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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334090/supramolecular-photosensitizers-rejuvenate-photodynamic-therapy
#1
Xingshu Li, Songyi Lee, Juyoung Yoon
Owing to its spatiotemporal selectivity and noninvasive nature, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a clinically promising approach for the treatment of a wide range of cancers and other diseases. However, the full potential of PDT has not been achieved thus far as a consequence of the lack of optimal photosensitizers (PSs) and/or smart transport/activation strategies. These problems, which unfortunately lie at the core of the PDT paradigm, include the oxygen reliance limits, the effect of PDT on hypoxic tumors, limitations of light penetration, and undesired skin photosensitization induced by "always on" PSs...
January 15, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332928/optical-coherence-tomography-for-precision-brain-imaging-neurosurgical-guidance-and-minimally-invasive-theranostics
#2
Yingwei Fan, Yan Xia, Xinran Zhang, Yu Sun, Jie Tang, Liwei Zhang, Hongen Liao
This review focuses on optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based neurosurgical application for imaging and treatment of brain tumors. OCT has emerged as one of the most innovative and successful translational biomedical-diagnostic techniques. It is a useful imaging tool for noninvasive, in vivo, in situ and real-time imaging in soft biological tissues, such as brain tumor imaging. OCT can detect the structure of biological tissue in a micrometer scale, and functional OCT has some clinical researches and applications, such as nerve fiber tracts and neurovascular imaging...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329555/exercise-during-and-after-neoadjuvant-rectal-cancer-treatment-the-exert-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Andria R Morielli, Nawaid Usmani, Normand G Boulé, Diane Severin, Keith Tankel, Tirath Nijjar, Kurian Joseph, Alysa Fairchild, Kerry S Courneya
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer includes 5-6 weeks of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) followed by total mesorectal excision 6-8 weeks later. NACRT improves local disease control and surgical outcomes but also causes side effects including fatigue, diarrhea, hand-foot syndrome, and physical deconditioning that may impede quality of life (QoL), treatment completion, treatment response, and long-term prognosis. Interventions to improve treatment outcomes and manage side effects that are safe, tolerable and low-cost are highly desirable...
January 12, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329112/master-protocols-in-lung-cancer-experience-from-lung-master-protocol
#4
Vincent K Lam, Vassiliki Papadimitrakopoulou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Contemporary advances in the understanding of the molecular and immunologic basis of metastatic lung cancer have firmly changed its treatment paradigm to a personalized, biomarker-driven approach. However, the majority of lung-cancer patients [especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC)] still do not have effective targeted therapeutic options. Master protocols, such as Lung-MAP, represent an innovative clinical trial approach designed to accelerate evaluation of novel biomarker-driven therapies...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326993/turning-double-hydrophilic-into-amphiphilic-ir825-conjugated-polymeric-nanomicelles-for-near-infrared-fluorescence-imaging-guided-photothermal-cancer-therapy
#5
Guang-Yu Pan, Hao-Ran Jia, Ya-Xuan Zhu, Fu-Gen Wu
Developing biocompatible and photodegradable photothermal agents (PTAs) holds great promise for potential clinical applications in photothermal cancer therapy. Herein, a new PTA was innovatively constructed by conjugating the hydrophobic near-infrared (NIR) heptamethine cyanine molecule IR825-NH2 with a double hydrophilic block copolymer methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)5k-block-poly(l-aspartic acid sodium salt)10 (abbreviated as PEG-PLD) via amine-carboxyl reaction. The as-designed PEG-PLD(IR825) was amphiphilic and could self-assemble into polymeric nanomicelles in aqueous solutions...
