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Transcranial stimulation

Eloise G Harrison, Jennifer L Keating, Prue E Morgan
INTRODUCTION: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder characterised by an uncomfortable urge to move the legs. Management is primarily pharmacological. Effects for non-pharmacological, non-surgical options are published but lack systematic examination. OBJECTIVES: To synthesise results of non-pharmacological/non-surgical treatment compared to no-treatment controls or alternative treatment for RLS on any relevant outcome. METHODS: Databases and reference lists of reviews were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing non-pharmacological treatment to alternative or no treatment controls for idiopathic RLS...
March 21, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
David T Chau, Phoebe Fogelman, Pia Nordanskog, Wayne C Drevets, J Paul Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates of treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD). Low sample size and methodological heterogeneity, however, undermine the generalizability of findings from individual studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify reliable neural changes resulting from different modes of treatment for MDD and compared them with each other and with reliable neural functional abnormalities observed in depressed versus control samples...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Chris Baeken, Romain Duprat, Guo-Rong Wu, Rudi De Raedt, Kees van Heeringen
BACKGROUND: Accelerated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigms have been shown to result in fast decreases in depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Although the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) region has been put forward as a possible biological marker, so far, no studies evaluated the clinical effects of accelerated intermittent theta burst stimulation (aiTBS) on sgACC functional connectivity (FC). METHODS: Fifty patients with treatment-resistant depression were enrolled in this registered randomized double-blind sham-controlled crossover aiTBS treatment study...
October 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Yun Tae Hwang, Lorenzo Rocchi, Paul Hammond, Chris Jd Hardy, Jason D Warren, Basil H Ridha, John Rothwell, Martin N Rossor
Introduction: There is a need for a reliable, noninvasive biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We assessed whether short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm that assesses cholinergic circuits of the brain, could become such a biomarker. Methods: Nineteen patients with AD underwent four SAI testing sessions. The timing of their usual donepezil dose was altered to create different cholinergic states for each session. This was compared to the SAI results from 20 healthy subjects...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
Jakub Antczak, Katarzyna Kowalska, Aleksandra Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Barbara Wach, Katarzyna Kasprzyk, Marta Banach, Karolina Rzeźnicka-Brzegowy, Jadwiga Kubica, Agnieszka Słowik
Background: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is one of the most frequent dementia types in patients under 65 years of age. Currently, no therapy can effectively improve the cognitive deficits associated with FTD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive method of inducing brain plasticity with therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of rTMS on cognitive, behavioral, and emotional function in FTD...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Harleen Chhabra, Venkataram Shivakumar, Manjula Subbanna, Sunil V Kalmady, Anushree Bose, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Vanteemar S Sreeraj, Damodharan Dinakaran, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Monojit Debnath, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
OBJECTIVE: Recent observations demonstrate a significant ameliorative effect of add-on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia. Of the many SNPs, NRG1 rs35753505 and catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) rs4680 polymorphisms have shown to have a strong association with neuroplasticity effect in schizophrenia. METHODS: Schizophrenia patients (n=32) with treatment resistant auditory hallucinations were administered with an add-on tDCS...
March 21, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Marc Sorel, Naaman Zrek, Blanche Locko, Catherine Armessen, Samar S Ayache, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes in glutamate/GABA balance of intracortical excitability produced by ketamine, delivered at subanaesthetic dose to treat patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). METHODS: In 19 patients with CRPS, we assessed the effect of a 5-day ketamine protocol on various clinical aspects, including pain and depression, and on cortical excitability parameters provided by transcranial magnetic stimulation testing. RESULTS: The rest motor threshold (RMT) and the amplitude of the motor evoked potentials at 120% of RMT were not modified after ketamine therapy...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Kyongje Sung, Barry Gordon
Whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) affects mental functions, and how any such effects arise from its neural effects, continue to be debated. We investigated whether tDCS applied over the visual cortex (Oz) with a vertex (Cz) reference might affect response times (RTs) in a visual search task. We also examined whether any significant tDCS effects would interact with task factors (target presence, discrimination difficulty, and stimulus brightness) that are known to selectively influence one or the other of the two information processing stages posited by current models of visual search...
2018: PloS One
Moniek A M Munneke, Chantal D Bakker, Eline A Goverde, Jaco W Pasman, Dick F Stegeman
After stroke, motor pathways are often affected, leading to paresis. It remains difficult to reliably predict motor recovery of the upper extremity, for which transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may add to clinical examination. Placement of the surface electromyography (sEMG) electrodes in TMS is essential for information about specific muscle groups and corticospinal pathways. This study primarily aimed to determine the optimal sEMG electrode positions for recording activity of forearm flexor and extensor muscles...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Yu-Ichi Noto, Neil G Simon, Alexis Selby, Nidhi Garg, Kazumoto Shibuya, Nortina Shahrizaila, William Huynh, José M Matamala, Thanuja Dharmadasa, Susanna B Park, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate differences in the distribution and firing frequency of fasciculations between peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndromes and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to explore the generator site of fasciculations. METHODS: Ultrasound of 14 preselected muscles was performed in patients with peripheral hyperexcitability and ALS. The distribution and firing frequency of fasciculations were calculated. Cortical excitability assessment was also done by threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Muriel T N Panouillères, Rowan Boyles, Jennifer Chesters, Kate E Watkins, Riikka Möttönen
Comprehending speech can be particularly challenging in a noisy environment and in the absence of semantic context. It has been proposed that the articulatory motor system would be recruited especially in difficult listening conditions. However, it remains unknown how signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and semantic context affect the recruitment of the articulatory motor system when listening to continuous speech. The aim of the present study was to address the hypothesis that involvement of the articulatory motor cortex increases when the intelligibility and clarity of the spoken sentences decreases, because of noise and the lack of semantic context...
