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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820947/dysregulated-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-in-ethanol-induced-cavernosal-dysfunction
#1
Jaqueline Jóice Muniz, Leticia Nogueira Leite, Riccardo Lacchini, Jose E Tanus-Santos, Carlos Renato Tirapelli
We evaluated the effects of ethanol consumption on the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and metalloproteinases (MMP) pathways in the rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM). Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol (20% vol./vol.) for six weeks. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments showed that ethanol consumption did not alter mRNA levels of p38MAPK, SAPK/JNK, ERK1/2, MMP-2 or MMP-9 in the rat CSM. Western immunoblotting experiments revealed decreased protein expression of p38MAPK and phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK in the CSM from ethanol-treated rats...
August 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820846/noninvasive-assessment-of-skeletal-muscle-myosin-heavy-chain-expression-in-trained-and-untrained-men
#2
Andrew C Fry, Terry J Housh, Joel B Cramer, Joseph P Weir, Travis W Beck, Brian K Schilling, Jonathan D Miller, Justin X Nicoll
Fry, AC, Housh, TJ, Cramer, JB, Weir, JP, Beck, TW, Schilling, BK, Miller, JD, and Nicoll, JX. Noninvasive assessment of skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain expression in trained and untrained men. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2355-2362, 2017-Numerous conditions and types of physical activity (e.g., exercise, aging, and muscle-related diseases) can influence muscle fiber types and the proteins expressed. To date, muscle fibers can only be characterized by actually obtaining a tissue sample using the invasive muscle biopsy procedure...
September 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820400/alteration-in-expressions-of-rhoa-and-rho-kinases-during-pregnancy-in-rats-their-roles-in-uterine-contractions-and-onset-of-labour
#3
D Domokos, E Ducza, G Falkay, R Gaspar
Activation of RhoA and Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) is known to play a pivotal role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction via phosphorylation of myosin-light chain and myosin phosphatase. There are few data on the RhoA and ROCKs expression levels in rat uteri. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the mRNA and protein concentration of RhoA and ROCKs in rat uterus during pregnancy, during parturition and post-partum using real time PCR and Western blot analysis. The other purpose was to evaluate the effects of the ROCK (Y-27632, fasudil and RKI 1441) and RhoA inhibitors (simvastatin) on uterine contractility in isolated organ bath experiments...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820399/repetitive-muscle-compression-reduces-vascular-mechano-sensitivity-and-the-hyperemic-response-to-muscle-contraction
#4
A Messere, M Turturici, G Millo, S Roatta
Animal studies have shown that the rapid hyperemic response to external muscle compression undergoes inactivation upon repetitive stimulation, but this phenomenon has never been observed in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether 1) the vascular mechano-sensitivity underlying muscle compression-induced hyperemia is inactivated in an inter-stimulus interval (ISI)-dependent fashion upon repetitive stimulation, as suggested by animal studies, and 2) whether such inactivation also attenuates contraction-induced hyperemia...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820288/cohesive-silicone-gel-implants-with-smooth-textured-or-polyurethane-coated-surface-to-restore-volume-in-eviscerated-sockets
#5
Cristiano Abreu, Seizo Yamashita, Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro, Marilia Modolo, Claudia H Pellizzon, Carlos R Padovani, Mariangela E A Marques, Silvana A Schellini
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the three different surface coating on cohesive silicone gel implants in eviscerated rabbit eye sockets. Forty-five albino rabbits underwent right eye evisceration and received hemisphere-shaped cohesive silicone gel implants with smooth (Group 1), textured (Group 2), or polyurethane-coated surface (Group 3) in the socket. The animals were euthanized at 7, 30, and 90 days postoperatively. Computed tomography of the orbits was performed prior to euthanasia. Subsequently, the orbital contents were removed and underwent histologic and morphometric examination...
August 18, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819758/an-in-silico-biomechanical-analysis-of-the-stent-esophagus-interaction
#6
Mathias Peirlinck, Nic Debusschere, Francesco Iannaccone, Peter D Siersema, Benedict Verhegghe, Patrick Segers, Matthieu De Beule
Despite all technological innovations in esophageal stent design over the past 20 years, the association between the stent design's mechanical behavior and its effect on the clinical outcome has not yet been thoroughly explored. A parametric numerical model of a commercially available esophageal bioresorbable polymeric braided wire stent is set up, accounting for stent design aspects such as braiding angle, strut material, wire thickness, degradation and friction between the wires comprising a predictive tool on the device's mechanical behavior...
August 17, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819679/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-is-effective-in-strengthening-the-quadriceps-muscle-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-surgery
#7
REVIEW
Annette V Hauger, M P Reiman, J M Bjordal, C Sheets, L Ledbetter, A P Goode
PURPOSE: Reduced ability to contract the quadriceps muscles is often found immediately following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. This can lead to muscle atrophy and decreased function. Application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be a useful adjunct intervention to ameliorate these deficits following ACL surgery. The purpose of this review was to determine whether NMES in addition to standard physical therapy is superior to standard physical therapy alone in improving quadriceps strength or physical function following ACL surgery...
