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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052772/imaging-of-thoracic-tuberculosis-in-children-current-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, Ashu S Bhalla, Nasreen Mahomed, Bernard F Laya
Tuberculosis continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is the leading cause of infection-related deaths worldwide. Children are amongst the high-risk groups for developing tuberculosis and often pose a challenge to the clinicians in making a definitive diagnosis. The newly released global tuberculosis report from World Health Organization reveals a 50% increase in fatality from tuberculosis in children. Significantly, diagnostic and treatment algorithms of tuberculosis for children differ from those of adults...
September 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049748/transfusion-and-blood-stream-infections-after-coronary-surgery
#2
Tuomas Tauriainen, Eeva-Maija Kinnunen, Idamaria Laitinen, Vesa Anttila, Tuomas Kiviniemi, Juhani K E Airaksinen, Fausto Biancari
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of blood transfusion on bloodstream infections. This study included 2764 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. Blood cultures were drawn in 27.9% of patients and were positive in 3.5% of them. Blood transfusion before blood cultures were drawn (4.7% vs 1.2%, odds ratio 3.75, 95% confidence interval 1.11-12.67) and deep sternal wound infection/mediastinitis (20.0% vs 2.8%, odds ratio 7.43, 95% confidence interval 2.72-20.32) were independent predictors of a positive postoperative blood culture...
September 27, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049528/an-aorto-oesophageal-fistula-treated-with-endovascular-aortic-repair-the-fate-of-untreated-oesophageal-lesion-on-endoscopic-follow-up
#3
Kaiyu Tao, Haifeng Cheng, Zhanglong Hu, Mingjian Kong
Oesophageal foreign body is an emergency situation. Once oesophageal perforation occurs, damage and subsequent infection involving surrounding tissue or organs may ensue. We present here a rare case of aorto-oesophageal fistula which was treated with challenges. An old lady with fishbone induced oesophageal perforation, aortic pseudoaneurysm and mediastinal haematoma was treated with great vessel stent-graft placed in aortic arch, and the fish bone was removed under endoscopy thereafter. During the early follow-up period, part of the graft stent was discovered in the oesophageal perforation with no haemorrhage...
July 27, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046010/-differential-diagnosis-of-mediastinal-and-hilar-lymphadenopathy-with-focus-on-occupational-diseases
#4
H Lux, L Barreira Cavalcante, X Baur
Hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy may represent a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. This article is intended to facilitate differential diagnosis by a systematic description of relevant pathologies, notably with occupational etiology. Clinical findings of relevant diseases, i. e. of tuberculosis, chronic beryllium disease, sarcoidosis, lung cancer, malignant lymphoma, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and histoplasmosis are compared.Case history, imaging and laboratory tests have important diagnostic impact...
October 18, 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045954/-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-as-leading-manifestation-of-methylmalonic-aciduria-clinical-characteristics-and-gene-testing-in-15-cases
#5
X Q Liu, H Yan, J X Qiu, C Y Zhang, J G Qi, X Zhang, H J Xiao, Y L Yang, Y H Chen, J B DU
OBJECTIVE: To deepen our understanding of Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) by analyzing the characteristics of clinical presentation, pulmonary high resolusion CT(HRCT), treatment response and gene mutation. METHODS: This study includes 15 cases of pediatric patients with MMA associated PH diagnosed and treated in Peking University First Hospital pediatric department between May 2012 and May 2016 with symptoms of PH as their leading presentation...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027754/afatinib-treatment-of-a-squamous-lung-cancer-after-tumor-progression-of-nivolumab
#6
Yinghua Jin, Qiuying Jiang, Tao Xin
Nivolumab prolonged disease control in a patient with advanced squamous lung cancer that was refractory to multiple treatments. The rapid eradication of cancer after the administration of nivolumab caused hemoptysis and repeated infection. Six months after immunotherapy, mediastinal lymph node metastasis developed and afatinib effectively relieved dysphonia associated with nerve paralysis.
October 13, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026893/descending-necrotizing-mediastinitis-after-a-trigger-point-injection
#7
Jae Young Choe, Jong Kun Kim, Dong Eun Lee, Kang Suk Seo, Jung Bae Park, Mi Jin Lee, Hyun Wook Ryoo, Jae Yun Ahn, Sungbae Moon
Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rare form of mediastinal infection. Most cases are associated with esophageal rupture. DNM after a trigger point injection in the upper trapezius has not been described previously. We present a case of DNM after a trigger point injection in the upper trapezius. A 70-year-old man visited the emergency department with chest discomfort and fever after a trigger point injection in the left upper trapezius. Chest computed tomography showed evidence of DNM, and antibiotic therapy was immediately administered intravenously...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019538/video-thoracoscopic-approach-without-suture-of-late-thoracic-esophageal-perforations
#8
Omar Moté Abou-Mourad, Filipe Moreira de Andrade, Luiz Felippe Júdice, Ângelo Júdice, Antonio Bento Costa Borges Carvalho, Maria Ribeiro Santos Morard, Rossano Kepler Alvim Fiorelli
OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the use of video-thoracoscopy, in the treatment of late perforations of the thoracic esophagus, without suture or organ resection. METHODS: retrospective analysis of patients with late diagnosis (> 12 hours) of thoracic esophageal perforation treated by video-thoracoscopy, without suture or organ resection, over a 15-year period. RESULTS: sixteen patients were operated on, ten men and six women, aged between 48 and 66 years, with time between the diagnosis of the perforation and the surgery ranging from 16 to 26 hours...
