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Monica Adhiambo Onyango, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Rose Odotei Adjei, Thomas Agyarko-Poku, Carol Hunsberger Kopelman, Kimberly Green, Samuel Wambugu, Nana Fosua Clement, Peter Wondergem, Jennifer Beard
Little is known about female sex workers' daily lives or emotional relationships. Using relational-cultural theory, this study explored the relationship dynamics between sex workers and their intimate partners in Kumasi, Ghana. We collected qualitative data from 37 male intimate partners through 24 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions (FGDs) with 13 male partners. We also conducted three FGDs with 20 women involved in sex work. Relationships between sex workers and their intimate partners were mutual, reciprocal and transactional...
April 19, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Zhi-Hao Cui, Yuechao Wang, Min-Ye Zhang, Xi Xu, Hong Jiang
First-principles prediction of electronic band structures of materials is crucial for rational material design, especially in solar-energy related materials science. Hybrid functionals that mix the Hartree-Fock exact exchange with local or semi-local density functional approximations have proven to be accurate and efficient alternatives to more sophisticated Green's function-based many-body perturbation theory. The optimal fraction of the exact exchange, previously often treated as an empirical parameter, is closely related to the screening strength of the system under study...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Natalia M Kowal, Philip K Ahring, Vivian W Y Liao, Dinesh C Indurti, Benjamin S Harvey, Susan M O'Connor, Mary Chebib, Elin S Olafsdottir, Thomas Balle
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The alkaloid galantamine was originally isolated from the green snowdrop Galanthus woronowii and is currently marketed as a drug for treatment of mild to moderate dementia in Alzheimer's disease patients. In addition to a well-documented proficiency of inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, galantamine has been reported to increase neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor function by acting as a positive allosteric modulator. Yet, there remains controversy regarding these findings in the literature...
April 18, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Munmun Banerjee, Ranjan Kumar Basu, Sudip Kumar Das
Cu(II) adsorption in continuous column using green adsorbents like peanut and almond shell was investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunaer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Point of Zero charge (pHpzc ) determination have been used for characterization of the adsorbents. Experiments were conducted at various operating conditions to calculate the adsorption capacity of the adsorbents. Adsorption studies signify that both the adsorbents have good adsorptive capacity for Cu(II) ion...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lucas M Ritschl, Leonard H Schmidt, Andreas M Fichter, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Thomas Mücke
Venous congestion results in tissue damage and remains the most common failure of free microvascular transfer if it is not recognized early. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate venous congestion and describe the findings with two different monitoring tools. A standardized epigastric flap was raised, and total occlusion of the draining vein was temporarily applied for 4, 5, 6, or 7 h. Blood flow measurements, including laser-Doppler flowmetry, and tissue spectrophotometry (O2C) and indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography using the FLOW® 800 tool, were performed systematically after each surgical step, an interval of venous occlusion, and 1 week of clinical observation...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Aimie L B Hope, Christopher R Jones, Thomas L Webb, Matthew T Watson, Daphne Kaklamanou
Compensatory green beliefs (CGBs) reflect the idea that a pro-environmental behavior (e.g., recycling) can off-set the negative effects of an environmentally detrimental behavior (e.g., driving). It is thought that CGBs might help explain why people act in ways that appear to contradict their pro-environmental intentions, and inconsistently engage in pro-environmental behaviors. The present study sought to investigate the nature and use of CGBs. A series of interviews suggested that participants endorsed CGBs to (a) reduce feelings of guilt with respect to (the assumed or actual) negative environmental impact of their actions and (b) defend their green credentials in social situations...
