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Mark R Dixon, Jacqueline Peach, Jacob H Daar, Cindy Penrod
The present study evaluated the feasibility of the PEAK Relational Training System's Generalization Module (Dixon, 2014b) to teach and establish generalization of autoclitic mands, distorted tacts, and creative path finding in three children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Using a multiple-baseline design across behaviors, each participant was provided with differential reinforcement and a least-to-most prompting hierarchy for correct responses to a subset of stimuli, and responses to other similar stimulus sets were probed for emergent generalization...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Audrey A Pauwels, William H Ahearn, Stacy J Cohen
Foss (Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76, 450-459, 1968a; Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 341-344, 1968b) compared overlap and non-overlap instruction to promote recombinative response generalization using a matrix training procedure. In the present study, we used a similar set of procedures to teach tacting of kitchen items and prepositions (i.e., relational autoclitics) to three females ages 13-20, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. We taught some kitchen items/prepositions as tacts (e.g...
October 2015: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Mahmoud Sheyab, Josh Pritchard, Mark Malady
In the current study, we reinforced tacts with positive qualifying autoclitics for reading and evaluated the subsequent effect on the allocation of reading behavior. Participants were four typically developing children between 9 and 12 years of age whose primary language was Arabic. We exposed each participant to pre- and posttreatment sessions to assess behavior allocation across activities and materials using a multiple-baseline design. During treatment, the experimenters praised positive statements about reading by each participant...
October 2014: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Jeannemarie Speckman, R Douglas Greer, Celestina Rivera-Valdes
We report 2 experiments that tested the effects of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) across training sets on the emergence of productive autoclitic frames (suffixes) for 6 preschoolers with and without language-based disabilities. We implemented multiple exemplar tact instruction with subsets of stimuli whose "names" contained the suffix "-er" denoting the comparative form of adjectives. Subsets of stimuli included regular, irregular, and contrived tacts containing the target relational autoclitic frame in order to determine if our MEI procedure would induce the abstraction of the frame across all stimulus sets...
2012: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
T L Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1983: VB News
Nicole Luke, R Douglas Greer, Jessica Singer-Dudek, Dolleen-Day Keohane
In two experiments, we tested the effect of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) for training sets on the emergence of autoclitic frames for spatial relations for novel tacts and mands. In Experiment 1, we used a replicated pre- and post-intervention probe design with four students with significant learning disabilities to test for acquisition of four autoclitic frames with novel tacts and mands before and after MEI. The untaught topographies emerged for all participants. In Experiment 2, we used a multiple probe design to test the effects of the MEI procedures on the same responses in four typically developing, bilingual students...
2011: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Maria Amelia Matos, Maria de Lourdes Passos
The production of verbal operants not previously taught is an important aspect of language productivity. For Skinner, new mands, tacts, and autoclitics result from the recombination of verbal operants. The relation between these mands, tacts, and autoclitics is what linguists call analogy, a grammatical pattern that serves as a foundation on which a speaker might emit new linguistic forms. Analogy appears in linguistics as a regularity principle that characterizes language and has been related to how languages change and also to creativity...
2010: Behavior Analyst
Travis Thompson
Self-awareness is a specific type of autoclitic discriminative behavior and inferential generalization to similar performances exhibited by other people. Brain imaging findings take on special importance within behavior analysis when they indicate that dysfunctions in these areas are related to differential effects of our interventions, with some acquiring substantially typical self-awareness skills and others failing to do so. It appears that those individuals whose brain dysfunctions are limited to these areas, and are not part of more generalized brain abnormalities, are amenable to substantial acquisition of those most basic of human skills called self-awareness, whereas individuals with more generalized brain dysfunction are not so disposed...
2008: Behavior Analyst
B Guerin
Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through autoclitic functions...
1994: Behavior Analyst
J S Howard, D E Rice
Skinner's (1957) analysis of language presents the notion of secondary verbal behavior, some of which is termed "autoclitic." These kinds of verbal responses are dependent upon primary verbal behavior and are controlled by some feature of the primary verbal relationship (e.g., mand, tact, etc.). In this study preschool children were trained to make autoclitic responses evoked by the weakness of the relation controlling a primary tact response. A method for training tacting of private events known as "public accompaniment" was utilized...
