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bat bites

Tony L Goldberg, Andrew J Bennett, Robert Kityo, Jens H Kuhn, Colin A Chapman
Bats are natural reservoir hosts of highly virulent pathogens such as Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and SARS coronavirus. However, little is known about the role of bat ectoparasites in transmitting and maintaining such viruses. The intricate relationship between bats and their ectoparasites suggests that ectoparasites might serve as viral vectors, but evidence to date is scant. Bat flies, in particular, are highly specialized obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that incidentally bite humans. Using next-generation sequencing, we discovered a novel ledantevirus (mononegaviral family Rhabdoviridae, genus Ledantevirus) in nycteribiid bat flies infesting pteropodid bats in western Uganda...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rajendra Singh, Karam Pal Singh, Susan Cherian, Mani Saminathan, Sanjay Kapoor, G B Manjunatha Reddy, Shibani Panda, Kuldeep Dhama
Rabies is a zoonotic, fatal and progressive neurological infection caused by rabies virus of the genus Lyssavirus and family Rhabdoviridae. It affects all warm-blooded animals and the disease is prevalent throughout the world and endemic in many countries except in Islands like Australia and Antarctica. Over 60,000 peoples die every year due to rabies, while approximately 15 million people receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Bite of rabid animals and saliva of infected host are mainly responsible for transmission and wildlife like raccoons, skunks, bats and foxes are main reservoirs for rabies...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
N Fenelon, P Dely, M A Katz, N D Schaad, A Dismer, D Moran, F Laraque, R M Wallace
Haiti has the highest human rabies burden in the Western Hemisphere. There is no published literature describing the public's perceptions of rabies in Haiti, information that is critical to developing effective interventions and government policies. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey of 550 community members and 116 health professionals in Pétionville, Haiti in 2013 to understand the perception of rabies in these populations. The majority of respondents (85%) knew that dogs were the primary reservoir for rabies, yet only 1% were aware that bats and mongooses could transmit rabies...
June 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Gemina Garland-Lewis, Christopher Whittier, Suzan Murray, Sally Trufan, Peter M Rabinowitz
Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in origin, with wildlife a frequent source of zoonotic disease events. Although individuals with extensive wildlife contact may be at the greatest risk of contracting novel infectious agents, the occupational risk of those working closely with wildlife has not been well studied. This study assessed the occupational exposures among wildlife health professionals working in multiple countries worldwide. An occupational risk survey of past and present exposures was developed and administered online in a confidential manner to wildlife workers recruited through an ongoing international wildlife pathogen surveillance project...
February 7, 2017: EcoHealth
Tad C Theimer, Annie C Dyer, Brian W Keeley, Amy T Gilbert, David L Bergman
Multiple species of bats are reservoirs of rabies virus in the Americas and are occasionally the source of spillover infections into mesocarnivore species. Although rabies transmission generally is assumed to occur via bite, laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential for rabies transmission via ingestion of rabid animals. We investigated the ecological potential for this mode of transmission by assessing mesocarnivore scavenging behavior of dead bats in suburban habitats of Flagstaff, Arizona, US. In autumn 2013, summer 2014, and autumn 2015, we placed 104 rabies-negative bat carcasses either near buildings, in wildland areas, or in residential yards and then monitored them with trail cameras for 5 d...
April 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Damin Si, John Marquess, Ellen Donnan, Bruce Harrower, Bradley McCall, Sonya Bennett, Stephen Lambert
BACKGROUND: Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Potential exposure to ABLV has been a notifiable condition in Queensland since 2005...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Alan C Jackson
Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is usually transmitted to humans by animal bites. Dogs are the most important vector worldwide. There are encephalitic and paralytic forms of the disease. There are differences in the clinical features of the disease acquired from dogs and bats. Neuroimaging is non-specific. Confirmatory diagnostic laboratory tests for rabies include detection of neutralizing anti-rabies virus antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid and rabies virus antigen or RNA in tissues or fluids. Rabies is preventable after recognized exposures with wound cleansing and administration of rabies vaccine and rabies immune globulin...
