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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816382/endoscopic-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-superficial-pharyngeal-cancer
#1
Chikatoshi Katada, Tabito Okamoto, Koichi Kano
Many cases of head and neck cancer are detected on the basis of symptoms and therefore are advanced at the time of diagnosis. Such cancers have been treated by invasive surgery and chemoradiotherapy. Recently, innovative technological developments have been made in gastrointestinal endoscopy in Japan, such as image-enhanced magnifying endoscopy, allowing superficial head and neck cancer to be detected.(1,2) Because superficial head and neck cancer previously could not be detected, diagnostic and treatment strategies have not yet been established and have become a new field of diagnosis and therapy...
August 17, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814163/protease-activated-nanomaterials-for-targeted-cancer-theranostics
#2
Yung-Chieh Chan, Michael Hsiao
Cancer metastasis accompanies irreversible proteolysis. Malignant cells that abnormally express extracellular proteases usually lead to a poor outcome during cancer progression. The development of protease-activated drugs is an important goal. Moreover, the specific proteolytic mechanism can be used as a diagnostic strategy. Currently, nanotechnology for use in medication has been extensively developed to exploit the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles. For example, to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy drugs, targeted delivery has been attempted by combining a targeting ligand with a nanoparticle...
August 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811974/ex-vivo-assessment-of-drug-response-on-breast-cancer-primary-tissue-with-preserved-microenvironments
#3
Manuele G Muraro, Simone Muenst, Valentina Mele, Luca Quagliata, Giandomenica Iezzi, Alexandar Tzankov, Walter P Weber, Giulio C Spagnoli, Savas D Soysal
Interaction between cancerous, non-transformed cells, and non-cellular components within the tumor microenvironment plays a key role in response to treatment. However, short-term culture or xenotransplantation of cancer specimens in immunodeficient animals results in dramatic modifications of the tumor microenvironment, thus preventing reliable assessment of compounds or biologicals of potential therapeutic relevance. We used a perfusion-based bioreactor developed for tissue engineering purposes to successfully maintain the tumor microenvironment of freshly excised breast cancer tissue obtained from 27 breast cancer patients and used this platform to test the therapeutic effect of antiestrogens as well as checkpoint-inhibitors on the cancer cells...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807232/ovarian-cancer-novel-molecular-aspects-for-clinical-assessment
#4
REVIEW
Raffaele Palmirotta, Erica Silvestris, Stella D'Oronzo, Angela Cardascia, Franco Silvestris
Ovarian cancer is a very heterogeneous tumor which has been traditionally characterized according to the different histological subtypes and differentiation degree. In recent years, innovative molecular screening biotechnologies have allowed to identify further subtypes of this cancer based on gene expression profiles, mutational features, and epigenetic factors. These novel classification systems emphasizing the molecular signatures within the broad spectrum of ovarian cancer have not only allowed a more precise prognostic prediction, but also proper therapeutic strategies for specific subgroups of patients...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805013/drug-free-macromolecular-therapeutics-induce-apoptosis-via-calcium-influx-and-mitochondrial-signaling-pathway
#5
Lian Li, Jiyuan Yang, Jiawei Wang, Jindřich Kopeček
Recently, an innovative paradigm has been proposed in macromolecular therapeutics for treatment of B-cell lymphomas that can specifically kill cancer cells without a drug. The design rationale of this drug-free macromolecular therapeutic (DFMT) system is crosslinking the cell surface receptor to initiate apoptosis. However, how the apoptosis signal is triggered after receptor hyper-crosslinking remains to be elucidated. Here, two pathways, calcium influx dependent pathway and mitochondrial signal pathway, are identified to play major roles in triggering the programmed cell death...
