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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148608/criteria-to-define-interruption-of-transmission-of-human-cytomegalovirus-from-organ-donor-to-recipient
#1
REVIEW
Ilona Anna Baraniak, Matthew B Reeves, Paul D Griffiths
In this review article, we consider results suggesting that transmission of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) from a donor of a solid organ to an immunologically naive individual can be reduced. Two randomized controlled trials have been conducted recently, one of active immunization of recipients pretransplant and another of passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies specific for HCMV given at the time of transplant. Although the available data are encouraging-providing evidence of a reduction in the incidence of HCMV viraemia-they fall short of what would be required to prove definitively that transmission has been completely prevented...
November 17, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146975/disturbance-in-plasma-metabolic-profile-in-different-types-of-human-cytomegalovirus-induced-liver-injury-in-infants
#2
Wei-Wei Li, Jin-Jun Shan, Li-Li Lin, Tong Xie, Li-Li He, Yan Yang, Shou-Chuan Wang
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in infants is a global problem and the liver is a target organ of HCMV invasion. However, the mechanism by which HCMV causes different types of liver injury is unclear, and there are many difficulties in the differential diagnosis of HCMV infantile cholestatic hepatopathy (ICH) and extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA). We established a non-targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics method in conjunction with orthogonal partial least squares-discriminate analysis based on 127 plasma samples from healthy controls, and patients with HCMV infantile hepatitis, HCMV ICH, and HCMV EHBA to explore the metabolite profile of different types of HCMV-induced liver injury...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145694/engineered-and-natural-promoters-and-chromatin-modifying-elements-for-recombinant-protein-expression-in-cho-cells
#3
REVIEW
Nadiya Romanova, Thomas Noll
Promoters play a pivotal role in integrating and processing the signals related to transcription initiation. Strong natural viral promoters, such as hCMV or SV40E, have been routinely employed to achieve a high rate of gene expression in ubiquitously used Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. However, viral promoters are susceptible to epigenetic silencing and lack precise regulation levers. This has paved the way to more sensible control elements: endogenous, inducible and synthetic promoters. In this review we summarise and discuss the use of natural viral, mammalian and endogenous promoters, as well as recent advances in synthetic promoters and inducible systems for protein expression in CHO cells...
November 16, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143761/antibody-cross-reactivity-between-porcine-cytomegalovirus-pcmv-and-human-herpesvirus-6-hhv-6
#4
Uwe Fiebig, Angela Holzer, Daniel Ivanusic, Elena Plotzki, Hartmut Hengel, Frank Neipel, Joachim Denner
Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) infection is widely prevalent among pigs, and PCMV is one of the viruses which may be transmitted during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, or organs. While human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major risk factor for allotransplantation, it is still unclear whether PCMV is able to infect human cells or pose a risk for xenotransplantation. Previously, it was shown that transmission of PCMV after pig kidney to non-human primate transplantations resulted in a significantly reduced survival time of the transplanted organ...
October 28, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121670/quantitative-membrane-proteomics-reveals-a-role-for-tetraspanin-enriched-microdomains-during-entry-of-human-cytomegalovirus
#5
Kasinath Viswanathan, Marieke C Verweij, Nessy John, Daniel Malouli, Klaus Früh
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) depends on and modulates multiple host cell membrane proteins during each stage of the viral life cycle. To gain a global view of the impact of HCMV-infection on membrane proteins, we analyzed HCMV-induced changes in the abundance of membrane proteins in fibroblasts using stable isotope labeling with amino acids (SILAC), membrane fractionation and protein identification by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. This systematic approach revealed that CD81, CD44, CD98, caveolin-1 and catenin delta-1 were down-regulated during infection whereas GRP-78 was up-regulated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121254/impact-of-donor-and-recipient-human-cytomegalovirus-status-on-kidney-transplantation
#6
Maciej Zielinski, Agnieszka Tarasewicz, Hanna Zielinska, Magdalena Jankowska, Grazyna Moszkowska, Alicja Debska-Slizien, Boleslaw Rutkowski, Piotr Trzonkowski
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is considered to be a major pathogen that affects the outcome of solid organ transplantation. Both recipient and donor may be HCMV positive, therefore HCMV reinfection is possible after transplantation. However, little is known how cytomegalovirus transmitted from an infected donor to an infected recipient modulates the recipient's already suppressed immunity, and what the clinical consequences are. To investigate these issues, 52 kidney recipients were followed up for two years after transplantation...