February 22, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Michael D Guthrie, Donald L Gilbert, David A Huddleston, Ernest V Pedapati, Paul S Horn, Stewart H Mostofsky, Steve W Wu
We describe the development of a reproducible, child-friendly motor response inhibition task suitable for online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) characterization of primary motor cortex (M1) excitability and inhibition. Motor response inhibition prevents unwanted actions and is abnormal in several neuropsychiatric conditions. TMS is a non-invasive technology that can quantify M1 excitability and inhibition using single- and paired-pulse protocols and can be precisely timed to study cortical physiology with high temporal resolution...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
J S Gomes, A P Trevizol, D V Ducos, A Gadelha, B B Ortiz, A O Fonseca, H T Akiba, C C Azevedo, L S P Guimaraes, P Shiozawa, Q Cordeiro, A Lacerda, A M Dias
Background: The lack of efficacy of pharmacological treatments for cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia highlights the need for new interventions. We investigated the effects of tDCS on working memory and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Method: Double-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial, investigating the effects of 10 sessions of tDCS in schizophrenia subjects. Stimulation used 2 mA, for 20 min, with electrodes of 25 cm2 wrapped in cotton material soaked in saline solution...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Laura J Arendsen, Siobhan Hugh-Jones, Donna M Lloyd
Alpha activity directly before pain onset has been implicated in pain experience with higher pre-stimulus alpha associated with lower reported pain. However, expectations about pain intensity also seem to affect pre-stimulus alpha activity. To date, evidence for a relationship between alpha activity and pain experience has been largely correlational. Transcranial alternating current stimulation at alpha frequency (alpha tACS) permits direct manipulation of alpha activity and therefore an examination of the potential causal relationship between alpha activity and pain...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Mana Biabani, Michael Farrell, Maryam Zoghi, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are frequently used to assess corticospinal and intercortical activities. Trial to trial variance of the potentials is commonly observed, and averages of multiple MEPs are usually reported. Multiple trials have resources implications and are not compatible with some experimental protocols. This study investigated the minimum number of MEPs required to reliably assess corticospinal excitability (CSE), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intercortical facilitation (ICF), within and between sessions...
March 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Luis Velázquez-Pérez, Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada, Reidenis Torres-Vega, Ricardo Ortega-Sánchez, Jacqueline Medrano-Montero, Rigoberto González-Piña, Yaimeé Vázquez-Mojena, Georg Auburger, Ulf Ziemann
OBJECTIVE: Corticospinal tract (CST) dysfunction is common in the pre-ataxic stage of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) but quantitative assessment of its progression over time has not been explored. The aim of this study was to quantify the progression of CST dysfunction in pre-ataxic SCA2 using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Thirty-three pre-ataxic SCA2 mutation carriers and a 33 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were tested at baseline and 2-years follow-up by standardized clinical exams, validated clinical scales, and TMS...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Floriana Costanzo, Serena Rossi, Cristiana Varuzza, Pamela Varvara, Stefano Vicari, Deny Menghini
Noninvasive brain stimulation transiently modulates reading ability in individuals with dyslexia by facilitating the underactive neural pathways in them. However, its long-term effects have not been determined. This study confirmed the ameliorative effects of multiple sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with a training for reading on the reading abilities of children and adolescents with dyslexia and examined whether they are long-lasting. Twenty-six children and adolescents with dyslexia received 3 20-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks (18 sessions) of left anodal/right cathodal tDCS, set to 1mA, over the parieto-temporal regions, combined with training for reading...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Chong Liao, Song Wu, Yue-Jia Luo, Qing Guan, Fang Cui
Social decision-making engages traditional decision-making processes (e.g. valuation), as well as social cognition processes (e.g. inferring the affective and mental states of another person). Neuroimaging and neuro-stimulation studies have suggested the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a variety of social decision-making tasks. Yet no study has investigated the effect of the cortical excitability of mPFC in the decision-making of costly helping behavior. Here, we used tDCS to demonstrate the causal relationship between the cortical excitability of mPFC and costly helping decision-making...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Giovanni Raffa, Maria C Quattropani, Antonino Scibilia, Alfredo Conti, Filippo Flavio Angileri, Felice Esposito, Carmela Sindorio, Salvatore Massimiliano Cardali, Antonino Germanò, Francesco Tomasello
OBJECTIVES: Awake surgery and intraoperative monitoring represent the gold standard for surgery of brain tumors located in the perisylvian region of the dominant hemisphere due to their ability to map and preserve the language network during surgery. Nevertheless, in some cases awake surgery is not feasible. This could increase the risk of postoperative language deficit. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking (DTI-FT) provide a preoperative mapping and reconstruction of the cortico-subcortical language network...
March 11, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Giulia Prete, Anita D'Anselmo, Luca Tommasi, Alfredo Brancucci
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been increasingly adopted to modulate perceptual and cognitive functions, but the effects on auditory perception are still relatively uncharted. Starting from the evidence that a stronger right ear advantage effect (REA) in dichotic listening positively correlates with speech sound processing, the present study was aimed at modulating the REA by means of high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS). Stimulation was applied over the auditory cortex (AC) either unilaterally (Experiment 1, N = 50) or bilaterally (Experiment 2, N = 24) during a verbal dichotic listening task...
March 13, 2018: Brain and Cognition
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