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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057682/improving-diagnosis-of-childhood-arterial-ischaemic-stroke
#1
Mark T Mackay, Paul Monagle, Franz E Babl
At least half of childhood stroke survivors suffer long-term impairments. Rapid identification of stroke is essential to minimize the extent of injury by restoring perfusion to viable brain. Improving diagnosis of childhood stroke requires correct identification of stroke by prehospital and emergency physicians, rapid performance of appropriate neuroimaging to confirm infarction, and targeted investigations to determine underlying causes, which guide treatment decisions to reduce recurrence risk. Areas covered: This review will summarize the barriers to rapid stroke diagnosis in pre-hospital and emergency department settings, describe recent progress in understanding of the spectrum, presenting clinical features and differential diagnosis of childhood stroke, discuss clinical stroke recognition tools which improve diagnostic accuracy, and their application to children...
November 7, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956659/word-initial-r-clusters-in-icelandic-speaking-children-with-protracted-versus-typical-phonological-development
#2
Thóra Másdóttir
Rhotics are generally acquired late across languages (Jiménez, 1987; Tar, 2006; Blumenthal and Lundeborg, 2014). Prior research suggests some possible differences in acquisition across languages, however (Másdóttir and Stokes, 2016). The current study set out to examine acquisition of /r/ in Icelandic, focusing primarily on match (accuracy) and mismatch data for word-initial (WI) /r/-clusters, but also comparing /r/-clusters with WI singleton /r/ and /l/ plus /l/-clusters. Single-word data were collected for 27 Icelandic-speaking preschoolers with protracted phonological development (PPD) and compared with data from age- and gender-matched typically developing peers...
September 28, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914984/hypercalcemic-disorders-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Victoria J Stokes, Morten F Nielsen, Fadil M Hannan, Rajesh V Thakker
Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than two standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present with hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, polyuria, dehydration, failure to thrive, and seizures. In severe cases renal failure, pancreatitis and reduced consciousness may also occur and older children and adolescents may present with psychiatric symptoms...
November 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865973/recovery-of-pulmonary-function-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-children-is-associated-with-improved-survival
#4
Ashok Srinivasan, Anusha Sunkara, William Mitchell, Sudeep Sunthankar, Guolian Kang, Dennis C Stokes, Saumini Srinivasan
Abnormal pulmonary function is prevalent in survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Post-transplantation recovery of pulmonary function, and its effect on survival, in children are not known. This retrospective cohort study of 308 children followed for 10 years after HCT at a single institution included 2 groups of patients. Group 1 comprised 188 patients with 3 or more pulmonary function test (PFT) results, of which at least 1 was abnormal, and group 2 comprised 120 patients with 3 or more PFTs, all of which were normal...
September 1, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793161/visuospatial-and-verbal-short-term-memory-correlates-of-vocabulary-ability-in-preschool-children
#5
Stephanie F Stokes, Thomas Klee, Myriam Kornisch, Lisa Furlong
Background: Recent studies indicate that school-age children's patterns of performance on measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) differ across types of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because these disorders are often characterized by early language delay, administering STM and WM tests to toddlers could improve prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Toddler-appropriate verbal, but not visuospatial, STM and WM tasks are available. A toddler-appropriate visuospatial STM test is introduced...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661081/centre-level-variation-in-treatment-and-outcomes-and-predictors-of-outcomes-in-5-year-old-children-with-non-syndromic-unilateral-cleft-lip-treated-within-a-centralized-service-the-cleft-care-uk-study-part-6-summary-and-implications
#6
A R Ness, A K Wills, O Mahmoud, A Hall, D Sell, J Smallridge, L Southby, D Stokes, S Toms, A Waylen, Y Wren, J R Sandy
OBJECTIVES: To summarize and discuss centre-level variation across a range of treatment and outcome measures and examine individual and ecological determinants of outcome in children in Cleft Care UK (CCUK). SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Two hundred and sixty-eight 5-year-old British children with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) recruited to CCUK and treated within a centralized service. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children had a range of treatment and outcome measures collected at a 5-year audit clinic...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436542/intercontinental-telehealth-coaching-of-therapists-to-improve-verbalizations-by-children-with-autism
#7
Ana Barkaia, Trevor F Stokes, Tamar Mikiashvili
This study examined the effects of intercontinental telehealth coaching on the mastery of therapists' skills and improvements in verbalizations by children with autism, testing whether telehealth can be a solution for underserved communities in developing countries such as Georgia-Sakartvelo in Eastern Europe. Three therapists delivering and three children with autism receiving early-intervention services from the nongovernmental organization Children of Georgia in Tbilisi participated. Experimenters provided coaching from Virginia, USA to therapists in Georgia-Sakartvelo...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426137/hydroxyurea-hydroxycarbamide-for-sickle-cell-disease
#8
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Ashley P Jones, Jo Howard
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common inherited diseases worldwide. It is associated with lifelong morbidity and a reduced life expectancy. Hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide), an oral chemotherapeutic drug, ameliorates some of the clinical problems of SCD, in particular that of pain, by raising fetal haemoglobin. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of hydroxyurea therapy in people with SCD (all genotypes), of any age, regardless of setting...
