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Transcranial stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352668/the-effect-of-single-and-repeated-prefrontal-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-on-cortical-reactivity-and-working-memory
#1
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Paul B Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: With an increasing interest in the use of theta burst stimulation (TBS) as a cognitive enhancer and a potential therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders, there is a need to identify optimal parameters of TBS in the prefrontal cortex. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This study examined the effect of two blocks of prefrontal intermittent TBS (iTBS) on cortical reactivity and working memory performance, compared to one block of iTBS and sham stimulation. We hypothesized that greater cortical effects would be obtained with two blocks of iTBS...
January 8, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352255/offline-stimulation-of-human-parietal-cortex-differently-affects-resting-eeg-microstates
#2
Pierpaolo Croce, Filippo Zappasodi, Paolo Capotosto
The interference effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on several electroencephalographic (EEG) measures in both temporal and frequency domains have been reported. We tested the hypothesis whether the offline external inhibitory interference, although focal, could result in a global reorganization of the functional brain state, as assessed by EEG microstates. In 16 healthy subjects, we inhibited five parietal areas and used a pseudo stimulation (Sham) at rest. The EEG microstates were extracted before and after each stimulation...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351885/repetitive-tms-to-augment-cognitive-processing-therapy-in-combat-veterans-of-recent-conflicts-with-ptsd-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
F Andrew Kozel, Michael A Motes, Nyaz Didehbani, Bambi DeLaRosa, Christina Bass, Caitlin D Schraufnagel, Penelope Jones, Cassie Rae Morgan, Jeffrey S Spence, Michael A Kraut, John Hart
BACKGROUND: The objective was to test whether repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) just prior to Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) would significantly improve the clinical outcome compared to sham rTMS prior to CPT in veterans with PTSD. METHODS: Veterans 18-60 years of age with current combat-related PTSD symptoms were randomized, using a 1:1 ratio in a parallel design, to active (rTMS+CPT) versus sham (sham+CPT) rTMS just prior to weekly CPT for 12-15 sessions...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351584/the-roles-of-left-versus-right-anterior-temporal-lobes-in-semantic-memory-a-neuropsychological-comparison-of-postsurgical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#4
Grace E Rice, Helen Caswell, Perry Moore, Paul Hoffman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The presence and degree of specialization between the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) is a key issue in debates about the neural architecture of semantic memory. Here, we comprehensively assessed multiple aspects of semantic cognition in a large group of postsurgical temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with left versus right anterior temporal lobectomy (n = 40). Both subgroups showed deficits in expressive and receptive verbal semantic tasks, word and object recognition, naming and recognition of famous faces and perception of faces and emotions...
January 17, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350775/randomized-trial-of-transcranial-dc-stimulation-for-post-stroke-dysphagia
#5
Sonja Suntrup-Krueger, Corinna Ringmaier, Paul Muhle, Andreas Wollbrink, Andre Kemmling, Uta Hanning, Inga Claus, Tobias Warnecke, Inga Teismann, Christo Pantev, Rainer Dziewas
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is able to enhance dysphagia rehabilitation following stroke. Besides relating clinical effects with neuroplastic changes in cortical swallowing processing we aimed to identify factors influencing treatment success. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized study 60 acute dysphagic stroke patients received contralesional anodal (1 mA, 20 min) or sham tDCS on four consecutive days. Swallowing function was thoroughly assessed before and after the intervention using the validated Fiberoptic Endoscopic Dysphagia Severity Scale (FEDSS) and clinical assessment...
January 19, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350588/arguments-against-the-role-of-cortical-spreading-depression-in-migraine
#6
Piet Borgdorff
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a wave of increased electrocortical activity and vasodilation, followed by sustained decreased activity and prolonged vasoconstriction. Although the discovery of CSD has been ascribed to Leão, rather than vasoconstriction, he only observed a depression of neural activity combined with vasodilation, with much weaker stimulation than used by his followers. There is a longstanding belief that CSD underlies migraine aura, with its positive symptoms such as mosaic patterns and its negative symptoms such as scotoma, and a similar propagation speed and vasoreaction pattern...