1988: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
A C Catania
Language theorists have often proposed lists of the defining properties of language. This account reviews some of these and offers as an alternative a three-item list consisting of instructional control, equivalence classes, and autoclitic processes.
1986: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Maria Martha Costa Hübner, John Austin, Caio F Miguel
In the current study, tacts with positive qualifying autoclitics for reading were reinforced in order to determine if this procedure would increase the time spent reading by participants. Participants included 5 children, between 9-10 years old. Participants were individually exposed to 4 free operant sessions during which they were instructed to independently choose play activities. During pre- and post-treatment conditions, no consequences were provided for choosing reading. In addition, 4 treatment sessions were conducted on days separate from the free operant session days, during which the experimenter praised each positive reading-related statement emitted by the participant...
2008: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Rachael A Sautter, Linda A Leblanc
In Verbal Behavior,Skinner (1957) provided a conceptual framework and taxonomy for the controlling variables of language that defined independent verbal operants by their functional relations to antecedents and consequences (rather than by topography or meaning). Although professional interest in this area has recently increased within the behavior analytic community, Skinner's conceptual framework may not yet have fully impacted the experimental literature. This quantitative review of the literature examined the studies on verbal behavior that were empirical in nature, concerned with human verbal behavior, and addressed at least one verbal operant (e...
2006: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
L E Fraley
The behavior called "measuring" generates new stimuli that intraverbally evoke new and potentially more effective responding to the situation under investigation. The nature of the measurement-produced contribution to these supplementary antecedent controls is examined, particularly with respect to changes in what can then be said or known. A simple problem (fitting a tablecloth to a table) is analyzed with measuring prohibited. Autoclitically related tacts are seen to emerge and form statements intraverbally...
1996: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
M L Sundberg
The three major types of augmentative communication for nonverbal persons consist of writing (or typing), pointing, and signing. These alternative response forms are examined in terms of their advantages and disadvantages for establishing effective verbal behavior. In addition, these systems are examined using the concepts from Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior (i.e., mand, tact, intraverbal, and autoclitic). The results of this analysis show that sign language has the most advantages and the fewest disadvantages, and more closely parallels speech in terms of the verbal operants...
1993: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
J H Mabry
The strong tradition of "school room" grammars may have had a negative influence on the reception given a functional analysis of verbal behavior, both within and without the field of behavior analysis. Some of the failings of those traditional grammars, and their largely prescriptive nature were outlined through reference to other critics, and conflicting views. Skinner's own treatment of grammatical issues was presented, emphasizing his view of a functional unit and his use of the autoclitic and intraverbal functions to describe alternatives to a formal or structural analysis...
1993: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
B Lowenkron, V Colvin
This study investigated how the absence of a specified stimulus can control behavior. Four children were trained in nonidentity matching, and as a control, four were trained in identity matching. Both performances were produced by training over mediating responses, so that in identity matching, the selection of a particular comparison was evoked by the repetition of a sample tact to the comparison, and in nonidentity, by the inability to repeat the sample tact to the comparison. Successful generalization of the performances indicated that they were indeed controlled by these general features rather than by stimulus-specific features...
1992: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
D A Polson, J A Parsons
The present study explored the effects of a precurrent contingency in which one (precurrent) activity increased the reinforcement probability for another (current) activity. Four human subjects responded on a two-key computer mouse. Each right-key press was reinforced (points exchangeable for money) with .02 probability. In one condition (no precurrent contingency), pressing the left key had no scheduled consequence; in another condition (precurrent contingency), pressing the left key increased the reinforcement probability for right-key responding to ...
May 1994: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
S Lodhi, R D Greer
This study reports the results of an experiment with 4 female 5-year-old children, in which the verbal behavior of the children (talking to themselves) was studied under two conditions-an anthropomorphic toy condition and a nonanthropomorphic toy condition. The anthropomorphic condition consisted of three-dimensional toys such as dolls, stuffed animals, and figurines. The nonanthropomorphic toy condition consisted of two-dimensional materials such as puzzles, coloring books, and story books. The independent variables were the toy conditions...
May 1989: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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