April 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255673/the-influence-of-child-gender-on-the-prospective-relationships-between-parenting-and-child-adhd
#9
David H Demmer, Francis Puccio, Mark A Stokes, Jane A McGillivray, Merrilyn Hooley
The aims of the current study were to (i) explore the potential bidirectional, prospective relationships between parenting and child ADHD, and (ii) explore whether these relationships differed on the basis of child gender. Data were obtained from waves 1 (children aged 4- to 5-years) to 5 (children aged 12- to 13-years) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Child (LSAC) dataset (child cohort). In order to examine dimensions of both mothers' and fathers' parenting, a subsample of nuclear families with mothers, fathers and children present at all waves was extracted (final sample = 1932; sons = 981, daughters = 951)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149511/the-development-and-role-of-microbial-host-interactions-in-gut-mucosal-immune-development
#10
REVIEW
C R Stokes
At birth the piglet's immune system is immature and it is dependent upon passive maternal protection until weaning. The piglet's mucosal immune system develops over the first few weeks but has not reached maturity at weaning ages which are common on commercial farms. At weaning piglets are presented with a vast and diverse range of microbial and dietary/environmental antigens. Their ability to distinguish between antigens and mount a protective response to potential pathogens and to develop tolerance to dietary antigens is critical to their survival and failure to do so is reflected in the high incidence of morbidity and mortality in the post-weaning period...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005244/a-comparison-of-children-and-adolescent-s-self-report-and-parental-report-of-the-pedsql-among-those-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
M A Stokes, L Kornienko, A M Scheeren, H M Koot, S Begeer
PURPOSE: Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are understood to experience a reduced quality of life compared to typically developing (TD) peers. The evidence to support this has largely been derived from proxy reports, in turn which have been evaluated by Cronbach's alpha and interrater reliability, neither of which demonstrate unidimensionality of scales, or that raters use the instruments consistently. To redress this, we undertook an evaluation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL), a widely used measure of children's quality of life...
March 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939256/do-growing-rods-for-idiopathic-early-onset-scoliosis-improve-activity-and-participation-for-children
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mathew David Sewell, Johnson Platinum, Geoffrey Noel Askin, Robert Labrom, Mike Hutton, Daniel Chan, Andrew Clarke, Oliver M Stokes, Sean Molloy, Stewart Tucker, Jan Lehovsky
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether growing rod surgery for children with progressive idiopathic early onset scoliosis (EOS) effects activity and participation, and investigate factors that may affect this. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected data on 60 children with idiopathic EOS and significant scoliosis (defined as a Cobb angle >40°). Thirty underwent brace treatment, and 30, growth rod surgery. Questionnaire and radiographic data were recorded at 1 year...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732718/interrelationships-between-working-memory-processing-speed-and-language-development-in-the-age-range-2-4-years
#13
Jayne Newbury, Thomas Klee, Stephanie F Stokes, Catherine Moran
Purpose: This study explored associations between working memory and language in children aged 2-4 years. Method: Seventy-seven children aged 24-30 months were assessed on tests measuring language, visual cognition, verbal working memory (VWM), phonological short-term memory (PSTM), and processing speed. A standardized test of receptive and expressive language was used as the outcomes measure 18 months later. Results: There were moderate-to-strong longitudinal bivariate relationships between the 3 processing measures and language outcomes...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636915/recommendations-for-lengthening-of-magnetically-controlled-growing-rods-in-children-with-pacemakers
#14
Kimberly-Anne Tan, Mathew D Sewell, Andrew J Clarke, Daniel Chan, Oliver M Stokes, Shahid N Khan, Michael Hutton
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Pacemakers are currently identified as a contraindication for the use of magnetic growth rods (MGRs). This arises from concern that magnetic fields generated by the MGR external remote controller (ERC) during lengthening procedures may induce pacemaker dysfunction. We investigated (1) whether MGR lengthening affects pacemaker function, and (2) if the magnetic field of a pacemaker affects MGR lengthening. METHODS: MGRs were tested in conjunction with an magnetic resonance imaging-compatible pacemaker, which was connected to a virtual patient under continuous cardiac monitoring...