January 12, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325489/creating-effective-biocontainment-facilities-and-maintenance-protocols-for-raising-specific-pathogen-free-severe-combined-immunodeficient-scid-pigs
#6
Ellis J Powell, Sara Charley, Adeline N Boettcher, Lisa Varley, Justin Brown, Martine Schroyen, Malavika K Adur, Susan Dekkers, Dean Isaacson, Mary Sauer, Joan Cunnick, N Matthew Ellinwood, Jason W Ross, Jack Cm Dekkers, Christopher K Tuggle
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is defined by the lack of an adaptive immune system. Mutations causing SCID are found naturally in humans, mice, horses, dogs, and recently in pigs, with the serendipitous discovery of the Iowa State University SCID pigs. As research models, SCID animals are naturally tolerant of xenotransplantation and offer valuable insight into research areas such as regenerative medicine, cancer therapy, as well as immune cell signaling mechanisms. Large-animal biomedical models, particularly pigs, are increasingly essential to advance the efficacy and safety of novel regenerative therapies on human disease...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320420/locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-a-review-of-local-ablative-therapies
#7
REVIEW
Alette Ruarus, Laurien Vroomen, Robbert Puijk, Hester Scheffer, Martijn Meijerink
Pancreatic cancer is typically characterized by its aggressive tumor growth and dismal prognosis. Approximately 30% of patients with pancreatic cancer present with locally advanced disease, broadly defined as having a tumor-to-artery interface >180°, having an unreconstructable portal vein or superior mesenteric vein and no signs of metastatic disease. These patients are currently designated to palliative systemic chemotherapy, though median overall survival remains poor (approximately 11 months). Therefore, several innovative local therapies have been investigated as new treatment options for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC)...
January 10, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318963/nanodiagnostics-and-nanodelivery-applications-in-genetic-alterations
#8
Maria Sofia Falzarano, Cristina Flesia, Roberta Cavalli, Caterina Guiot, Alessandra Ferlini
Background Genetic alterations cause hereditary diseases (HDs) with a wide range of incidences. Some, like cystic fibrosi, occur frequently (1/1,000 newborns), whilst others, such as Pompe disease and other metabolic disorders are very rare (1/100,000 newborns). They are well under the threshold of 1/3,000, denoted by the European Community as rare diseases (RDs). Genetic alterations are also associated with multifactorial disorders like diabetes, and underline both somatic and germline mutations in cancer...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318366/-surgical-innovations-in-treatment-of-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-complexity-of-metastatic-surgery-as-example-for-personalized-medicine
#9
REVIEW
C Hackl, S M Brunner, K M Schmidt, H J Schlitt
BACKGROUND: Extensive, bilobular and multifocal colorectal liver metastases (CLM) or metastases that are critically situated require an experienced surgeon and advanced surgical techniques to enable curative resection. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the toolbox of hepato-oncologic surgery including functional augmentation of liver segments by portal vein embolization/ligation, combinations of ablation and resection, two-stage resections and in situ split liver resection, also known as associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS)...
January 9, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317039/clinical-breast-magnetic-resonance-imaging-technique-indications-and-future-applications
#10
Heather I Greenwood, Rita I Freimanis, Bianca M Carpentier, Bonnie N Joe
Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality for the detection of breast cancer, and it is indicated for breast cancer screening in patients at high-risk of developing breast cancer. It is limited to this group given the high cost. In addition, breast MRI is also indicated for evaluating the extent of disease in patients with new breast cancer diagnoses, monitoring the response to neoadjuvant treatment, and evaluating implant integrity. New promising innovations in breast MRI include fast abbreviated MRI, and functional techniques including diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are promising particularly as regards to treatment response...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316817/therapeutic-dna-vaccines-for-human-papillomavirus-and-associated-diseases
#11
Max A Cheng, Emily Farmer, Claire Huang, John Lin, Chien-Fu Hung, T-C Wu
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has long been recognized as the causative agent of cervical cancer. High-risk HPV types 16 and 18 alone, are responsible for over 70% of all cases of cervical cancers. More recently, HPV has been identified as an etiological factor for several other forms of cancers, including oropharyngeal, anogenital, and skin. Thus, the association of HPV with these malignancies creates opportunity for the control of these HPV lesions and HPV-associated malignancies through immunization. Strategies to prevent or to therapeutically treat HPV infections have been developed and are still pushing innovative boundaries...