August 14, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795053/transarterial-chemoembolization-for-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Rodolfo Sacco, Gherardo Tapete, Natalia Simonetti, Rossella Sellitri, Veronica Natali, Sara Melissari, Giuseppe Cabibbo, Lilia Biscaglia, Giampaolo Bresci, Luca Giacomelli
According to the current European Association for the Study of Liver guidelines, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the recommended first-line therapy for patients with intermediate-stage (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer-B class) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The efficacy of this therapy is supported by robust evidence; however, there is still a lack of standardization in treatment methodology, and TACE protocols are widely variable. Moreover, TACE can be associated with a number of contraindications...
2017: Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770610/amino-acid-profiles-as-potential-biomarkers-for-pediatric-cancers-a-preliminary-communication
#7
Anna Synakiewicz, Malgorzata Sawicka-Zukowska, Natalia Adrianowska, Grazyna Galezowska, Joanna Ratajczyk, Anna Owczarzak, Lucyna Konieczna, Teresa Stachowicz-Stencel
AIM: Childhood cancer remains one of the main cause of death in the pediatric population. Amino acids (AAs) level alterations in plasma are considered to play a role in carcinogenesis and further course of the disease. METHODS: Seventy-seven children with cancer, including 47 with hematological and 30 with solid tumors were enrolled in this study and compared with healthy children. Twenty-two plasma-free AAs were determined by HPLC with fluorometric detection. RESULTS: The results revealed significant decrease in glutamine levels for oncological patients and significant increase in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, serine, citrulline, alanine, GABA, tryptophan, methionine, valine, phenylalanine and isoleucine levels in cancer children versus control...
August 3, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754653/integrated-care-in-prostate-cancer-icare-p-nonrandomized-controlled-feasibility-study-of-online-holistic-needs-assessment-linking-the-patient-and-the-health-care-team
#8
Veronica Nanton, Rebecca Appleton, Jeremy Dale, Julia Roscoe, Thomas Hamborg, Sam H Ahmedzai, Theodoros N Arvanitis, Douglas Badger, Nicholas James, Richard Mendelsohn, Omar Khan, Deepak Parashar, Prashant Patel
BACKGROUND: The potential of technology to aid integration of care delivery systems is being explored in a range of contexts across a variety of conditions in the United Kingdom. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in UK men. With a 10-year survival rate of 84%, there is a need to explore innovative methods of care that are integrated between primary health care providers and specialist teams in order to address long-term consequences of the disease and its treatment as well as to provide continued monitoring for recurrence...
July 28, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753978/seed-in-soil-pancreatic-cancer-influenced-by-tumor-microenvironment
#9
REVIEW
Huey-Jen Lin, Jiayuh Lin
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a fatal malignancy with a five-year survival rate lower than 7%, and most patients dying within six months of diagnosis. The factors that contribute to the aggressiveness of the disease include, but are not limited to: late diagnosis, prompt metastasis to adjacent vital organs, poor response, and resistance to anticancer treatments. This malignancy is uniquely associated with desmoplastic stroma that accounts for 80% of tumor mass. Understanding the biology of stroma can aid the discovery of innovative strategies for eradicating this lethal cancer in the future...
July 21, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749102/an-exploration-of-phytochemicals-from-simaroubaceae
#10
REVIEW
Biba Vikas, B S Akhil, S R Suja, K Sujathan
Natural products such as plants, animals and minerals have been the basis of treatment of human diseases. Herbal remedies have been used for the treatment of many ailments. Many compounds have been derived from the plant species mentioned in the ancient texts of Indian system of medicine for the treatment of a number of ailments. The R and D thrust in the pharmaceutical sector is focused on development of new drugs, innovative/indigenous processes for known drugs and development of plant based drugs through investigation of leads from the traditional systems of medicine...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747294/patients-perspective-on-participation-in-care-with-or-without-the-support-of-a-smartphone-app-during-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer-qualitative-study
#11
Maria Hälleberg Nyman, Catharina Frank, Ann Langius-Eklöf, Karin Blomberg, Kay Sundberg, Yvonne Wengström
BACKGROUND: Patients with prostate cancer are often cared for as outpatients during radiotherapy, which can be an aggravating circumstance for patient participation. There is a need to evaluate whether an interactive smartphone app could enable participation in care, specifically during treatment for prostate cancer. The interactive app (Interaktor) used in this study is developed in codesign with patients and health care professionals; it includes daily reports of symptoms, a risk assessment model, evidence-based self-care advice, along with the provision of immediate access to clinicians...
