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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098631/after-the-fall-the-tapestry-of-disturbance-and-recovery
#1
Nalini M Nadkarni
On July 3, 2015, Nalini Nadkarni, a world-renowned ecologist who had been studying the biologic processes of ecosystem disturbance and recovery, sustained a catastrophic 50-foot free-fall from the top of the rainforest canopy to the forest floor at her remote field research site. She lost consciousness in shock and sustained life-threatening injuries. Her accompanying students hiked out, radio-called 911, and the Harborview Medical Center (Seattle) Medivac team arrived 4 hours later to rescue her. Her prognosis was extremely grim; her family gathered in anticipation of her death as she underwent four operations during her 10 days in the ICU...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088906/epratuzumab-and-blinatumomab-as-therapeutic-antibodies-for-treatment-of-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#2
Raffaella Franca, Diego Favretto, Marilena Granzotto, Giuliana Decorti, Marco Rabusin, Gabriele Stocco
BACKGROUND: More than 85% of children affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are successfully treated; however relapse remains a remarkable clinical concern, with 50-60% of relapsing patients facing a fatal outcome. Management of relapsed patients includes standardized intensive risk-adapted regimens based on conventional drugs, and hematopoietic stem cells transplantation for patients with unfavourable features. Biological drugs, in particular the monoclonal antibody epratuzumab and the bi-functional recombinant single chain peptide blinatumomab, have been recently recognized as novel potential agents to be integrated in salvage ALL therapy to further improve rescue outcome...
January 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073701/effect-of-asthma-therapies-on-the-natural-course-of-asthma
#3
REVIEW
Elissa M Abrams, Stanley J Szefler, Allan B Becker
OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based review on the role of pharmacologic (inhaled corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, biologic therapies, aeroallergen immunotherapy) and nonpharmacologic therapies (environmental modifications, microbiome) in secondary and tertiary asthma prevention. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search for English-language publications regarding asthma and secondary or tertiary prevention was performed. Some articles cited in selected studies were also considered for inclusion in this review...
December 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071837/use-of-tnf-inhibitors-and-ustekinumab-for-psoriasis-during-pregnancy-a-patient-series
#4
Tamara Lund, Simon Francis Thomsen
From 2002 to 2016 a total of seven women with severe refractory psoriasis were exposed to the TNF-inhibitors infliximab and adalimumab or to the IL12/23 inhibitor ustekinumab during one or more pregnancies. Maternal, fetal or teratogenic toxicity were not detected during pregnancy and puerperium. All pregnancies were uneventful and resulted in delivery of 10 healthy children in total, one of the women is due February 2017. Postpartum, five of the women were lactating, but none of the women or newborns developed adverse reactions...
January 10, 2017: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061797/natural-compounds-targeting-major-cell-signaling-pathways-a-novel-paradigm-for-osteosarcoma-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Pablo Angulo, Gaurav Kaushik, Dharmalingam Subramaniam, Prasad Dandawate, Kathleen Neville, Katherine Chastain, Shrikant Anant
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer affecting children and adolescents worldwide. Despite an incidence of three cases per million annually, it accounts for an inordinate amount of morbidity and mortality. While the use of chemotherapy (cisplatin, doxorubicin, and methotrexate) in the last century initially resulted in marginal improvement in survival over surgery alone, survival has not improved further in the past four decades. Patients with metastatic osteosarcoma have an especially poor prognosis, with only 30% overall survival...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055978/research-progress-of-neuroblastoma-related-gene-variations
#6
REVIEW
Yanna Cao, Yan Jin, Jinpu Yu, Jingfu Wang, Jie Yan, Qiang Zhao
Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor among children, is an embryonal tumor originating from undifferentiated neural crest cell. Neuroblastomas are highly heterogeneous, represented by the wide range of clinical presentations and likelihood of cure, ranging from spontaneous regression to relentless progression despite rigorous multimodal treatments. Approximately, 50% of cases are high-risk with overall survival rates less than 40%. With the efforts to collect large numbers of clinically annotated specimens and the advancements in technologies, researchers have revealed numerous genetic alterations that may drive tumor growth...