November 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Adriana Botero, Crystal Cooper, Craig K Thompson, Peta L Clode, Karrie Rose, R C Andrew Thompson
A number of trypanosome isolates from Australian marsupials are within the clade containing the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi. Trypanosomes within this clade are thought to have diverged from a common ancestral bat trypanosome. Here, we characterise Trypanosoma noyesi sp. nov. isolated from the critically endangered woylie (Bettongia pencillata) using phylogenetic inferences from three gene regions (18S rDNA, gGAPDH, and CytB) coupled with morphological and behavioural observations in vitro. We also investigated potential vectors and the presence of T...
November 2016: Protist
Virginia M Dato, Enzo R Campagnolo, Jonah Long, Charles E Rupprecht
In the United States and Canada, the most recent documented cases of rabies have been attributed to bat rabies viruses (RABV). We undertook this systematic review in an effort to summarize and enhance understanding of the risk of infection for individuals who have been potentially exposed to a suspect or confirmed rabid bat. United States rabies surveillance summaries documented a total of 41 human bat-rabies virus variant verified non-transplant cases between 1990 and 2015. All cases were fatal. Seven (17...
2016: PloS One
S Manoj, A Mukherjee, S Johri, K V S Hari Kumar
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a zoonosis transmitted via the bites of various mammals, primarily dogs and bats. Known since antiquity, this disease may have the deadliest human fatality rates and is responsible for approximately 65,000 deaths worldwide per year. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case details of a 13-year-old boy from India belonging to a South Asian ethnicity, who presented with altered sensorium one month following a dog bite. He did not receive the active rabies immunization and was managed with supportive therapy...
2016: Military Medical Research
C H Hsu, C M Brown, J M Murphy, M G Haskell, C Williams, K Feldman, K Mitchell, J D Blanton, B W Petersen, R M Wallace
Current guidelines in the setting of exposures to potentially rabid bats established by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) address post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) administration in situations where a person may not be aware that a bite or direct contact has occurred and the bat is not available for diagnostic testing. These include instances when a bat is discovered in a room where a person awakens from sleep, is a child without an adult witness, has a mental disability or is intoxicated...
March 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
Sharlene E Santana, Kimberly E Miller
Ecomorphology studies focus on understanding how anatomical and behavioral diversity result in differences in performance, ecology, and fitness. In mammals, the determinate growth of the skeleton entails that bite performance should change throughout ontogeny until the feeding apparatus attains its adult size and morphology. Then, interspecific differences in adult phenotypes are expected to drive food resource partitioning and patterns of lineage diversification. However, Formal tests of these predictions are lacking for the majority of mammal groups, and thus our understanding of mammalian ecomorphology remains incomplete...
September 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Radovan Vodopija, Aleksandar Racz, Đana Pahor
Rabies is a zoonotic disease (a disease transmitted to humans from animals) that is caused by a virus. The disease affects domestic and wild animals, and is spread to people through close contact with infectious material, usually saliva, via bites or scratches. Rabies is present on all continents with the exception of Antarctica, but more than 95% of human deaths occur in Asia and Africa. Once the symptoms of the disease have developed, rabies is nearly always fatal. People are usually infected following deep bite or scratch by an infected animal...
March 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
Paula A Trillo, Ximena E Bernal, Michael S Caldwell, Wouter H Halfwerk, Mallory O Wessel, Rachel A Page
Although males often display from mixed-species aggregations, the influence of nearby heterospecifics on risks associated with sexual signalling has not been previously examined. We tested whether predation and parasitism risks depend on proximity to heterospecific signallers. Using field playback experiments with calls of two species that often display from the same ponds, túngara frogs and hourglass treefrogs, we tested two hypotheses: (1) calling near heterospecific signallers attractive to eavesdroppers results in increased attention from predatory bats and parasitic midges (collateral damage hypothesis) or (2) calling near heterospecific signallers reduces an individual's predation and parasitism risks, as eavesdroppers are drawn to the heterospecifics (shadow of safety hypothesis)...