January 9, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312547/development-and-validation-of-a-machine-learning-based-predictive-model-to-improve-the-prediction-of-inguinal-status-of-anal-cancer-patients-a-preliminary-report
#12
Berardino De Bari, Mauro Vallati, Roberto Gatta, Laëtitia Lestrade, Stefania Manfrida, Christian Carrie, Vincenzo Valentini
Introduction: The role of prophylactic inguinal irradiation (PII) in the treatment of anal cancer patients is controversial. We developped an innovative algorithm based on the Machine Learning (ML) allowing the tailoring of the prescription of PII. Results: Once verified on the independent testing set, J48 showed the better performances, with specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy rates in predicting relapsing patients of 86.4%, 50.0% and 83.1% respectively (vs 36...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311125/molecular-biomarkers-in-the-clinical-management-of-prostate-cancer
#13
Aaron M Udager, Scott A Tomlins
Prostate cancer, one of the most common noncutaneous malignancies in men, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical outcome. Although the majority of patients harbor indolent tumors that are essentially cured by local therapy, subsets of patients present with aggressive disease or recur/progress after primary treatment. With this in mind, modern clinical approaches to prostate cancer emphasize the need to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment via personalized medicine. Advances in our understanding of prostate cancer pathogenesis, coupled with recent technologic innovations, have facilitated the development and validation of numerous molecular biomarkers, representing a range of macromolecules assayed from a variety of patient sample types, to help guide the clinical management of prostate cancer, including early detection, diagnosis, prognostication, and targeted therapeutic selection...
January 8, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305707/transcriptional-retargeting-of-herpes-simplex-virus-for-cell-specific-replication-to-control-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Weihua Lou, Fang Ji, Jianing Fu, Zhiqiang Han, Wen Di, Ning Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Oncolytic virotherapy has emerged as a novel frontier in the treatment of cancer. Among the viruses that entered clinical trials are the oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). Current oncolytic HSV-1 approved for clinical practice, and those in clinical trials are attenuated viruses, often deleted in the neurovirulence gene γ134.5, and in additional genes, which may result in a much more attenuated virus with reduced replication efficiency. Therefore, the transcriptional retargeting strategy by modifying the regulator elements flanking essential viral genes to achieve tumor-specific replication while maintaining as much of the viral genome has been representing alternative promising oncolytic virotherapy modality...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301308/msp-4-an-antimicrobial-peptide-induces-apoptosis-via-activation-of-extrinsic-fas-fasl-and-intrinsic-mitochondria-mediated-pathways-in-one-osteosarcoma-cell-line
#15
Hsiao-Mei Kuo, Chung-Chih Tseng, Nan-Fu Chen, Ming-Hong Tai, Han-Chun Hung, Chien-Wei Feng, Shu-Yu Cheng, Shi-Ying Huang, Yen-Hsuan Jean, Zhi-Hong Wen
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a common malignant bone cancer. The relatively high density of a person's bone structure means low permeability for drugs, and so finding drugs that can be more effective is important and should not be delayed. MSPs are marine antimicrobial peptides (AMP) and natural compounds extracted from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). MSP-4 is a part of the AMPs series, with the advantage of having a molecular weight of about 2.7-kDa and anticancer effects, although the responsible anticancer mechanism is not very clear...