December 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052061/integrated-genomic-characterization-of-oesophageal-carcinoma
#7
(no author information available yet)
Oesophageal cancers are prominent worldwide; however, there are few targeted therapies and survival rates for these cancers remain dismal. Here we performed a comprehensive molecular analysis of 164 carcinomas of the oesophagus derived from Western and Eastern populations. Beyond known histopathological and epidemiologic distinctions, molecular features differentiated oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas from oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas resembled squamous carcinomas of other organs more than they did oesophageal adenocarcinomas...
January 4, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011082/-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-review-of-the-current-guidelines
#8
E Saliba, T Debillon, S Auvin, O Baud, V Biran, J-L Chabernaud, S Chabrier, F Cneude, A-G Cordier, V Darmency-Stamboul, J-F Diependaele, T Debillon, M Dinomais, C Durand, A Ego, G Favrais, Y Gruel, L Hertz-Pannier, B Husson, S Marret, S N'Guyen The Tich, T Perez, E Saliba, J-B Valentin, C Vuillerot
Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) is a rare event that occurs in approximately one in 5000 term or close-to-term infants. Most affected infants will present with seizures. Although a well-recognized clinical entity, many questions remain regarding diagnosis, risk factors, treatment, and follow-up modalities. In the absence of a known pathophysiological mechanism and lack of evidence-based guidelines, only supportive care is currently provided. To address these issues, a French national committee set up by the French Neonatal Society (Société française de néonatologie) and the national referral center (Centre national de référence) for arterial ischemic stroke in children drew up guidelines based on an HAS (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]; French national authority for health) methodology...
December 20, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999545/il-1-inhibition-in-systemic-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#9
REVIEW
Gabriella Giancane, Francesca Minoia, Sergio Davì, Giulia Bracciolini, Alessandro Consolaro, Angelo Ravelli
Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is the form of childhood arthritis whose treatment is most challenging. The demonstration of the prominent involvement of interleukin (IL)-1 in disease pathogenesis has provided the rationale for the treatment with biologic medications that antagonize this cytokine. The three IL-1 blockers that have been tested so far (anakinra, canakinumab, and rilonacept) have all been proven effective and safe, although only canakinumab is currently approved for use in sJIA. The studies on IL-1 inhibition in sJIA published in the past few years suggest that children with fewer affected joints, higher neutrophil count, younger age at disease onset, shorter disease duration, or, possibly, higher ferritin level may respond better to anti-IL-1 treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993144/disease-status-reasons-for-discontinuation-and-adverse-events-in-1038-italian-children-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-treated-with-etanercept
#10
Sara Verazza, Sergio Davì, Alessandro Consolaro, Francesca Bovis, Antonella Insalaco, Silvia Magni-Manzoni, Rebecca Nicolai, Denise Pires Marafon, Fabrizio De Benedetti, Valeria Gerloni, Irene Pontikaki, Francesca Rovelli, Rolando Cimaz, Achille Marino, Francesco Zulian, Giorgia Martini, Serena Pastore, Chiara Sandrin, Fabrizia Corona, Marta Torcoletti, Giovanni Conti, Claudia Fede, Patrizia Barone, Marco Cattalini, Elisabetta Cortis, Luciana Breda, Alma Nunzia Olivieri, Adele Civino, Rosanna Podda, Donato Rigante, Francesco La Torre, Gianfranco D'Angelo, Mauro Jorini, Romina Gallizzi, Maria Cristina Maggio, Rita Consolini, Alessandro De Fanti, Valentina Muratore, Maria Giannina Alpigiani, Nicolino Ruperto, Alberto Martini, Angelo Ravelli
BACKGROUND: Data from routine clinical practice are needed to further define the efficacy and safety of biologic medications in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The aim of this analysis was to investigate the disease status, reasons for discontinuation and adverse events in Italian JIA patients treated with etanercept (ETN). METHODS: In 2013, all centers of the Italian Pediatric Rheumatology Study Group were asked to make a census of patients given ETN after January 2000...