May 25, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Sharlene E Santana, Elena Cheung
Specialized carnivory is relatively uncommon across mammals, and bats constitute one of the few groups in which this diet has evolved multiple times. While size and morphological adaptations for carnivory have been identified in other taxa, it is unclear what phenotypic traits characterize the relatively recent evolution of carnivory in bats. To address this gap, we apply geometric morphometric and phylogenetic comparative analyses to elucidate which characters are associated with ecological divergence of carnivorous bats from insectivorous ancestors, and if there is morphological convergence among independent origins of carnivory within bats, and with other carnivorous mammals...
May 11, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Sabine E Hutter, Katharina Brugger, Victor Hugo Sancho Vargas, Rocío González, Olga Aguilar, Bernal León, Alexander Tichy, Clair L Firth, Franz Rubel
This is the first comprehensive epidemiological analysis of rabies in Costa Rica. We characterized the occurrence of the disease and demonstrated its endemic nature in this country. In Costa Rica, as in other countries in Latin America, hematophagous vampire bats are the primary wildlife vectors transmitting the rabies virus to cattle herds. Between 1985 and 2014, a total of 78 outbreaks of bovine rabies was reported in Costa Rica, with documented cases of 723 dead cattle. Of cattle outbreaks, 82% occurred between 0 and 500 meters above sea level, and seasonality could be demonstrated on the Pacific side of the country, with significantly more outbreaks occurring during the wet season...
May 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Cecilia A Sánchez, Michelle L Baker
Interactions with flying foxes pose disease transmission risks to volunteer rehabilitators (carers) who treat injured, ill, and orphaned bats. In particular, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) can be transmitted directly from flying foxes to humans in Australia. Personal protective equipment (PPE) and rabies vaccination can be used to protect against lyssavirus infection. During May and June 2014, active Australian flying fox carers participated in an online survey (SOAR: Survey Of Australian flying fox Rehabilitators) designed to gather demographic data, assess perceptions of disease risk, and explore safety practices...
February 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
R de A Cordeiro, N F H Duarte, B N Rolim, F A Soares Júnior, I C F Franco, L L Ferrer, C P Almeida, B H Duarte, D B de Araújo, M F G Rocha, R S N Brilhante, S R Favoretto, J J C Sidrim
Rabies is an endemic disease in Brazil, where it is considered a serious public health problem. Although the number of human and dog-transmitted cases has declined in recent decades, rabies in wildlife has emerged considerably. Among the sylvatic animals, wild canids have been considered important hosts of the rabies virus. We performed a retrospective study of reported cases of rabies in wild canids and human victims in Ceará state (Northeast Brazil) during 2003 to 2013. Information was provided by governmental laboratories involved in rabies detection and by the Ministry of Health...
September 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Radek K Lučan, Hana Bandouchova, Tomáš Bartonička, Jiri Pikula, Alexandra Zahradníková, Jan Zukal, Natália Martínková
BACKGROUND: Vertebrate ectoparasites frequently play a role in transmission of infectious agents. Pseudogymnoascus destructans is a psychrophilic fungus known to cause white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease of bats. It is transmitted with direct contact between bats or with contaminated environment. The aim of this study was to examine wing mites from the family Spinturnicidae parasitizing hibernating bats for the presence of P. destructans propagules as another possible transmission route...
January 13, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
K J Tsai, W C Hsu, W C Chuang, J C Chang, Y C Tu, H J Tsai, H F Liu, F I Wang, S H Lee
Taiwan had been declared rabies-free in humans and domestic animals for five decades until July 2013, when surprisingly, three Formosan ferret badgers (FB) were diagnosed with rabies. Since then, a variety of wild carnivores and other wildlife species have been found dead, neurologically ill, or exhibiting aggressive behaviors around the island. To determine the affected animal species, geographic areas, and environments, animal bodies were examined for rabies by direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The viral genomes from the brains of selected rabid animals were sequenced for the phylogeny of rabies viruses (RABV)...
2016: Veterinary Microbiology
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