January 19, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348536/surround-inhibition-can-instantly-be-modulated-by-changing-the-attentional-focus
#7
Yves-Alain Kuhn, Martin Keller, Benedikt Lauber, Wolfgang Taube
To further investigate the mechanism of surround inhibition (SI) and to determine whether adopting different attentional strategies might have an impact on the modulation of SI, the effects of adopting an external (EF) or internal focus of attention (IF) on SI and motor performance were investigated. While performing an index flexion with either an EF or IF, transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied at various time points in 14 healthy subjects. When adopting an EF compared to an IF, the results show an improved motor performance (+14...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348045/supplementary-motor-area-primary-motor-cortex-facilitation-in-younger-but-not-older-adults
#8
Peta E Green, Michael C Ridding, Keith D Hill, John G Semmler, Peter D Drummond, Ann-Maree Vallence
Growing evidence implicates a decline in white matter integrity in the age-related decline in motor control. Functional neuroimaging studies show significant associations between functional connectivity in the cortical motor network, including the supplementary motor area (SMA), and motor performance. Dual-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation studies show facilitatory connections between SMA and the primary motor cortex (M1) in younger adults. Here, we investigated whether SMA-M1 facilitation is affected by age and whether the strength of SMA-M1 facilitation is associated with bilateral motor control...
December 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342443/test-retest-reliability-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-eeg-evoked-potentials
#9
Lewis J Kerwin, Corey J Keller, Wei Wu, Manjari Narayan, Amit Etkin
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked potentials (TEPs), recorded using electroencephalography (TMS-EEG), offer a powerful tool for measuring causal interactions in the human brain. However, the test-retest reliability of TEPs, critical to their use in clinical biomarker and interventional studies, remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We quantified TEP reliability to: (i) determine the minimal TEP amplitude change which significantly exceeds that associated with simply re-testing, (ii) locate the most reliable scalp regions of interest (ROIs) and TEP peaks, and (iii) determine the minimal number of TEP pulses for achieving reliability...
December 29, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340869/intervention-effect-of-repetitive-tms-on-behavioral-adjustment-after-error-commission-in-long-term-methamphetamine-addicts-evidence-from-a-two-choice-oddball-task
#10
Qiongdan Liang, Jia Lin, Jiemin Yang, Xiang Li, Yijiang Chen, Xianxin Meng, Jiajin Yuan
Behavioral adjustment plays an important role in the treatment and relapse of drug addiction. Nonetheless, few studies have examined behavioral adjustment and its plasticity following error commission in methamphetamine (METH) dependence, which is detrimental to human health. Thus, we investigated the behavioral adjustment performance following error commission in long-term METH addicts and how it varied with the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
January 16, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340584/long-interval-intracortical-inhibition-as-biomarker-for-epilepsy-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#11
Prisca R Bauer, Annika A de Goede, William M Stern, Adam D Pawley, Fahmida A Chowdhury, Robert M Helling, Romain Bouet, Stiliyan N Kalitzin, Gerhard H Visser, Sanjay M Sisodiya, John C Rothwell, Mark P Richardson, Michel J A M van Putten, Josemir W Sander
Cortical excitability, as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electromyography, is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and follow-up of epilepsy. We report on long-interval intracortical inhibition data measured in four different centres in healthy controls (n = 95), subjects with refractory genetic generalized epilepsy (n = 40) and with refractory focal epilepsy (n = 69). Long-interval intracortical inhibition was measured by applying two supra-threshold stimuli with an interstimulus interval of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ms and calculating the ratio between the response to the second (test stimulus) and to the first (conditioning stimulus)...
January 11, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339326/surround-inhibition-in-the-primary-motor-cortex-is-task-specifically-modulated-in-non-professional-musicians-but-not-in-healthy-controls-during-real-piano-playing
#12
Gonzalo Márquez, Martin Keller, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen, Wolfgang Taube
Research has indicated that at the onset of a finger movement, unwanted contractions of adjacent muscles are prevented by inhibiting the cortical areas representing these muscles. This so-called surround inhibition (SI) seems relevant for the performance of selective finger movements but may not be necessary for tasks involving functional coupling between different finger muscles. Therefore, the present study compared SI between isolated finger movement and complex selective finger movements while playing a three-finger sequence on the piano in 9 non-professional musicians and 10 untrained control participants...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338674/would-you-be-willing-to-zap-your-child-s-brain-public-perspectives-on-parental-responsibilities-and-the-ethics-of-enhancing-children-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#13
Katy Wagner, Hannah Maslen, Justin Oakley, Julian Savulescu
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an experimental brain stimulation technology that may one day be used to enhance the cognitive capacities of children. Discussion about the ethical issues that this would raise has rarely moved beyond expert circles. However, the opinions of the wider public can lead to more democratic policy decisions and broaden academic discussion of this issue. METHODS: We performed a quantitative survey of members of the US public...
January 17, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338288/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-tms-safety-a-practical-guide-for-psychiatrists
#14
Rohan Taylor, Veronica Galvez, Colleen Loo
OBJECTIVES: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly being utilised as a treatment option for depression, and with this comes a need for a practical review of safety issues intended for clinicians. This article provides an overview of the current literature regarding safety issues with rTMS for depression, and provides recommendations for clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, rTMS is a well-tolerated treatment with common side effects (such as headache or local pain at the site of stimulation) being mild...