December 20, 2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974106/fulminant-bilateral-papilloedema-during-low-dose-steroid-taper-in-a-child-with-systemic-idiopathic-arthritis-treated-with-tocilizumab
#11
Lulu Burstzyn, Simon Levin, Brian Rotenberg, Tamara Van Hooren, Andrew Leung, Roberta Berard, Daniela S Ardelean
Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) is one of the most severe forms of arthritis that affects children younger than 16 years of age at onset. SJIA often requires corticosteroids to control the inflammation. However, long-term corticosteroid use may have adverse effects, including intracranial hypertension (IH). Biologic therapies have been used as corticosteroid sparing agents. We report the first case of a child with steroid-dependent SJIA treated with tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, who developed fulminant IH, bilateral papilloedema and vision loss when oral prednisone was weaned from 2 to 1 mg per day...
December 14, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969569/biology-and-treatment-of-renal-tumours-in-childhood
#12
REVIEW
Jesper Brok, Taryn D Treger, Saskia L Gooskens, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Kathy Pritchard-Jones
In Europe, almost 1000 children are diagnosed with a malignant renal tumour each year. The vast majority of cases are nephroblastoma, also known as Wilms' tumour (WT). Most children are treated according to Société Internationale d'Oncologie Pédiatrique Renal Tumour Study Group (SIOP-RTSG) protocols with pre-operative chemotherapy, surgery, and post-operative treatment dependent on stage and histology. Overall survival approaches 90%, but a subgroup of WT, with high-risk histology and/or relapsed disease, still have a much poorer prognosis...
October 28, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958595/childhood-neurofibromatosis-type-2-nf2-and-related-disorders-from-bench-to-bedside-and-biologically-targeted-therapies
#13
M Ruggieri, A D Praticò, A Serra, L Maiolino, S Cocuzza, P Di Mauro, L Licciardello, P Milone, G Privitera, G Belfiore, M Di Pietro, F Di Raimondo, A Romano, A Chiarenza, M Muglia, A Polizzi, D G Evans
Neurofibromatosis type 2 [NF2; MIM # 101000] is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the occurrence of vestibular schwannomas (VSs), schwannomas of other cranial, spinal and cutaneous nerves, cranial and spinal meningiomas and/or other central nervous system (CNS) tumours (e.g., ependymomas, astrocytomas). Additional features include early onset cataracts, optic nerve sheath meningiomas, retinal hamartomas, dermal schwannomas (i.e., NF2-plaques), and (few) café-au-lait spots. Clinically, NF2 children fall into two main groups: (1) congenital NF2 - with bilateral VSs detected as early as the first days to months of life, which can be stable/asymptomatic for one-two decades and suddenly progress; and (2) severe pre-pubertal (Wishart type) NF2- with multiple (and rapidly progressive) CNS tumours other-than-VS, which usually present first, years before VSs [vs...