November 7, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116593/human-cytomegalovirus-mir-us5-1-inhibits-viral-replication-by-targeting-geminin-mrna
#7
Shujuan Jiang, Yujing Huang, Ying Qi, Rong He, Zhongyang Liu, Yanping Ma, Xin Guo, Yaozhong Shao, Zhengrong Sun, Qiang Ruan
Viruses commonly create favorable cellular conditions for their survival through multiple mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which function as post-transcriptional regulators, are utilized by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in its infection and pathogenesis. In the present study, the DNA replication inhibitor Geminin (GMNN) was identified to be a direct target of hcmv-miR-US5-1. Overexpression of hcmv-miR-US5-1 could block the accumulation of GMNN during HCMV infection, and the decrease of GMNN expression caused by hcmv-miR-US5-1 or GMNN specific siRNA reduced HCMV DNA copies in U373 cells...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116590/detection-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-in-newborns-using-nucleic-acid-amplification-techniques-and-its-public-health-implications
#8
REVIEW
Guoyu Liu, Rong Hai, Fenyong Liu
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a herpesvirus, is an important human pathogen that causes asymptomatic infections in healthy or immunocompetent individuals but can lead to severe and potentially life-threatening complications in immune-immature individuals such as neonates or immune-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and HIV-positive individuals. Congenital HCMV infection represents a significant public health issue and poses substantial healthcare and economic burden to society. This virus causes the most common viral congenital infection worldwide, and is the leading non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss in children in developed countries...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116009/lack-of-cytomegalovirus-detection-in-human-glioma
#9
Araceli Garcia-Martinez, Cristina Alenda, Esperanza Irles, Enrique Ochoa, Teresa Quintanar, Alvaro Rodriguez-Lescure, Jose L Soto, Victor M Barbera
Gliomas are the most common brain tumors and include a variety of histologic types and grades of malignancy. They arise from glial cells and represent approximately 70% of the primary brain tumors. According to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO), the majority of gliomas can be classified into four grades of malignancy (I-IV). Virus infection, especially by DNA viruses and retroviruses, which may cause insertion of viral DNA sequences into the host genome, often triggers the host defense mechanisms...
November 7, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114247/elusive-role-of-the-cd94-nkg2c-nk-cell-receptor-in-the-response-to-cytomegalovirus-novel-experimental-observations-in-a-reporter-cell-system
#10
Aldi Pupuleku, Marcel Costa-García, Domènec Farré, Hartmut Hengel, Ana Angulo, Aura Muntasell, Miguel López-Botet
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection promotes the differentiation and persistent expansion of a mature NK cell subset, which displays high surface levels of the activating CD94/NKG2C NK cell receptor, together with additional distinctive phenotypic and functional features. The mechanisms underlying the development of adaptive NK cells remain uncertain but some observations support the involvement of a cognate interaction of CD94/NKG2C with ligand(s) displayed by HCMV-infected cells. To approach this issue, the heterodimer and its adaptor (DAP12) were expressed in the human Jurkat leukemia T cell line; signaling was detected by transfection of a reporter plasmid encoding for Luciferase (Luc) under NFAT/AP1-dependent control...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112951/phenotype-and-specificity-of-t-cells-in-primary-human-cytomegalovirus-infection-during-pregnancy-il-7rpos-long-term-memory-phenotype-is-associated-with-protection-from-vertical-transmission
#11
Federico Mele, Chiara Fornara, David Jarrossay, Milena Furione, Alessia Arossa, Arsenio Spinillo, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Giuseppe Gerna, Federica Sallusto, Daniele Lilleri
Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the major cause of birth defects and a precise definition of the HCMV-specific T-cell response in primary infection may help define reliable correlates of immune protection during pregnancy. In this study, a high throughput method was used to define the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for four HCMV proteins in the naïve compartment of seronegative subjects and the effector/memory compartments of subjects with primary/remote HCMV infection. The naïve repertoire displayed comparable frequencies of T cells that were reactive with HCMV structural (pp65, gB and the pentamer gHgLpUL128L) and non-structural (IE-1) proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095258/the-influence-of-hcmv-infection-on-autophagy-in-thp-1-cells
#12
Yujie Liu, Jianwei Pan, Lifang Liu, Wei Li, Ran Tao, Yinghu Chen, Huamei Li, Shiqiang Shang
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is very common and latency can be reactivated in the future. And it can alter the intracellular environment, similar to other herpesviruses, for viral replication and survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of HCMV infection on autophagy in human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1 cells). METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to examine autophagy level...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093211/cellular-v-atpase-is-required-for-virion-assembly-compartment-formation-in-human-cytomegalovirus-infection
#13
Jonathan Pavelin, Dominique McCormick, Stephen Chiweshe, Saranya Ramachandran, Yao-Tang Lin, Finn Grey
Successful generation of virions from infected cells is a complex process requiring orchestrated regulation of host and viral genes. Cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) undergo a dramatic reorganization of membrane organelles resulting in the formation of the virion assembly compartment, a process that is not fully understood. Here we show that acidification of vacuoles by the cellular v-ATPase is a crucial step in the formation of the virion assembly compartment and disruption of acidification results in mis-localization of virion components and a profound reduction in infectious virus levels...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091300/serologic-and-viral-genome-prevalence-of-hsv-ebv-and-hcmv-among-healthy-adults-in-wuhan-china