January 2, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299930/difluoromethylornithine-combined-with-a-polyamine-transport-inhibitor-is-effective-against-gemcitabine-resistant-pancreatic-cancer
#16
Sarah B Gitto, Veethika Pandey, Jeremiah L Oyer, Alicja J Copik, Frederick C Hogan, Otto Phanstiel, Deborah A Altomare
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly chemo-resistant and has an extremely poor patient prognosis, with a survival rate at five years of <8%. There remains an urgent need for innovative treatments. Targeting polyamine biosynthesis through inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has had mixed clinical success due to tumor escape via an undefined transport system, which imports exogenous polyamines and sustains intracellular polyamine pools. Here, we tested DFMO in combination with a polyamine transport inhibitor (PTI), Trimer44NMe, against Gemcitabine-resistant PDAC cells...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299126/hdac-inhibition-as-a-treatment-concept-to-combat-temsirolimus-resistant-bladder-cancer-cells
#17
Eva Juengel, Ramin Najafi, Jochen Rutz, Sebastian Maxeiner, Jasmina Makarevic, Frederik Roos, Igor Tsaur, Axel Haferkamp, Roman A Blaheta
Introduction: Although the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) might be a promising molecular target to treat advanced bladder cancer, resistance develops under chronic exposure to an mTOR inhibitor (everolimus, temsirolimus). Based on earlier studies, we proposed that histone deacetylase (HDAC) blockade might circumvent resistance and investigated whether HDAC inhibition has an impact on growth of bladder cancer cells with acquired resistance towards temsirolimus. Results: The HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) significantly inhibited growth, proliferation and caused G0/G1 phase arrest in RT112res and UMUC-3res...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298798/phase-1-trial-of-m7824-msb0011359c-a-bifunctional-fusion-protein-targeting-pd-l1-and-tgf-%C3%AE-in-advanced-solid-tumors
#18
Julius Strauss, Christopher Heery, Jeffrey Schlom, Ravi A Madan, Liang Cao, Zhigang Kang, Elizabeth Lamping, Jennifer L Marte, Renee N Donahue, Italia Grenga, Lisa M Cordes, Olaf Christensen, Lisa Mahnke, Christoph Helwig, James L Gulley
PURPOSE: M7824 (MSB0011359C) is an innovative first-in-class bifunctional fusion protein composed of a monoclonal antibody against programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) fused to a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) "trap." Experimental DesignIn the 3+3 dose-escalation component of this phase 1 study (NCT02517398), eligible patients with advanced solid tumors received M7824 at 1, 3, 10, or 20 mg/kg once-every-2-weeks until confirmed progression, unacceptable toxicity, or trial withdrawal; additionally, a cohort received an initial 0...
January 3, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296980/hybrid-fept-sio2-au-nanoparticles-as-a-theranostic-tool-in-vitro-photo-thermal-treatment-and-mri-imaging
#19
N Kostevšek, I Abramovič, S Hudoklin, M E Kreft, I Serša, A Sepe, J Vidmar, S Šturm, M Spreitzer, J Ščančar, S Kobe, K Žužek Rožman
We have produced an innovative, theranostic material based on FePt/SiO2/Au hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) for both, photo-thermal therapy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, a new synthesis approach, i.e., Au double seeding, for the preparation of Au nanoshells around the FePt/SiO2 cores, is proposed. The photo-thermal and the MRI response were first demonstrated on an aqueous suspension of hybrid FePt/SiO2/Au NPs. The cytotoxicity together with the internalization mechanism and the intracellular fate of the hybrid NPs were evaluated in vitro on a normal (NPU) and a half-differentiated cancerous cell line (RT4)...
January 3, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286485/characterization-of-tumor-cells-using-a-medical-wire-for-capturing-circulating-tumor-cells-a-3d-approach-based-on-immunofluorescence-and-dna-fish
#20
Giulia Gallerani, Claudia Cocchi, Martine Bocchini, Filippo Piccinini, Francesco Fabbri
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are associated with poor survival in metastatic cancer. Their identification, phenotyping, and genotyping could lead to a better understanding of tumor heterogeneity and thus facilitate the selection of patients for personalized treatment. However, this is hampered because of the rarity of CTCs. We present an innovative approach for sampling a high volume of the patient blood and obtaining information about presence, phenotype, and gene translocation of CTCs. The method combines immunofluorescence staining and DNA fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization (DNA FISH) and is based on a functionalized medical wire...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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