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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326864/role-of-the-notch-signaling-in-cholangiocarcinoma
#1
Antonio Cigliano, Jingxiao Wang, Xin Chen, Diego F Calvisi
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an emerging cancer entity of the liver, associated with poor outcome and characterized by resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic treatments. In the last decade, many signaling pathways associated with CCA development and progression have been identified and are currently under intense investigation. Cumulating evidence indicates that the Notch cascade, a highly-conserved pathway in most multicellular organisms, is a critical player both in liver malignant transformation and tumor aggressiveness, thus representing a potential therapeutic target in this pernicious disease...
March 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325242/radiation-oncology-in-india-challenges-and-opportunities
#2
REVIEW
Surbhi Grover, Shivakumar Gudi, Ajeet Kumar Gandhi, Priya M Puri, Adam C Olson, Danielle Rodin, Onyi Balogun, Preet K Dhillon, Daya Nand Sharma, Goura Kishor Rath, Shyam Kishore Shrivastava, Akila N Viswanathan, Umesh Mahantshetty
Rising cancer incidence and mortality in India emphasize the need to address the increasing burden of this disease and the stark inequities in access to radiotherapy and other essential medical treatments. State-of-the-art technology is available within the private sector and a few hospitals in the public sector, but 75% of patients in the public sector in India do not have access to timely radiotherapy. This inequity in access to radiotherapy in the public sector is amplified in rural areas, where most of India׳s population lives...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325239/the-unique-issues-with-brachytherapy-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
REVIEW
Surbhi Grover, John Longo, John Einck, Priya Puri, Derek Brown, Junzo Chino, Umesh Mahantshetty, Catheryn Yashar, Beth Erickson
Gynecologic carcinomas, including cervical cancer, present a significant burden on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Brachytherapy plays an integral role in the treatment of gynecologic carcinomas, as it is essential for both curative and palliative treatment. However, there are numerous geographic and economic barriers to providing brachytherapy to cancer patients in LMICs. This article examines the role and delivery of brachytherapy in gynecological cancer treatment; brachytherapy capacity in LMICs, including infrastructure, equipment, and human resources considerations; commissioning, training, and clinical implementation of brachytherapy in LMICs; other challenges, and strategies for improvement in brachytherapy delivery in LMICs, including innovation and current and upcoming international initiatives...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324908/-magnetic-sentinel-lymph-node-detection-in-prostate-cancer-after-intraprostatic-injection-of-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#4
Alexander Winter, Svenja Engels, Tobias Kowald, Tina Susanne Paulo, Holger Gerullis, Ajay Chavan, Friedhelm Wawroschek
In prostate cancer, reliable information about the lymph node status is of great importance for accurate staging and the optimal planning of treatment. Despite recent advances in imaging, the histological detection of metastases, or pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLND), continues to be the most reliable method for lymph node staging in clinically localised prostate cancer, especially as this procedure enables the detection of small or micrometastases. Radioisotope-guided sentinel PLND (sPLND) demonstrates high sensitivity in the detection of lymph node metastases as well as low morbidity in prostate cancer because of the targeted removal of a relatively small number of lymph nodes...
March 21, 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320418/ovarian-cancer-stem-cells-still-an-elusive-entity
#5
REVIEW
Michela Lupia, Ugo Cavallaro
The cancer stem cell (CSC) model proposes that tumor development and progression are fueled and sustained by undifferentiated cancer cells, endowed with self-renewal and tumor-initiating capacity. Ovarian carcinoma, based on its biological features and clinical evolution, appears as a prototypical example of CSC-driven disease. Indeed, ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSC) would account not only for the primary tumor growth, the peritoneal spread and the relapse, but also for the development of chemoresistance, thus having profound implication for the treatment of this deadly disease...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319448/rationale-and-design-of-a-phase-1-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-hsv-g207-alone-or-with-a-single-radiation-dose-in-children-with-progressive-or-recurrent-malignant-supratentorial-brain-tumors
#6
Alicia M Waters, James M Johnston, Alyssa T Reddy, John Fiveash, Avi Madan-Swain, Kara Kachurak, Asim K Bag, G Yancey Gillespie, James M Markert, Gregory K Friedman
Primary central nervous system tumors are the most common solid neoplasm of childhood and the leading cause of cancer-related death in pediatric patients. Survival rates for children with malignant supratentorial brain tumors are poor despite aggressive treatment with combinations of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, and survivors often suffer from damaging lifelong sequelae from current therapies. Novel innovative treatments are greatly needed. One promising new approach is the use of a genetically engineered, conditionally replicating herpes simplex virus (HSV) that has shown tumor-specific tropism and potential efficacy in the treatment of malignant brain tumors...