#14
Le Wen, Yong Qiu, Shuang Cheng, Xuan Jiang, Yan-Ping Ma, Wei Fang, Wei Wang, Jie Cui, Qiang Ruan, Fei Zhao, Fei Hu, Min-Hua Luo
The worldwide infection rate of herpesvirus is high, but the detailed prevalence in China, especially the central area, remains unclear. In the present study, the prevalence of Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was investigated in 303 healthy adults in Wuhan, a representative city in Central China. Viral specific IgG and IgM titers were examined in the serum by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and the existence of viral genomic DNA in blood cells were determined by nested PCR...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089947/natural-killer-cells-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection-spotlight-on-the-impact-of-human-cytomegalovirus
#15
REVIEW
Dimitra Peppa
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been closely associated with the human race across evolutionary time. HCMV co-infection is nearly universal in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals and remains an important cofactor in HIV-1 disease progression even in the era of effective antiretroviral treatment. HCMV infection has been shown to have a broad and potent influence on the human immune system and has been linked with the discovery and characterization of adaptive natural killer (NK) cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082387/modulation-of-the-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-pathway-by-human-cytomegalovirus
#16
Meaghan H Hancock, Jay A Nelson
Many viruses trigger innate and adaptive immune responses and must circumvent the negative consequences to successfully establish infection in their hosts. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is no exception, and devotes a significant portion of its coding capacity to genes involved in immune evasion. Activation of the NFκB signalling pathway by viral binding and entry results in induction of antiviral and pro-inflammatory genes that have significant negative effects on HCMV infection. However, NFκB signalling stimulates transcription from the Major Immediate Early Promoter (MIEP) and pro-inflammatory signalling is crucial for cellular differentiation and viral reactivation from latency...
August 2017: Virology (Hyderabad)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067686/association-between-gm-hla-and-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptors-and-the-natural-course-of-hcmv-infection-a-pilot-study-performed-in-sicilian-population
#17
Danilo Di Bona, Giulia Accardi, Anna Aiello, Massimo Bilancia, Giuseppina Candore, Claudia Colomba, Calogero Caruso, Giovanni Duro, Caterina M Gambino, Luigi Macchia, Janardan P Pandey
Natural killer (NK) cells provide a major defence against cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection through the interaction of their surface receptors, including the activating and inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), and human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I molecules. Also GM allotypes, able to influence the NK antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), appear to be involved in the immunological control of virus infections, including HCMV. In some cases, their contribution requires epistatic interaction with other genes of the immune system, such as HLA...
October 25, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059242/inhibition-of-human-cytomegalovirus-immediate-early-gene-expression-and-growth-by-a-novel-rnase-p-ribozyme-variant
#18
Xu Sun, Weijie Chen, Lingling He, Jingxue Sheng, Yujun Liu, Gia-Phong Vu, Zhu Yang, Wei Li, Phong Trang, Yu Wang, Rong Hai, Hua Zhu, Sangwei Lu, Fenyong Liu
We have previously engineered new RNase P-based ribozyme variants with improved in vitro catalytic activity. In this study, we employed a novel engineered variant to target a shared mRNA region of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early proteins 1 (IE1) and 2 (IE2), which are essential for the expression of viral early and late genes as well as viral growth. Ribozyme F-R228-IE represents a novel variant that possesses three unique base substitution point mutations at the catalytic domain of RNase P catalytic RNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053403/human-cytomegalovirus-vaccine-development-immune-responses-to-look-into-vaccine-strategy
#19
Lin Xia, Ruopeng Su, Zhiqiang An, Tong-Ming Fu, Wenxin Luo
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes considerable morbidity and disability in high risk, immunocompromised populations including recipients of solid organ transplants, and fetuses whose immune systems are not yet mature. Vaccines aimed at ameliorating the severity of disease and preventing HCMV infection can be categorized into two main approaches of vaccine design, with one focusing on virus modification and the other on individual antigens. However, no candidates in either class have been successful in achieving durable and protective immunity...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048611/human-cytomegalovirus-infection-enhances-cell-proliferation-migration-and-upregulation-of-emt-markers-in-colorectal-cancer-derived-stem-cell-like-cells
#20
Wan Huai Teo, Hsin-Pai Chen, Jason C Huang, Yu-Jiun Chan
Increasing evidence suggests a link between persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and cancer. Although the role of HCMV in cancer is still elusive, recent studies revealed the presence of HCMV nucleic acids and proteins in different cancer types such as glioblastoma, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers, and neuroblastoma. Although HCMV may not be directly associated with the neoplastic transformation, the presence of HCMV DNA in the tumorous tissue has been associated with altered clinical outcomes in cancer patients...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
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