July 26, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745521/dynamic-value-assessments-in-oncology-supported-by-the-pace-continuous-innovation-indicators
#12
Silvia Paddock, Clifford Goodman, Scott Shortenhaus, David Grainger, Jacqueline Zummo, Samuel Thomas
AIM: Several recently developed frameworks aim to assess the value of cancer treatments, but the most appropriate metrics remain uncertain. METHODS: We use data from the Patient Access to Cancer care Excellence Continuous Innovation Indicators to examine the relationship between hazard ratios (HRs) from clinical trials and dynamic therapeutic value accumulating over time. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that HRs from initial clinical trials poorly predict the eventual therapeutic value of cancer treatments...
July 26, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740338/localization-and-role-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-subtype-5-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#13
REVIEW
Andrea Ferrigno, Clarissa Berardo, Laura G Di Pasqua, Veronica Siciliano, Plinio Richelmi, Mariapia Vairetti
Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) is a Group I mGlu subfamily of receptors coupled to the inositol trisphosphate/diacylglycerol pathway. Like other mGluR subtypes, mGluR5s contain a phylogenetically conserved, extracellular orthosteric binding site and a more variable allosteric binding site, located on the heptahelical transmembrane domain. The mGluR5 receptor has proved to be a key pharmacological target in conditions affecting the central nervous system (CNS) but its presence outside the CNS underscores its potential role in pathologies affecting peripheral organs such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and accessory digestive organs such as the tongue, liver and pancreas...
July 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739540/the-women-in-steady-exercise-research-wiser-survivor-trial-the-innovative-transdisciplinary-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-exercise-and-weight-loss-interventions-among-breast-cancer-survivors-with-lymphedema
#14
Renate M Winkels, Kathleen M Sturgeon, Michael J Kallan, Lorraine T Dean, Zi Zhang, Margaret Evangelisti, Justin C Brown, David B Sarwer, Andrea B Troxel, Crystal Denlinger, Monica Laudermilk, Anna Fornash, Angela DeMichele, Lewis A Chodosh, Kathryn H Schmitz
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer survivors face dual challenges: long term sequelae of treatment, and risk of recurrent disease. Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle complicate both challenges. The WISER Survivor trial assessed the effects of exercise and/or weight-loss on lymphedema, biomarkers of breast cancer recurrence, and quality of life. We report on the innovative transdisciplinary design of this trial and report attrition rates. METHODS: This one year trial randomized breast cancer survivors who had a BMI of ≥25kg/m(2), were sedentary and had breast-cancer-related-lymphedema to 1) exercise (weight training and aerobic exercise) 2) weight-loss 3) exercise and weight-loss 4) or control group...