October 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940756/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-and-influenza-vaccine-uptake-in-us-children
#14
William K Bleser, Bilikisu Reni Elewonibi, Patricia Y Miranda, Rhonda BeLue
BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly used in the United States. Although CAM is mostly used in conjunction with conventional medicine, some CAM practitioners recommend against vaccination, and children who saw naturopathic physicians or chiropractors were less likely to receive vaccines and more likely to get vaccine-preventable diseases. Nothing is known about how child CAM usage affects influenza vaccination. METHODS: This nationally representative study analyzed ∼9000 children from the Child Complementary and Alternative Medicine File of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916824/graphene-oxide-nanoribbons-induce-autophagic-vacuoles-in-neuroblastoma-cell-lines
#15
Emanuela Mari, Stefania Mardente, Emanuela Morgante, Marco Tafani, Emanuela Lococo, Flavia Fico, Federica Valentini, Alessandra Zicari
Since graphene nanoparticles are attracting increasing interest in relation to medical applications, it is important to understand their potential effects on humans. In the present study, we prepared graphene oxide (GO) nanoribbons by oxidative unzipping of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and analyzed their toxicity in two human neuroblastoma cell lines. Neuroblastoma is the most common solid neoplasia in children. The hallmark of these tumors is the high number of different clinical variables, ranging from highly metastatic, rapid progression and resistance to therapy to spontaneous regression or change into benign ganglioneuromas...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914689/efficacy-of-biologic-therapy-across-individual-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-subtypes-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Rebecca Davies, Danielle Gaynor, Kimme L Hyrich, Clare E Pain
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of differing biologic therapies amongst individual juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) subtypes rather than JIA overall. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted between January 1975 and November 2014. Studies included were randomised controlled trials, controlled trials, non-randomised prospective studies or case-control studies. Subjects were required to have a diagnosis of JIA and were ≤20 years of age at study entry...
November 1, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913533/non-hodgkin-lymphoma-across-the-pediatric-and-adolescent-and-young-adult-age-spectrum
#17
John T Sandlund, Mike G Martin
The non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) occurring in children and adolescents and young adults (AYA) are characterized by various age-related differences in tumor biology and survival. Children generally present with high-grade lymphomas, such as Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, whereas low-grade histologic subtypes, such as follicular lymphoma, occur more frequently with increasing age. Treatment outcome for children with NHL is generally superior to that observed in adults...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913459/children-with-rare-diseases-of-neutrophil-granulocytes-from-therapeutic-orphans-to-pioneers-of-individualized-medicine
#18
Christoph Klein
Neutrophil granulocytes are the most abundant immune cells in the blood yet the pathways orchestrating their differentiation and biological function remain incompletely understood. Studying (ultra-) rare patients with monogenetic defects of neutrophil granulocytes may open new horizons to understand basic principles of hematopoiesis and innate immunity. Here, recent insights into genetic factors controlling myelopoiesis and their more general role in biology will be presented in a clinical perspective. Advances in supportive care, first and foremost the use of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has made a substantial difference for the quality of life and life expectancy of patients with congenital neutropenia (CN)...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908295/dopamine-2-receptor-extracellular-n-terminus-regulates-receptor-surface-availability-and-is-the-target-of-human-pathogenic-antibodies-from-children-with-movement-and-psychiatric-disorders
#19
Nese Sinmaz, Fiona Tea, Deepti Pilli, Alicia Zou, Mazen Amatoury, Tina Nguyen, Vera Merheb, Sudarshini Ramanathan, Sandra T Cooper, Russell C Dale, Fabienne Brilot
Anti-Dopamine-2 receptor (D2R) antibodies have been recently identified in a subgroup of children with autoimmune movement and psychiatric disorders, however the epitope(s) and mechanism of pathogenicity remain unknown. Here we report a major biological role for D2R extracellular N-terminus as a regulator of receptor surface availability, and as a major epitope targeted and impaired in brain autoimmunity. In transfected human cells, purified anti-D2R antibody from patients specifically and significantly reduced human D2R surface levels...
December 1, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900946/childhood-psoriasis
#20
Emmanuel Mahé
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Recently, few data have been published on epidemiology, comorbidity, or therapy in children with psoriasis. Psoriasis affects up to 2% of children in Europe, even during the first months of life. The link between psoriasis and metabolic comorbidities has been highlighted, notably in relation to excessive weight and obesity. The clinical picture of psoriasis in childhood resembles adult disease, however, some clinical features are noteworthy: neonatal diaper rash is relatively specific, face involvement and guttate psoriasis are more common, plaques are often smaller, and scales are finer and softer than in adults...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
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