March 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315430/oncolytic-adenovirus-expressing-relaxin-ydc002-enhances-therapeutic-efficacy-of-gemcitabine-against-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Kyung Hee Jung, Il-Kyu Choi, Hee-Seung Lee, Hong Hua Yan, Mi Kwon Son, Hyo Min Ahn, JinWoo Hong, Chae-Ok Yun, Soon-Sun Hong
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease for which limited therapeutic options are available. Pancreatic cancer exhibits a pronounced collagen-rich stromal reaction, which induces chemoresistance by inhibiting drug diffusion into the tumor. Complementary treatment with oncolytic virus such as an oncolytic adenovirus expressing relaxin (YDC002) is an innovative treatment option for combating chemoresistant pancreatic cancer. Here, we examined the ability of combined treatment with gemcitabine and YDC002, which degrades extracellular matrix (ECM), to efficiently treat chemoresistant and desmoplastic pancreatic cancer...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301281/cell-based-immunotherapy-with-cytokine-induced-killer-cik-cells-from-preparation-and-testing-to-clinical-application
#8
Yiming Meng, Zhifu Yu, Yefeng Wu, Tianzhao Du, Shi Chen, Fanjuan Meng, Nan Su, Yushu Ma, Xiaoxi Li, Sulan Sun, Guirong Zhang
Cell-based immunotherapy holds promise in the quest for the treatment of cancer, having potential synergy with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As a novel approach for adoptive cell-based immunotherapy, cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells have moved from the 'bench to bedside'. CIK cells are a heterogeneous subset of ex-vitro expanded, polyclonal T-effector cells with both natural killer (NK) and T-cell properties, which present potent non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxicity against a variety of tumor target cells...
February 22, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297280/an-innovative-method-to-acquire-the-location-of-point-a-for-cervical-cancer-treatment-by-hdr-brachytherapy
#9
Liyun Chang, Sheng-Yow Ho, Shyh-An Yeh, Tsair-Fwu Lee, Pang-Yu Chen
Brachytherapy of local cervical cancer is generally accomplished through film-based treatment planning with the prescription directed to point A, which is invisible on images and is located at a high-dose gradient area. Through a standard reconstruction method by digitizing film points, the location error for point A would be 3 mm with a condition of 30° curvature tandem, which is 10° away from the gantry rotation axis of a simulator, and has an 8.7 cm interval between the flange and the isocenter. To reduce the location error of the reconstructed point A, this paper proposes a method and demonstrates its accuracy...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295000/current-status-of-radiopharmaceuticals-for-the-theranostics-of-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#10
REVIEW
Melpomeni Fani, Petra Kolenc Peitl, Irina Velikyan
Nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role in the management of patients affected by neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). Radiolabeled somatostatin receptor analogs are by far the most advanced radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy (radiotheranostics) of NENs. Their clinical success emerged receptor-targeted radiolabeled peptides as an important class of radiopharmaceuticals and it paved the way for the investigation of other radioligand-receptor systems. Besides the somatostatin receptors (sstr), other receptors have also been linked to NENs and quite a number of potential radiolabeled peptides have been derived from them...