July 2017: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018009/paediatric-case-of-ductal-origin-of-right-pulmonary-artery-presenting-with-exertional-dyspnoea-and-mimicking-asthma-and-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia
#9
Malvika Sagar, Anderson S Marshall, Cody W Clary, Athar M Qureshi
Ductal origin of pulmonary artery is a rare anomaly that is frequently misdiagnosed. Patients may present with exertional dyspnoea, recurrent respiratory infections and pulmonary hypertension. The presence of pulmonary hypertension can adversely affect clinical outcome in these patients; hence, early identification and intervention is the key to improve survival. A case of a 3-year-old child presenting with exertional dyspnoea is presented in this report. Chest radiograph revealed right-sided pulmonary hypoplasia and mediastinal shift to the right...
October 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956250/hypopharyngeal-applications-of-a-new-flexible-robotic-system-in-otolaryngology
#10
Janet Ren Chao, Joseph Goodman, Andrew Fuson, Nahir J Romero, Arjun Joshi
This case report describes the use a new flexible robotic system in otolaryngology, the FlexRobot(®) for cricopharyngeal myotomy in cadaver dissections, and for the treatment of a patient with esophageal stenosis and secondary dysphagia and dysphonia. The Flexrobot(®) facilitates access to the hypopharynx with increased proximity to the surgical field and improved optics, allowing more exact dilatation and injection in our patient. It also would allow surgeons to reach deep inside the cavity of the hypopharynx into anatomical regions that are typically inaccessible without an open approach, as shown in our cadaveric procedure, where full exposure of the posterior aspect of the cricopharyngeus and isolation of the muscle belly were achieved...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947210/bacteriuria-is-not-associated-with-surgical-site-infection-in-patients-undergoing-cardiovascular-surgery
#11
Juan Carlos Duarte, Patricia Reyes, Diana Bermúdez, Juan Pablo Alzate, Javier Darío Maldonado, Jorge Alberto Cortés
BACKGROUND: Despite absence of evidence, in practice, asymptomatic bacteriuria is perceived as a risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) among patients with cardiac surgery. We aimed to identify whether an association exists between the preoperative presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria or urinary tract infection and SSI in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. METHODS: This is an analytical study with a retrospective cohort of patients undergoing coronary revascularization or valve replacement surgery...
September 22, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944128/tracheostomy-exchange-resulting-in-rare-combination-of-pneumomediastinum-pneumothorax-massive-pneumoperitoneum-and-subcutaneous-emphysema
#12
Saqib Saeed, Sara Alothman, Ali Safavi, Brian Donaldson, Alexius Ramcharan, Hector DePaz
Tracheostomy tube change is a relatively common and simple procedure once a tract is formed between the skin and the trachea. Regular tracheostomy tube changes decrease the risk of postoperative pulmonary infection and granulation tissue formation. However, serious complications, such as loss of airway, subcutaneous emphysema, and mediastinitis, can occur if the tube exchange is performed inappropriately. We present a rare association of subcutaneous emphysema, tension pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pneumoperitoneum following a tracheostomy tube exchange in a 56-year-old patient who had his tracheotomy placed a month ago...
July 18, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942306/systemic-mycobacterium-kansasii-infection-in-a-domestic-shorthair-cat
#13
S-H Lee, D-M Go, S-H Woo, H-T Park, E Kim, H S Yoo, D-Y Kim
A 1-year-old, female domestic shorthair cat was presented with anorexia, depression and weight loss, accompanied by multifocal nodules affecting the face, pinnae and periarticular tissue. Routine medical treatments were ineffective. The animal's physical condition continued to deteriorate and it finally died. Post-mortem examination revealed multifocal to coalescing firm nodules with occasional ulceration affecting the ears, peri-ocular areas, nasal planum, oral cavity and laryngopharyngeal region. Tan-coloured, firm, nodular lesions were also observed in the periarticular tissue, lungs and tracheobronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941318/voriconazole-in-lung-transplant-recipients-how-worried-should-we-be
#14
EDITORIAL
Hrishikesh S Kulkarni, Chad A Witt
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the most common invasive mold infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, occurring in 1-15% of recipients, with a 12-week mortality rate of 20-60%.(1) Lung transplant (LTx) recipients are at the highest risk for IA among all SOT recipients, ranging from ulcerative tracheobronchitis, anastomotic site involvement and airway wall necrosis, to pneumonia, mediastinitis, empyema and disseminated fungemia. Additionally, Aspergillus colonization is an independent risk factor for chronic lung allograft dysfunction...