June 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152417/egfr-interacts-with-the-fusion-protein-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-strain-2-20-and-mediates-infection-and-mucin-expression
#15
Michael G Currier, Sujin Lee, Christopher C Stobart, Anne L Hotard, Remi Villenave, Jia Meng, Carla D Pretto, Michael D Shields, Minh Trang Nguyen, Sean O Todd, Michael H Chi, Jason Hammonds, Stefanie A Krumm, Paul Spearman, Richard K Plemper, Kaori Sakamoto, R Stokes Peebles, Ultan F Power, Martin L Moore
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness in children. In contrast to the RSV prototypic strain A2, clinical isolate RSV 2-20 induces airway mucin expression in mice, a clinically relevant phenotype dependent on the fusion (F) protein of the RSV strain. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a role in airway mucin expression in other systems; therefore, we hypothesized that the RSV 2-20 F protein stimulates EGFR signaling. Infection of cells with chimeric strains RSV A2-2-20F and A2-2-20GF or over-expression of 2-20 F protein resulted in greater phosphorylation of EGFR than infection with RSV A2 or over-expression of A2 F, respectively...
May 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127671/impact-of-heart-transplantation-on-cheyne-stokes-respiration-in-a-child
#16
Suhail Al-Saleh, Paul F Kantor, Indra Narang
Sleep disordered breathing is well described in adults with heart failure but not in pediatric population. We describe a 13-year-old Caucasian male with severe heart failure related to dilated cardiomyopathy who demonstrated polysomnographic features of Cheyne-Stokes respiration, which completely resolved following cardiac transplantation. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in children with advanced heart failure and its resolution after heart transplant can be observed similar to adults.
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009636/non-invasive-optical-assessment-of-viscosity-of-middle-ear-effusions-in-otitis-media
#17
Guillermo L Monroy, Paritosh Pande, Ryan L Shelton, Ryan M Nolan, Darold R Spillman, Ryan G Porter, Michael A Novak, Stephen A Boppart
Eustachian tube dysfunction can cause fluid to collect within the middle ear cavity and form a middle ear effusion (MEE). MEEs can persist for weeks or months and cause hearing loss as well as speech and learning delays in young children. The ability of a physician to accurately identify and characterize the middle ear for signs of fluid and/or infection is crucial to provide the most appropriate treatment for the patient. Currently, middle ear infections are assessed with otoscopy, which provides limited and only qualitative diagnostic information...
March 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26537943/long-term-effect-of-high-dose-supplementation-with-dha-on-visual-function-at-school-age-in-children-born-at-33-wk-gestational-age-results-from-a-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Carly S Molloy, Sacha Stokes, Maria Makrides, Carmel T Collins, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle
BACKGROUND: Children born preterm are at risk of visual-processing impairments. Several lines of evidence have contributed to the rationale that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation of preterm infants may improve outcomes in visual processing. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether at 7 y of age children who were born very preterm and who received a high-DHA diet have better visual-processing outcomes than do infants fed a standard-DHA diet. DESIGN: This was a follow-up study in a subgroup of children from a randomized controlled trial...
January 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527356/research-is-the-future-the-future-is%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#19
Francis J Gilchrist
Over the past two decades, Professor Lenney has established the Paediatric Respiratory Department at the Royal Stoke University Hospital as a centre recognised for high quality research. A broad portfolio of clinical and laboratory based research is in progress. Four research areas are discussed that are likely to contribute to the continued academic output from the unit. These are the use of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry for the detection of biomarkers associated with pulmonary pathogens, the measurement of lung clearance index in preschool children, structured light plethysmography in children and the use of oral prednisolone for asthma exacerbations in children...
January 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26474863/prospective-evaluation-of-sleep-apnea-as-manifestation-of-heart-failure-in-children
#20
Susanna L den Boer, Koen F M Joosten, Sandra van den Berg, Ad P C M Backx, Ronald B Tanke, Gideon J du Marchie Sarvaas, Willem A Helbing, Lukas A J Rammeloo, Arend D J ten Harkel, Gabriëlle G van Iperen, Michiel Dalinghaus
In adults with heart failure, central sleep apnea (CSA), often manifested as Cheyne-Stokes respiration, is common, and has been associated with adverse outcome. Heart failure in children is commonly caused by dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). It is unknown whether children with heart failure secondary to DCM have CSA, and whether CSA is related to the severity of heart failure. In this prospective observational study, 37 patients (<18 year) with heart failure secondary to DCM were included. They underwent polysomnography, clinical and laboratory evaluation and echocardiographic assessment...
February 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
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