who met the inclusion criteria were randomized into two groups - Group I (30 patients) underwent LCSFD whereas Group II (30 patients) did not undergo LCSFD...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679194/posterior-cranial-fossa-and-spinal-local-infections
#7
Federico Bianchi, Gianpiero Tamburrini
OBJECT: The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the management of local infections in posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and spinal surgery; the center of our paper will be the diagnosis and management of infections of the wound, the subcutaneous tissue, and muscle strata. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Very few papers address the problem of local infections in posterior cranial fossa and spinal surgery. The largest amount of the literature data is indeed centered on how to deal with deep infections, CSF leak, and secondary meningitis or hardware infection...
April 20, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616650/pediatric-angiostrongyliasis
#8
F Lombard, D Basset, G Cambonie, P Bastien, E Jeziorski
Angiostrongyliasis, the leading cause worldwide of eosinophilic meningitis, is an emergent disease due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae, transmitted accidentally to humans. Contamination of children usually occurs by direct contact with an infected mollusk. Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is the major clinical feature of this parasitic infection in humans. It is usually benign for adults, but more severe for children. Clinical symptoms usually combine fever, meningitis, and neurological signs (somnolence, moaning, hypotonia, convulsions, and increased intracranial pressure)...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606535/immunochromatography-in-csf-improves-data-on-surveillance-of-s-pneumoniae-meningitis-in-india
#9
Yuvaraj Jayaraman, Sanjay Mehendale, Ranjith Jayaraman, Rosemol Varghese, C P Girish Kumar, Prabu Rajkumar, Bharathy Sukumar, Rajamohanan K, Girija Mohan, Devasena N, Sujatha Sridharan, Narayan Babu, G Mathevan, P Sugandhi Rao, S K Kar, Vikas Manchanda, Anil Kanga, Valsan Philip Verghese, Balaji Veeraraghavan
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant cause of childhood bacterial meningitis in India. The United States Food and Drug Administration has licensed an immunochromatographic (ICT) test, Binax® NOW™, to detect the C polysaccharide antigen of S. pneumoniae in cerebrospinal fluids (CSF). Accurate etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in India is essential for effective treatment strategies and preventive interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CSF samples from 2081 children admitted, with clinically suspected bacterial meningitis at 11 sentinel sites of hospital based sentinel surveillance network for bacterial meningitis in India between September 2009 and December 2016 were tested with ICT...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604972/cryptococcal-meningitis-in-aids
#10
Andrej Spec, William G Powderly
Cryptococcal meningitis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality amongst patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The prevalence in the developed world has decreased as HIV is being diagnosed earlier, but is still significant, and the prevalence in resource-limited settings is exceedingly high. The presenting symptoms usually include a headache, fever, and, less often, cranial nerve abnormalities. Space-occupying lesions do occur, but are rare. Once diagnosed, patients should be treated with a combination of amphotericin and flucytosine, with step-down therapy to fluconazole for a minimum of a year, or until the CD4 count is above 100 cells/μL, whichever is longer...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594087/loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-methods-for-diagnosis-of-bacterial-meningitis
#11
REVIEW
Mitsuko Seki, Paul E Kilgore, Eun Jin Kim, Makoto Ohnishi, Satoshi Hayakawa, Dong Wook Kim
The rapid, accurate, and efficient identification of an infectious disease is critical to ensure timely clinical treatment and prevention in public health settings. In 2015, meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae , and Neisseria meningitidis was responsible for 379,200 (range: 322,700-444,700) deaths. Clinical features alone cannot determine whether bacterial meningitis is present; an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is essential. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a nucleic acid amplification method offering an alternative to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571294/detection-of-neisseria-meningitidis-in-a-paediatric-patient-with-septic-arthritis-using-multiplexed-diagnostic-pcr-targeting-meningitis-encephalitis-me
#12
Donnchadh O'Sullivan, Barry Linnane, Amanda Mostyn, Nteimam Jonathan, Marie Lenihan, Nuala H O'Connell, Colum P Dunne
BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is associated with meningitis and septicemia. Septic meningococcal arthritis is relatively uncommon and its diagnosis associated with clinical and microbiological challenges. Early recognition and treatment is required to prevent joint destruction. PURPOSE: We describe a case of an eleven-year-old boy with septic arthritis and the first reported use of a multiplexed diagnostic PCR test, capable of simultaneous rapid detection of 14 pathogens directly from CSF samples, to determine presence of N...
March 23, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536184/coccidioidal-meningitis-a-review-on-diagnosis-treatment-and-management-of-complications
#13
REVIEW
Royce Johnson, Jackie Ho, Pete Fowler, Arash Heidari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes the diagnosis and treatment of coccidioidal meningitis (CM) and its complications. An overview of current and prospective pharmacologic treatment options and monitoring parameters is provided. A consensus has not been reached regarding universally accepted therapeutic serum levels for azoles because of insufficient evidence. We describe the preferred therapeutic drug level ranges that our institution uses to monitor azole therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Ho et al...