September 23, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932580/benign-superior-vena-cava-syndrome-with-uncontrolled-pleural-effusion-by-calcified-mediastinal-lymphadenopathy-surgical-management
#15
Yoon Pyo Lee, Eun Mi Chun, Yoo Kyung Kim, Kwan Chang Kim
This report describes a rare case of benign superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) accompanying recalcitrant pleural effusion developed secondary to extrinsic compression by anthracotic calcified mediastinal lymphadenopathy which was corrected by surgical bypass graft. An 81-year-old female presented with recalcitrant pleural effusion for several months despite of medical treatments. SVCS developed progressively without any other radiological evidence of malignancy or active infection on initial chest computed tomography (CT)...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931767/musical-instrument-associated-health-issues-and-their-management
#16
Kae Okoshi, Taro Minami, Masahiro Kikuchi, Yasuko Tomizawa
Playing musical instruments can bring joy to people, but can also cause a wide variety of health issues that range from mild disorders to potentially fatal conditions. Although sports medicine is an established medical subspecialty, relatively few studies have investigated the health issues associated with musical instruments. Here we present an overview of these health issues. These include infections due to microorganisms, allergic reactions, as well as mechanical injuries from sustained high pressures within the oral, mediastinal, thoracic, and abdominal cavities...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927679/-mediastinitis-after-endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-transbronchial-needle-aspiration
#17
D Basille, F De Dominicis, E Magois, C Andrejak, P Berna, V Jounieaux
INTRODUCTION: Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive procedure used for the diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. OBSERVATION: We describe a case of mediastinitis appearing 15 days after an EBUS-TBNA procedure in a 79 years old male patient. The mediastinitis was treated surgically by thoracotomy with a wide excision of infected tissue requiring transplantation of a serratus anterior muscle flap pedicled on a branch of the thoracodorsal artery...
September 16, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923146/cannon-ball-diagnosis-and-management-in-a-flight-attendant-candidate
#18
Meryem Zerrik, Houda Echchachoui, Zakaria Iloughmane, Choukri El'mhadi, Salaheddine Elkhader, Laila Benaissa, Mohamed Chemsi
BACKGROUND: ''Cannon ball'' opacities on chest X-rays are a common manifestation of hematogenous dissemination of a malignant tumor in the lungs. They indicate an advanced stage of disease with a very grim prognosis in terms of cure and survival. In aerospace medicine, this aspect means the patient is unfit for flight duties. Nonmetastatic etiologies of pulmonary nodules are rare. We report a case of cannon ball opacities discovered fortuitously during an admission visit. CASE REPORT: A 23-yr-old flight attendant candidate came to the Aeromedical Expertise Center of the Military Hospital in Rabat for medical evaluation...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904677/-pulmonary-nocardiosis-in-immunocompetent-patients-about-2-cases
#19
Yasmina Rhofir, Rachida Zahraoui, Nabil Tiress, Hicham Naji-Amrani, Mouna Soualhi, Jamal Eddine Bourkadi
Nocardiosis is a rare but severe infection caused by bacteria of the genus nocardia, which belong to the order actinomycetales. If they can affect immunocompetent adult, nocardioses are pathologies affecting the individuals with weakened immune system. Pulmonary involvement is the most common manifestation, its correct management is based on diagnosis, which is often delayed due to non-specific symptoms and inconclusive specimens. We here report two cases of nocardiosis in immunocompetent patients. The first case concerns a 24-year old man with a history of smoking and alcoholism, hospitalized for chest pain and hemoptysis of low abundance evolving for two months, associated with the occurrence of dorsal subcutaneous fistulized abscess...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894184/il-7-plays-a-critical-role-for-the-homeostasis-of-allergen-specific-memory-cd4-t-cells-in-the-lung-and-airways
#20
Seung-Min Yeon, Lea Halim, Anmol Chandele, Curtis J Perry, Sang Hoon Kim, Sun-Uk Kim, Youngjoo Byun, Soon Hong Yuk, Susan M Kaech, Yong Woo Jung
Memory T cells respond rapidly to repeated antigen exposure and can maintain their population for extended periods through self-renewal. These characteristics of memory T cells have mainly been studied during viral infections, whereas their existence and functions in allergic diseases have been studied incompletely. Since allergic patients can suffer repeated relapses caused by intermittent allergen exposure, we hypothesized that allergen- specific memory Th2 cells are present and the factors necessary for the maintenance of these cells are provided by the lung and airways...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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