January 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337133/cathodal-tdcs-of-the-bilateral-anterior-temporal-lobes-facilitates-semantically-driven-verbal-fluency
#15
Richard J Binney, Bonnie M Zuckerman, Hilary N Waller, Jinyi Hung, Sameer A Ashaie, Jamie Reilly
In a verbal fluency task, a person is required to produce as many exemplars of a given category (e.g., 'animals', or words starting with 'f') as possible within a fixed duration. Successful verbal fluency performance relies both on the depth of search within semantic/phonological neighborhoods ('clustering') and the ability to flexibly disengage between exhausted clusters ('switching'). Convergent evidence from functional imaging and neuropsychology suggests that cluster-switch behaviors engage dissociable brain regions...
January 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336898/effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-short-term-and-long-term-treatment-of-chronic-tinnitus
#16
Hamidreza Abtahi, Ahmadreza Okhovvat, Somaiie Heidari, Azar Gharagazarloo, Motahare Mirdamadi, Mohammad Hossein Nilforoush, Hossein Ghazavi
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of anodal and cathodal methods in reducing the intensity of tinnitus and to compare them with the control. METHODOLOGY: This randomized double-blind clinical trial with case and control groups was conducted in Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan between 2015 and 2016. In this trial, 51 patients with tinnitus, for at least one year, were selected among those outpatients visiting the throat, nose and ear clinic within this period...
January 6, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336129/somatic-tinnitus
#17
REVIEW
Massimo Ralli, Antonio Greco, Fabrizio Cialente, Arianna Di Stadio, Lucia Longo, Andrea Ciofalo, Rosaria Turchetta, Giancarlo Cianfrone, Marco de Vincentiis
Modulation of tinnitus characteristics such as pitch and loudness has been extensively described following movements of the head, neck and limbs, vertical or horizontal eye gaze, pressure on myofascial trigger points, cutaneous stimulation of the hands, electrical stimulation of the median nerve, and transcranial direct current stimulation. Modulation of tinnitus follows complex interactions between auditory and somatosensory afferents and can be favored by underlying somatic disorders. When tinnitus appears to be preceded or strictly linked to a somatic disorder, and therefore related to problems of the musculoskeletal system rather than of the ear, it is defined somatic tinnitus...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335751/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-enhances-foot-sole-somatosensation-when-standing-in-older-adults
#18
Junhong Zhou, On-Yee Lo, Lewis A Lipsitz, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang, Brad Manor
Foot-sole somatosensation is critical for safe mobility in older adults. Somatosensation arises when afferent input activates a neural network that includes the primary somatosensory cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), as a strategy to increase somatosensory cortical excitability, may, therefore, enhance foot-sole somatosensation. We hypothesized that a single session of tDCS would improve foot-sole somatosensation, and thus mobility, in older adults. Twenty healthy older adults completed this randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of two visits separated by one week...
January 15, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335359/recruitment-of-additional-corticospinal-pathways-in-the-human-brain-with-state-dependent-paired-associative-stimulation
#19
Dominic Kraus, Georgios Naros, Robert Guggenberger, Maria Teresa Leão, Ulf Ziemann, Alireza Gharabaghi
Standard brain stimulation protocols modify human motor cortex excitability by modulating the gain of the activated corticospinal pathways. However, the restoration of motor function following lesions of the corticospinal tract requires also the recruitment of additional neurons to increase the net corticospinal output. For this purpose, we investigated a novel protocol based on brain state-dependent paired associative stimulation.Motor imagery (MI)-related electroencephalography was recorded in healthy males and females for brain state-dependent control of both cortical and peripheral stimulation in a brain-machine interface environment...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331848/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-apathy-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-double-blind-randomized-sham-controlled-cross-over-pilot-study
#20
Prasad R Padala, Kalpana P Padala, Shelly Y Lensing, Andrea N Jackson, Cassandra R Hunter, Christopher M Parkes, Richard A Dennis, Melinda M Bopp, Ricardo Caceda, Mark S Mennemeier, Paula K Roberson, Dennis H Sullivan
Apathy is a common and disabling behavioral concomitant of many neurodegenerative conditions. The presence of apathy with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is linked with heightened rates of conversion to Alzheimer's disease. Improving apathy may slow the neurodegenerative process. The objective was to establish the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in improving apathy in older adults with MCI. An 8-week, double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled cross-over study was conducted in nine subjects (66 ± 9 years) with apathy and MCI...
January 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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