August 17, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819051/the-effects-of-8-weeks-voluntary-wheel-running-on-the-contractile-performance-of-isolated-locomotory-soleus-and-respiratory-diaphragm-skeletal-muscle-during-early-ageing
#8
Jason Tallis, Matthew F Higgins, Frank Seebacher, Val M Cox, Michael J Duncan, Rob S James
Decreased skeletal muscle performance with increasing age is strongly associated with reduced mobility and quality of life. Increased physical activity is a widely prescribed method of reducing the detrimental effects of ageing on skeletal muscle contractility. The present study uses isometric and work loop testing protocols to uniquely investigate the effects of 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running on the contractile performance of isolated dynapenic soleus and diaphragm muscles of 38 week old CD1 mice. When compared to untrained controls, voluntary wheel running induced significant improvements in maximal isometric stress and work loop power, a reduced resistance to fatigue, but greater cumulative work during fatiguing work loop contractions in isolated muscle...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818547/contracting-infectious-diseases-in-sub-saharan-african-wetlands-a-question-of-use-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Carmen Anthonj, Andrea Rechenburg, Christoph Höser, Thomas Kistemann
Worldwide the pressure on water is increasing. In parts of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), natural wetlands constitute the only accessible water resources, providing water free of charge, agricultural potential and livelihoods in otherwise uninhabitable landscapes, which is why they are being used extensively. The degradation and contamination of water which result from the use of wetlands has the potential to spread disease-causing microorganisms and provide increased breeding habitats for disease vectors, Despite this importance, case studies are lacking and knowledge gaps remain about whether and how different kinds of wetland use influence the exposure to health risks and transmission of infectious diseases...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818394/focal-adhesion-kinase-family-is-involved-in-matrix-contraction-by-transdifferentiated-m%C3%A3-ller-cells
#10
Rintaro Tsukahara, Kazuhiko Umazume, Kevin McDonald, Henry J Kaplan, Shigeo Tamiya
Transdifferentiated Müller cells that adopt a fibroblastic/myofibroblastic phenotype have been identified in epiretinal membranes (ERMs) in several ocular disorders, and have been implicated to play a role in the formation and/or the contraction of ERMs. We have previously demonstrated that dasatinib, a dual inhibitor of Src-family kinases and Abl kinase, can prevent matrix contraction by transdifferentiated Müller cells. In this study, we examined molecules involved in matrix contraction downstream of primary dasatinib targets...
August 14, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818274/the-affection-of-the-disturbance-of-the-hydrodynamics-of-blood-in-case-of-stress-on-pathological-increase-of-level-of-low-density-lipoproteins-in-blood-the-formation-of-cylindrical-plaques-and-their-participation-in-the-development-of-acute-ischemic-disorders
#11
S E Rusanov
In this article is given the new insight about the affection of stress on the increase of level of low density lipoproteins (LDL) in the blood, which is connected with the disturbance of hydrodynamics in the bloodstream, the attention was paid to the cylindrical cholesterol plaque, and it's classification. The disturbance of hydrodynamics of blood under the stress leads to the formation of a cylindrical cholesterol plaque, which repeats the contour of the vessel, and leads to the ischemic disorders of the heart and brain...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818208/catecholamine-dependent-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-a-pluripotent-stem-cell-model%C3%A2-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#12
Thomas Borchert, Daniela Hübscher, Celina I Guessoum, Tuan-Dinh D Lam, Jelena R Ghadri, Isabel N Schellinger, Malte Tiburcy, Norman Y Liaw, Yun Li, Jan Haas, Samuel Sossalla, Mia A Huber, Lukas Cyganek, Claudius Jacobshagen, Ralf Dressel, Uwe Raaz, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Kaomei Guan, Holger Thiele, Benjamin Meder, Bernd Wollnik, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Thomas F Lüscher, Gerd Hasenfuss, Christian Templin, Katrin Streckfuss-Bömeke
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by an acute left ventricular dysfunction and is associated with life-threating complications in the acute phase. The underlying disease mechanism in TTS is still unknown. A genetic basis has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to establish an in vitro induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of TTS, to test the hypothesis of altered β-adrenergic signaling in TTS iPSC-cardiomyocytes (CMs), and to explore whether genetic susceptibility underlies the pathophysiology of TTS...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817976/an-open-source-model-and-solution-method-to-predict-co-contraction-in-the-finger
#13
Alexander R MacIntosh, Peter J Keir
A novel open-source biomechanical model of the index finger with an electromyography (EMG)-constrained static optimization solution method are developed with the goal of improving co-contraction estimates and providing means to assess tendon tension distribution through the finger. The Intrinsic model has four degrees of freedom and seven muscles (with a 14 component extensor mechanism). A novel plugin developed for the OpenSim modelling software applied the EMG-constrained static optimization solution method...