March 15, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286660/preference-of-elderly-patients-to-oral-or-intravenous-chemotherapy-in-heavily-pre-treated-recurrent-ovarian-cancer-final-results-of-a-prospective-multicenter-trial
#11
Radoslav Chekerov, Philipp Harter, Stefan Fuxius, Lars Christian Hanker, Linn Woelber, Lothar Müller, Peter Klare, Wolfgang Abenhardt, Yoana Nedkova, Isil Yalcinkaya, Georg Heinrich, Harald Sommer, Sven Mahner, Pauline Wimberger, Dominique Koensgen-Mustea, Rolf Richter, Gülten Oskay-Oezcelik, Jalid Sehouli
BACKGROUND: Palliative systemic treatment in elderly gynaecological cancer patients remains a major challenge. In recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC), treosulfan an active alkylating drug showed similar cytotoxicity whether as oral (p.o.) or intravenous (i.v.) application. The aim of this innovative trial was to evaluate the preference of elderly patients (≥65 years) for p.o. or i.v. chemotherapy focusing compliance, outcome, toxicities, and geriatric aspects as secondary endpoints. METHODS: Patients with ROC had the free choice between treosulfan i...
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283822/antiproliferative-activity-of-vitexin-2-o-xyloside-and-avenanthramides-on-caco-2-and-hepg2-cancer-cells-occurs-through-apoptosis-induction-and-reduction-of-pro-survival-mechanisms
#12
Emanuele Salvatore Scarpa, Elena Antonini, Francesco Palma, Michele Mari, Paolino Ninfali
PURPOSE: CaCo-2 colon cancer cells and HepG2 liver cancer cells represent two malignant cell lines, which show a high resistance to apoptosis induced by the conventional anticancer drugs. Vitexin-2-O-xyloside (XVX) and avenanthramides (AVNs) are naturally occurring dietary agents from Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. and Avena sativa L., respectively. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antiproliferative effects and the reduction of the pro-survival mechanisms exerted by XVX and AVNs, used individually and in combination, in CaCo-2 and HepG2 cancer cells...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279690/-early-clinical-trials-in-paediatric-oncology-in-spain-a-nationwide-perspective
#13
Francisco Bautista, Soledad Gallego, Adela Cañete, Jaume Mora, Cristina Díaz de Heredia, Ofelia Cruz, José María Fernández, Susana Rives, Pablo Berlanga, Raquel Hladun, Antonio Juan Ribelles, Luis Madero, Manuel Ramírez, Rafael Fernández Delgado, Antonio Pérez-Martínez, Cristina Mata, Anna Llort, Javier Martín Broto, María Elena Cela, Gema Ramírez, Constantino Sábado, Tomás Acha, Itziar Astigarraga, Ana Sastre, Ascensión Muñoz, Mercedes Guibelalde, Lucas Moreno
INTRODUCTION: Cancer is the leading cause of death between the first year of life and adolescence, and some types of diseases are still a major challenge in terms of cure. There is, therefore, a major need for new drugs. Recent findings in cancer biology open the door to the development of targeted therapies against individual molecular changes, as well as immunotherapy. Promising results in adult anti-cancer drug development have not yet been translated into paediatric clinical practice...
March 6, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277261/building-a-palliative-radiation-oncology-program-from-bedside-to-b-e-d
#14
Mark J Stavas, Jonathan D Pagan, Sumeeta Varma, Benjamin Li, Lisa A Kachnic
A growing body of evidence supports the integration of palliative care with standard cancer treatments. In these situations, patients often experience a better quality of life, better quality of care, decreased cost, and, in some cases, improved survival with the addition of palliative care services to traditional treatment pathways. In this manuscript, we explore the integration of radiation oncology at palliative care. First, we discuss the impetus for change at Vanderbilt University and the inception of Vanderbilt's inpatient Palliative Radiation Oncology Service at Vanderbilt...