May 2018: Environment and Behavior
Florimond Collette, Thomas Renger, Frank Müh, Marcel Schmidt Am Busch
We present a structure-based theory of the long-wavelength (red/green) color tuning in visual rhodopsins and its application to the analysis of site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Using a combination of electrostatic and molecular-mechanics methods, we explain the measured mutant-minus-wild-type absorption shifts and conclude that the dominant mechanism of the color tuning in these systems is electrostatic pigment-protein coupling. An important element of our analysis is the independent determination of protonation states of titratable residues in the wild type and the mutant protein as well as the self-consistent reoptimization of hydrogen atom positions, which includes the relaxation of the hydrogen bonding network and the reorientation of water molecules...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Karla Therese L Sy, Alexandra Landau, Yelena Bodien, Sureyya Dikmen, Elizabeth R Felix, Joseph T Giacino, Laura Gibbons, Flora M Hammond, Tessa Hart, Doug Johnson-Greene, Jeannie Lengenfelder, Anthony Lequerica, Jody Newman, Thomas Novack, Therese M O'Neil-Pirozzi, Gale Whiteneck
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in cognitive impairment, and trajectories of cognitive functioning can vary tremendously over time across survivors. Traditional approaches to measuring cognitive performance require face-to-face administration of a battery of objective neuropsychological tests, which can be time- and labor-intensive. There are numerous clinical and research contexts in which in-person testing is undesirable or unfeasible, including clinical monitoring of older adults or individuals with disability for whom travel is challenging, and epidemiological studies of geographically dispersed participants...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
John Diaz-Montano, James F Campbell, Thomas W Phillips, James E Throne
Psocids have become global pests of stored commodities as they can cause considerable economic losses. These insects are difficult to control because they have developed resistance to many chemical insecticides. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate alternative integrated pest management (IPM) approaches, such as the use of light attraction for monitoring and/or controlling psocids. Light attraction has been studied for Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) but not for other psocid species...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Francisco Sanchez-Vega, Marco Mina, Joshua Armenia, Walid K Chatila, Augustin Luna, Konnor C La, Sofia Dimitriadoy, David L Liu, Havish S Kantheti, Sadegh Saghafinia, Debyani Chakravarty, Foysal Daian, Qingsong Gao, Matthew H Bailey, Wen-Wei Liang, Steven M Foltz, Ilya Shmulevich, Li Ding, Zachary Heins, Angelica Ochoa, Benjamin Gross, Jianjiong Gao, Hongxin Zhang, Ritika Kundra, Cyriac Kandoth, Istemi Bahceci, Leonard Dervishi, Ugur Dogrusoz, Wanding Zhou, Hui Shen, Peter W Laird, Gregory P Way, Casey S Greene, Han Liang, Yonghong Xiao, Chen Wang, Antonio Iavarone, Alice H Berger, Trever G Bivona, Alexander J Lazar, Gary D Hammer, Thomas Giordano, Lawrence N Kwong, Grant McArthur, Chenfei Huang, Aaron D Tward, Mitchell J Frederick, Frank McCormick, Matthew Meyerson, Eliezer M Van Allen, Andrew D Cherniack, Giovanni Ciriello, Chris Sander, Nikolaus Schultz
Genetic alterations in signaling pathways that control cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, and cell growth are common hallmarks of cancer, but the extent, mechanisms, and co-occurrence of alterations in these pathways differ between individual tumors and tumor types. Using mutations, copy-number changes, mRNA expression, gene fusions and DNA methylation in 9,125 tumors profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we analyzed the mechanisms and patterns of somatic alterations in ten canonical pathways: cell cycle, Hippo, Myc, Notch, Nrf2, PI-3-Kinase/Akt, RTK-RAS, TGFβ signaling, p53 and β-catenin/Wnt...
April 5, 2018: Cell
Laila Hugrass, Thomas Verhellen, Eleanore Morrall-Earney, Caitlin Mallon, David Philip Crewther
More than 50 years ago, Hubel and Wiesel identified a subpopulation of geniculate magnocellular (M) neurons that are suppressed by diffuse red light. Since then, many human psychophysical studies have used red and green backgrounds to study the effects of M suppression on visual task performance, as a means to better understand neurodevelopmental disorders such as dyslexia and schizophrenia. Few of these studies have explicitly assessed the relative effects of red backgrounds on the M and P (parvocellular) pathways...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Louis B Rice, Charlene Desbonnet, Amelia Tait-Kamradt, Monica Garcia-Solache, John Lonks, Thomas M Moon, Éverton D D'Andréa, Rebecca Page, Wolfgang Peti
Enterococcus faecalis strains resistant to penicillin and ampicillin are rare and have been associated with increases in quantities of low-affinity penicillin-binding protein 4 (PBP4) or with amino acid substitutions in PBP4. We report an E. faecalis strain (LS4828) isolated from a prosthetic knee joint that was subjected to long-term exposure to aminopenicillins. Subsequent cultures yielded E. faecalis with MICs of penicillins and carbapenems higher than those for wild-type strain E. faecalis JH2-2. Sequence analysis of the pbp4 gene of LS4828 compared to that of JH2-2 revealed two point mutations with amino acid substitutions (V223I, A617T) and deletion of an adenine from the region upstream of the predicted pbp4 -35 promoter sequence (UP region)...