August 17, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817961/evaluating-the-ergonomics-of-flexible-ureteroscopy
#14
Wesley Ludwig, Gyusung I Lee, Justin Bradley Ziemba, Joan S Ko, Brian Matlaga
INTRODUCTION: To date, the ergonomics of flexible ureteroscopy (URS) have not been well described. We performed a study to assess the biomechanical stresses on urologists performing URS and to investigate the effect of ureteroscope type on these parameters. METHODS: Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify the activation level of muscle groups involved in URS. Surface EMG electrodes (Delsys, Boston, MA) were placed on the right and left thenar, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), biceps, triceps and deltoid...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817840/nuciferine-relaxes-tracheal-rings-via-the-blockade-of-vdlcc-and-nscc-channels
#15
Xiao Yang, Meng-Fei Yu, Jun Lei, Yong-Bo Peng, Ping Zhao, Lu Xue, Weiwei Chen, Li-Qun Ma, Qing-Hua Liu, Jinhua Shen
This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms of nuciferine (a main aporphine alkaloid of lotus leaf extract), which can induce relaxation in contracted tracheal rings. Under Ca(2+)-free and 2 mM Ca(2+) conditions, we found that nuciferine had no effect on the resting muscle tone of tracheal rings. In contrast, nuciferine relaxed high K(+)-contracted mouse tracheal rings in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited both Ca(2+) influx and voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channel currents induced by high K(+). Similarly, nuciferine also inhibited acetylcholine-induced contractions in mouse tracheal rings in a dose-dependent manner...
August 17, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817635/contractile-actomyosin-arcs-promote-the-activation-of-primary-mouse-t-cells-in-a-ligand-dependent-manner
#16
Jinsung Hong, Sricharan Murugesan, Eric Betzig, John A Hammer
Mechano-transduction is an emerging but still poorly understood component of T cell activation. Here we investigated the ligand-dependent contribution made by contractile actomyosin arcs populating the peripheral supramolecular activation cluster (pSMAC) region of the immunological synapse (IS) to T cell receptor (TCR) microcluster transport and proximal signaling in primary mouse T cells. Using super resolution microscopy, OT1-CD8+ mouse T cells, and two ovalbumin (OVA) peptides with different affinities for the TCR, we show that the generation of organized actomyosin arcs depends on ligand potency and the ability of myosin 2 to contract actin filaments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815848/inflammation-and-fertility-in-the-mare
#17
REVIEW
M Christoffersen, Mht Troedsson
A transient uterine inflammation post-breeding is a normal physiological reaction in the mare, and it is believed that the inflammatory response is necessary to eliminate bacteria and excess spermatozoa introduced into the uterine lumen. A tight balance between multiple pro- and anti-inflammatory factors is required for resolving the breeding-induced inflammation within 24-36 hr in the reproductively healthy mare, whereas a subpopulation of mares is susceptible to development of a persistent infection that can interfere with fertility...
August 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815610/growth-responses-to-elevated-temperatures-and-the-importance-of-ontogenetic-niche-shifts-in-bromeliaceae
#18
Lilian-Lee B Müller, Dirk C Albach, Gerhard Zotz
Epiphytic bromeliads represent a major component of Neotropical forests, but the potential effect of climate change on these plants is unclear. We investigated whether and how bromeliads are affected by the predicted 3°C temperature rise by the end of the century. We conducted growth experiments with 17 epiphytic bromeliad species at different temperatures to determine their fundamental thermal niches. By comparing those with niches for germination, we tested whether ontogenetic niche shift or niche contraction occurs in Bromeliaceae...
August 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815597/cardiac-action-potential-repolarization-re-visited-early-repolarization-shows-all-or-none-behaviour
#19
Beatriz Trenor, Karen Cardona, Javier Saiz, Denis Noble, Wayne Giles
In healthy mammalian hearts the action potential (AP) waveform initiates and modulates each contraction, or heartbeat. As a result, action potential height and duration are key physiological variables. In addition, rate-dependent changes in ventricular action potential duration (APD), and variations in APD at a fixed heart rate, are both reliable biomarkers of electrophysiological stability. Present guidelines for the likelihood that candidate drugs will increase arrhythmias rely on small changes in APD and Q-T intervals as criteria for Safety Pharmacology decisions...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815524/endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-contacts-regulate-cellular-excitability
#20
Eamonn J Dickson
Cells that have intrinsic electrical excitability utilize changes in membrane potential to communicate with neighboring cells and initiate cellular cascades. Excitable cells like neurons and myocytes have evolved highly specialized subcellular architectures to translate these electrical signals into cellular events. One such structural specialization is sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites. These membrane contact sites are positioned by specific membrane-membrane tethering proteins and contain an ever-expanding list of additional proteins that organize information transfer across the junctional space (~ 15-25 nm distance) to shape membrane identity and control cellular excitability...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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