July 21, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738258/open-label-multicentre-randomised-phase-ii-study-of-the-epssg-and-the-itcc-evaluating-the-addition-of-bevacizumab-to-chemotherapy-in-childhood-and-adolescent-patients-with-metastatic-soft-tissue-sarcoma-the-bernie-study
#15
Julia C Chisholm, Johannes H M Merks, Michela Casanova, Gianni Bisogno, Daniel Orbach, Jean-Claude Gentet, Anne-Sophie Thomassin-Defachelles, Pascal Chastagner, Stephen Lowis, Milind Ronghe, Kieran McHugh, Rick R van Rijn, Magalie Hilton, Jeanette Bachir, Sabine Fürst-Recktenwald, Birgit Geoerger, Odile Oberlin
PURPOSE: We evaluated the role of bevacizumab as part of the multi-modality treatment of children and adolescents with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) or non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients aged ≥6 months to <18 years were randomised to receive induction chemotherapy (four cycles of IVADo + five cycles of IVA, ±bevacizumab), surgery and/or radiotherapy, followed by maintenance chemotherapy (12 cycles of low-dose cyclophosphamide + vinorelbine, ±bevacizumab)...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738030/delivery-of-%C3%A2-clinical-services-mobilizing-advanced-practice-providers-to-enhance-patient-care
#16
Kimberly Tripp, LaKeisha Day, Alexandra Blake, Ivy Bertram
Advanced practice providers (APPs) are increasingly being used in a variety of healthcare settings to provide care, treatment, and services to patients with cancer. They are also being deployed to acute oncologic settings to enhance patient care delivery and address the ever-evolving needs of patients in academic medicine. In response, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a series of innovative clinical programs staffed by acute care APPs. These provide an opportunity to rapidly adapt to the acute care needs of patients with cancer while fostering the professional development of APPs within the full scope of their oncologic clinical practice...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737672/mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-as-drug-delivery-vehicles-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Anna Watermann, Juergen Brieger
Even though cancer treatment has improved over the recent decades, still more specific and effective treatment concepts are mandatory. Surgical removal is not always possible, metastases are challenging and chemo- and radiotherapy can not only have severe side-effects but also resistances may occur. To cope with these challenges more efficient therapies with fewer side-effects are required. One promising approach is the use of drug delivery vehicles. Here, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are discussed as biodegradable drug carrier to improve efficacy and reduce side-effects...
July 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737290/integration-of-ir-808-sensitized-upconversion-nanostructure-and-mos2-nanosheet-for-808-nm-nir-light-triggered-phototherapy-and-bioimaging
#18
Jiating Xu, Arif Gulzar, Yuhui Liu, Huiting Bi, Shili Gai, Bin Liu, Dan Yang, Fei He, Piaoping Yang
Near infrared (NIR) light triggered phototherapy including photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) affords superior outcome in cancer treatment. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NIR-excited upconversion nanostructure is limited by the feeble upconverted light which cannot activate PDT agents efficiently. Here, an IR-808 dye sensitized upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP) with a chlorin e6 (Ce6)-functionalized silica layer is developed for PDT agent. The two booster effectors (dye-sensitization and core-shell enhancement) synergistically amplify the upconversion efficiency, therefore achieving superbright visible emission under low 808 nm light excitation...
July 24, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736998/evasin-displaying-lactic-acid-bacteria-bind-different-chemokines-and-neutralize-cxcl8-production-in-caco-2-cells
#19
Katja Škrlec, Anja Pucer Janež, Boris Rogelj, Borut Štrukelj, Aleš Berlec
Chemokines are key signals in the immune system and play an important role as proinflammatory mediators in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer, making them an important target for therapy. Recombinant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were engineered to bind CC and CXC chemokines by displaying chemokine-binding proteins evasin-1, evasin-3 and evasin-4 on their surface. Evasin genes were cloned into lactococcal surface display vector and overexpressed in L. lactis NZ9000 and NZ9000ΔhtrA in fusion with secretion signal and surface anchor...
July 24, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736756/advancing-the-science-of-myocardial-recovery-with-mechanical-circulatory-support-a-working-group-of-the-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute
#20
Stavros G Drakos, Francis D Pagani, Martha S Lundberg, J Timothy Baldwin
The medical burden of heart failure (HF) has spurred interest in clinicians and scientists to develop therapies to restore the function of a failing heart. To advance this agenda, the National Heart Lung Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Working Group of experts on June 2-3, 2016 in Bethesda Maryland to develop recommendations for the NHLBI aimed at advancing the science of cardiac recovery in the setting of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). MSC devices effectively reduce volume and pressure overload that drives the cycle of progressive myocardial dysfunction, thereby triggering structural and functional reverse remodeling...
June 2017: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
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