April 3, 2018: MBio
Thomas E Dever, Jonathan D Dinman, Rachel Green
In this review, we highlight the current understanding of translation elongation and recoding in eukaryotes. In addition to providing an overview of the process, recent advances in our understanding of the role of the factor eIF5A in both translation elongation and termination are discussed. We also highlight mechanisms of translation recoding with a focus on ribosomal frameshifting during elongation. We see that the balance between the basic steps in elongation and the less common recoding events is determined by the kinetics of the different processes as well as by specific sequence determinants...
April 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Vineet Khullar, Gong Gu, Ali Passian, Thomas L Ferrell
In apertureless scanning-probe optical microscopy and in the case of more traditional scanned optical probes coated with a metal that is thin near the probe tip (in lieu of an aperture), samples are probed via interaction between the probe and surface. In the nanometer-scale region between the tip and the sample, the field can be approximated by quasi-electrostatic analytics. Hence, the coated probe can be modeled as in the present case as a hyperboloid of revolution without the need for hyperboloidal wave functions in the near zone...
March 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Kyle Crooker, Rana Aliani, Megha Ananth, Levi Arnold, Shrikant Anant, Sufi Mary Thomas
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) accounts for 300,000 deaths per year worldwide and overall survival rates have shown little improvement over the past three decades. Current treatment methods including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy leave patients with secondary morbidities. Thus, treatment of HNSCC may benefit from exploration of natural compounds as chemopreventive agents. With excellent safety profiles, reduced toxicities, antioxidant properties, and general acceptance for use as dietary supplements, natural compounds are viewed as a desirable area of investigation for chemoprevention...
March 30, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Lucas Stricker, Marcus Bockmann, Thomas Kirse, Nikos Doltsinis, Bart Jan Ravoo
Arylazopyrazoles (AAPs) represent a new class of photochromic azo compounds offering high yield E/Z-isomerization in both directions by irradiation with UV or green light, respectively. Additionally, AAPs show a light-responsive host-guest interaction with β-cyclodextrin (CD) with comparable binding affinities as reported for azobenzenes. Substitution of one benzene of the azobenzene by a dimethylpyrazole leads to a separation of the n-π* and π-π* absorbances of the molecules enabling the optimized photochromic behavior...
March 30, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yaxing Wang, Xuemiao Yin, Wei Liu, Jian Xie, Junfeng Chen, Mark A Silver, Daopeng Sheng, Lanhua Chen, Juan Diwu, Ning Liu, Zhifang Chai, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt, Shuao Wang
Uranium is the heaviest naturally occurring element with appreciable crustal abundance. Its dominated oxidation state under oxidizing conditions is UVI, and this cation is typically found within the uranyl cation, UO22+. The combination of high atomic number and high oxidation state gives rise to both high X-ray attenuation efficiency and intense green luminescence originating from ligand-to-metal charge transfer. These two features suggest that UVI materials might act as superior X-ray scintillators, but this postulate has remained substantially untested...
March 30, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Renee V Goreham, Kathryn L Schroeder, Amy Holmes, Siobhan J Bradley, Thomas Nann
The authors describe the synthesis of water-soluble and fluorescent graphene oxide quantum dots via acid exfoliation of graphite nanoparticles. The resultant graphene oxide quantum dots (GoQDs) were then modified with folic acid. Folic acid receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells and hence can bind to functionalized graphene oxide quantum dots. On excitation at 305 nm, the GoQDs display green fluorescence with a peak wavelength at ~520 nm. The modified GoQDs are non-toxic to macrophage cells even after prolonged exposure and high concentrations...
January 24, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Megan Sjodt, Kelly Brock, Genevieve Dobihal, Patricia D A Rohs, Anna G Green, Thomas A Hopf, Alexander J Meeske, Veerasak Srisuknimit, Daniel Kahne, Suzanne Walker, Debora S Marks, Thomas G Bernhardt, David Z Rudner, Andrew C Kruse
The shape, elongation, division and sporulation (SEDS) proteins are a large family of ubiquitous and essential transmembrane enzymes with critical roles in bacterial cell wall biology. The exact function of SEDS proteins was for a long time poorly understood, but recent work has revealed that the prototypical SEDS family member RodA is a peptidoglycan polymerase-a role previously attributed exclusively to members of the penicillin-binding protein family. This discovery has made RodA and other SEDS proteins promising targets for the development of next-generation antibiotics...
April 5, 2018: Nature
A Scott Andres, Thomas P Ballestero, Mary L Musick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Ground Water
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