March 13, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524300/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-of-microglia-underlies-sexual-differentiation-of-neuronal-protection-via-ginsenosides-in-mice-brain
#14
Seungyeop Lee, Si-On Lee, Gyu-Lee Kim, Dong-Kwon Rhee
AIMS: Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in acute bacterial meningitis can lead to widespread brain damage and mortality. Inflammatory responses by immune cells in the brain are thought to determine the degree of brain injury. Yet, the mechanisms underlying host responses to pneumococcal meningitis are largely unknown. To explore host responses as a potential therapeutic target for preventing brain injury after pneumococcal meningitis. METHODS: We evaluated signaling mechanisms that minimize neuronal damage caused by pneumococcal infection; specifically, we assessed pathways related to neuronal survival after enhancing estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) expression using a natural therapeutic substance known as ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg3 enhanced ginseng...
March 9, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513785/the-war-on-cryptococcosis-a-review-of-the-antifungal-arsenal
#15
REVIEW
Ahmad Mourad, John R Perfect
Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common central nervous system infection in the world today. It occurs primarily, but not exclusively, in immunocompromised individuals and despite substantial improvement in management of clinical events like AIDS, the numbers of cases of cryptococcosis remain very high. Unfortunately, despite several antifungal agents available for treatment, morbidity and mortality rates remain high with this fungal infection. In this Review, we will describe the treatments and strategies for success, identify the failures, and provide insights into the future developments / improvements for management...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512478/pediatric-acute-severe-neurologic-illness-and-injury-in-an-urban-and-a-rural-hospital-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#16
Taty Tshimangani, Jean Pongo, Joseph Bodi Mabiala, Marcel Yotebieng, Nicole F O'Brien
Empirical knowledge suggests that acute neurologic disorders are common in sub-Saharan Africa, but studies examining the true burden of these diseases in children are scarce. We performed this prospective, observational study to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, treatment approaches, and outcomes of children suffering acute neurologic illness or injury (ANI) in an urban and rural site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Over 12 months, 471 out of 6,563 children admitted met diagnostic criteria for ANI, giving a hospital-based prevalence of 72/1,000 admissions...
May 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482717/a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2-trial-of-adjunctive-aspirin-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-hiv-uninfected-adults
#17
Nguyen Th Mai, Nicholas Dobbs, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Romain A Colas, Le Tp Thao, Nguyen Tt Thuong, Ho Dt Nghia, Nguyen Hh Hanh, Nguyen T Hang, A Dorothee Heemskerk, Jeremy N Day, Lucy Ly, Do DA Thu, Laura Merson, Evelyne Kestelyn, Marcel Wolbers, Ronald Geskus, David Summers, Nguyen Vv Chau, Jesmond Dalli, Guy E Thwaites
Adjunctive dexamethasone reduces mortality from tuberculous meningitis (TBM) but not disability, which is associated with brain infarction. We hypothesised that aspirin prevents TBM-related brain infarction through its anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and pro-resolution properties. We conducted a randomised controlled trial in HIV-uninfected adults with TBM of daily aspirin 81 mg or 1000 mg, or placebo, added to the first 60 days of anti-tuberculosis drugs and dexamethasone (NCT02237365). The primary safety endpoint was gastro-intestinal or cerebral bleeding by 60 days; the primary efficacy endpoint was new brain infarction confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging or death by 60 days...
February 27, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456899/facial-weakness-diplopia-and-fever-in-a-31-year-old-an-atypical-case-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#18
Ahmed H Qavi, Tasnim F Imran, Zachariah Hasan, Fariha Ilyas
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) meninges that carries high morbidity and mortality. It is important to recognize, as patients may present with atypical symptoms. We describe the case of a 31-year-old man with a history of diabetes who presented with a sub-acute onset of right-sided facial weakness and right gaze difficulty with diplopia. History revealed low-grade fever, right-sided headache, fatigue and moderate weight loss for the past several weeks. The patient did not report neck stiffness, rigidity, fever, chills or cough...
December 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454960/case-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-from-ruptured-oncotic-fusiform-aneurysms-from-choriocarcinoma-metastasis-treated-with-aneurysmectomy-and-vessel-reconstruction
#19
Yuichi Ito, Yoshio Araki, Takashi Izumi, Sho Okamoto, Masaaki Kimura, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
BACKGROUND: Oncotic aneurysm is a rare condition with a high mortality rate. Because no consensus has been reached regarding therapeutic strategy for ruptured oncotic aneurysm, treatment remains challenging. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 35-year-old woman developed sudden onset of severe headache. Computed tomography showed subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral angiography revealed 2 fusiform aneurysms in the distal portion of the left middle cerebral artery. Aneurysmectomy with vessel reconstruction using a superficial temporal artery graft was performed to maintain blood flow to the distal middle cerebral artery...
May 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451938/the-management-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-leak-after-anterior-cervical-decompression-surgery
#20
Jiliang Zhai, Ripul R Panchal, Ye Tian, Shujie Wang, Lijuan Zhao
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a rare but potentially troublesome and occasionally catastrophic complication after anterior cervical decompression surgery. There is limited literature describing this complication, and the management of CSF leak varies. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the treatment of cases with CSF leak and develop a management algorithm. A series of 14 patients with CSF leak from January 2011 to May 2016 were included in this study. Their characteristics, management of CSF leak, and outcomes were documented...
March 1, 2018: Orthopedics
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