September 13, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275683/colorectal-cancer-liver-metastasis-evolving-paradigms-and-future-directions
#15
REVIEW
Luai R Zarour, Sudarshan Anand, Kevin G Billingsley, William H Bisson, Andrea Cercek, Michael F Clarke, Lisa M Coussens, Charles E Gast, Cristina B Geltzeiler, Lissi Hansen, Katherine A Kelley, Charles D Lopez, Shushan R Rana, Rebecca Ruhl, V Liana Tsikitis, Gina M Vaccaro, Melissa H Wong, Skye C Mayo
In patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) that metastasizes to the liver, there are several key goals for improving outcomes including early detection, effective prognostic indicators of treatment response, and accurate identification of patients at high risk for recurrence. Although new therapeutic regimens developed over the past decade have increased survival, there is substantial room for improvement in selecting targeted treatment regimens for the patients who will derive the most benefit. Recently, there have been exciting developments in identifying high-risk patient cohorts, refinements in the understanding of systemic vs localized drug delivery to metastatic niches, liquid biomarker development, and dramatic advances in tumor immune therapy, all of which promise new and innovative approaches to tackling the problem of detecting and treating the metastatic spread of CRC to the liver...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275035/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-oncotype-dx-test-receipt-in-a-statewide-population-based-study
#16
Brigette A Davis, Jenerius A Aminawung, Maysa M Abu-Khalaf, Suzanne B Evans, Kevin Su, Rajni Mehta, Shi-Yi Wang, Cary P Gross
Background: Racial disparities have been reported in breast cancer care, yet little is known about disparities in access to gene expression profiling (GEP) tests. Given the impact of GEP test results, such as those of Oncotype DX (ODx), on treatment decision-making for hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer, it is particularly important to assess disparities in its use. Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 8,784 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in Connecticut during 2011 through 2013...
March 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271739/role-of-the-microtubule-associated-tppp-p25-in-parkinson-s-and-related-diseases-and-its-therapeutic-potential
#17
Judit Oláh, Philippe Bertrand, Judit Ovádi
The discovery and development of therapeutic strategies for the treatments of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies are limited by a lack of understanding of the pathomechanisms and their connection with different diseases such as cancers. Areas covered: The hallmarks of these diseases are frequently multifunctional disordered proteins displaying moonlighting and/or chameleon features, which are challenging drug targets. A representative of these proteins is the disordered Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP/p25) expressed specifically in oligodendrocytes (OLGs) in normal brain...
March 15, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270073/colon-cancer-and-specific-ways-to-deliver-drugs-to-the-large-intestine
#18
Hossein Derakhshankhah, Zhila Izadi, Alireza Lotfabadi, Loghman Alaei, Ali Akbar Saboury, Rassoul Dinarvand, Adeleh Divsalar, Arefeh Seyedarabi, Ebrahim Barzegari, Mina Evini
BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that colon cancer is the third cause of cancer death worldwide. Recently, colon-targeted drug delivery systems have been developed for improving systemic drug delivery and treatment of local colon associated diseases. Using such drug delivery systems increases the drug's effectiveness and results in reduced systemic side effects. Drug delivery systems formulated for the colon requires that the triggering of drug release mechanism is designed based on the colon's physiological conditions...
February 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265859/new-cancer-pain-treatment-options
#19
REVIEW
Kenneth D Candido, Teresa M Kusper, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer pain is often incapacitating and discouraging to patients; is demoralizing to family members and care takers; and is taxing and difficult to subdue for the pain specialists. The consequences of implementing suboptimal treatment are far-reaching; therefore, effective treatment methods are in a great demand. The face of cancer pain management has changed in considerable ways, and interventional procedures have become an integral part of providing multimodal analgesia in cancer pain treatment...
February 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264791/more-than-5000-patients-with-metastatic-melanoma-in-europe-per-year-do-not-have-access-to-recommended-first-line-innovative-treatments
#20
L Kandolf Sekulovic, K Peris, A Hauschild, A Stratigos, J-J Grob, P Nathan, R Dummer, A-M Forsea, C Hoeller, H Gogas, L Demidov, C Lebbe, C Blank, J Olah, L Bastholt, D Herceg, B Neyns, R Vieira, J Hansson, P Rutkowski, I Krajsova, M Bylaite-Bucinskiene, I Zalaudek, J Maric-Brozic, N Babovic, M Banjin, K Putnik, G Weinlich, V Todorovic, K Kirov, J Ocvirk, A Zhukavets, M Kukushkina, L De La Cruz Merino, A Ymeri, M Risteski, C Garbe
BACKGROUND: Despite the efficacy of innovative treatments for metastatic melanoma, their high costs has led to disparities in cancer care among different European countries. We analysed the availability of these innovative therapies in Europe and estimated the number of patients without access to first-line recommended treatment per current guidelines of professional entities such as the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the European Association of Dermato-Oncology (EADO), and European Dermatology Forum (EDF)...
March 2, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
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