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leishmania parasites

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913884/plasmid-pvax1-nh36-purification-by-membrane-and-bead-perfusion-chromatography
#1
Diana Ivonne Franco-Medrano, Patricia Guerrero-Germán, Rosa María Montesinos-Cisneros, Jaime Ortega-López, Armando Tejeda-Mansir
The demand for plasmid DNA (pDNA) has increased in response to the rapid advances in vaccines applications to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by virus, bacteria or parasites, such as Leishmania species. The immunization protocols require large amounts of supercoiled plasmid DNA (sc-pDNA) challenging the development of efficient and profitable processes for capturing and purified pDNA molecules from large volumes of lysates. A typical bioprocess involves four steps: fermentation, primary recovery, intermediate recovery and final purification...
December 2, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911896/different-mutations-in-a-p-type-atpase-transporter-in-leishmania-parasites-are-associated-with-cross-resistance-to-two-leading-drugs-by-distinct-mechanisms
#2
Christopher Fernandez-Prada, Isabel M Vincent, Marie-Christine Brotherton, Mathew Roberts, Gaétan Roy, Luis Rivas, Philippe Leprohon, Terry K Smith, Marc Ouellette
Leishmania infantum is an etiological agent of the life-threatening visceral form of leishmaniasis. Liposomal amphotericin B (AmB) followed by a short administration of miltefosine (MF) is a drug combination effective for treating visceral leishmaniasis in endemic regions of India. Resistance to MF can be due to point mutations in the miltefosine transporter (MT). Here we show that mutations in MT are also observed in Leishmania AmB-resistant mutants. The MF-induced MT mutations, but not the AmB induced mutations in MT, alter the translocation/uptake of MF...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907136/immune-activation-and-bacterial-translocation-a-link-between-impaired-immune-recovery-and-frequent-visceral-leishmaniasis-relapses-in-hiv-infected-patients
#3
Maria Luciana Silva-Freitas, Glaucia Fernandes Cota, Talia S Machado-de-Assis, Carmem Giacoia-Gripp, Ana Rabello, Alda M Da-Cruz, Joanna R Santos-Oliveira
The maintenance of chronic immune activation due to leishmaniasis or even due to microbial translocation is associated with immunosenescence and may contribute to frequent relapses. Our aim was to investigate whether patients with HIV-associated visceral leishmaniasis (VL/HIV) who experience a single episode of VL have different immunological behaviors in comparison to those who experience frequent relapses. VL/HIV patients were allocated to non-relapsing (NR, n = 6) and relapsing (R, n = 11) groups and were followed from the active phase of VL up to 12 months post-treatment (mpt)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906988/atypical-manifestations-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-region-endemic-for-leishmania-braziliensis-clinical-immunological-and-parasitological-aspects
#4
Luiz Henrique Guimarães, Adriano Queiroz, Juliana A Silva, Silvana C Silva, Viviane Magalhães, Ednaldo L Lago, Paulo Roberto L Machado, Olívia Bacellar, Mary E Wilson, Stephen M Beverley, Edgar M Carvalho, Albert Schriefer
BACKGROUND: Atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) has become progressively more frequent in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. Herein we characterize clinical presentation, antimony response, cytokine production and parasite strains prevailing in ACL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between 2005 and 2012, 51 ACL (cases) and 51 temporally matched cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) subjects (controls) were enrolled and followed over time in Corte de Pedra. Clinical and therapeutic data were recorded for all subjects...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906059/a-mitochondrial-hsp70-hspa9b-is-linked-to-miltefosine-resistance-and-stress-response-in-leishmania-donovani
#5
P Vacchina, B Norris-Mullins, E S Carlson, M A Morales
BACKGROUND: Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are responsible for leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease affecting millions worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania donovani, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis with high rates of mortality if left untreated. Current treatments include pentavalent antimonials and amphotericin B. However, high toxicity and emergence of resistance hinder the success of these options. Miltefosine (HePC) is the first oral treatment available for leishmaniasis...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905287/hemophagocytic-syndrome-due-to-leishmania-infection-diagnosed-with-immunofluorescence-antibody-test
#6
Hakan Sarbay, Yasemin Işık Balcı, Selin Güler, Meral Türk, Mehmet Akın, Aziz Polat
Leishmaniasis is a reticuloendothelial system disease that mostly observed before the age of 5. Visceral infection causes long-standing fever, weight loss, weakness, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. Leishmania infantum is responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Turkey. We present a case of hemophagocytic syndrome due to Leishmania infection diagnosed with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Leishmania amastigotes were not observed on bone marrow aspiration. We consider that IFAT is very important for parasite detection in the diagnosis of VL in children, particularly when amastigotes are not obtained on bone marrow aspiration...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898671/prevalence-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-districts-of-high-and-low-endemicity-in-mali
#7
Bourama Traoré, Fabiano Oliveira, Ousmane Faye, Adama Dicko, Cheick A Coulibaly, Ibrahim M Sissoko, Samake Sibiry, Nafomon Sogoba, Moussa Brema Sangare, Yaya I Coulibaly, Pierre Traore, Sekou F Traore, Jennifer M Anderson, Somita Keita, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Seydou Doumbia
Historically the western sahelian dry regions of Mali are known to be highly endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania major, while cases are rarely reported from the Southern savanna forest of the country. Here, we report baseline prevalence of CL infection in 3 ecologically distinct districts of Mali (dry sahelian, north savanna and southern savanna forest areas). We screened 195 to 250 subjects from 50 to 60 randomly selected households in each of the 6 villages (four from the western sahelian district of Diema in Kayes region, one from the central district of Kolokani and one from the southern savanna district of Kolodieba, region of Sikasso)...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895891/gene-specific-sex-effects-on-eosinophil-infiltration-in-leishmaniasis
#8
Martina Slapničková, Valeriya Volkova, Marie Čepičková, Tatyana Kobets, Matyáš Šíma, Milena Svobodová, Peter Demant, Marie Lipoldová
BACKGROUND: Sex influences susceptibility to many infectious diseases, including some manifestations of leishmaniasis. The disease is caused by parasites that enter to the skin and can spread to the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and sometimes lungs. Parasites induce host defenses including cell infiltration, leading to protective or ineffective inflammation. These responses are often influenced by host genotype and sex. We analyzed the role of sex in the impact of specific gene loci on eosinophil infiltration and its functional relevance...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895152/spatio-temporal-uncoupling-of-mirna-mediated-translational-repression-and-target-rna-degradation-controls-mirnp-recycling-in-mammalian-cells
#9
Mainak Bose, Bahnisikha Barman, Avijit Goswami, Suvendra N Bhattacharyya
miRNA-mediated repression control expression of more than half of protein coding genes in metazoan animals. Translation repression is associated with target mRNA degradation initiated by decapping and deadenylation of the repressed mRNAs. Earlier evidence suggest Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) as the site where miRNPs interact with their targets before the translation repression sets in but the subcellular location of subsequent degradation of miRNA-repressed messages is largely unidentified. Here, we explore the subcellular distribution of essential components of degradation machineries of miRNA-targeted mRNAs...
November 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892844/identification-of-b-cell-epitope-of-leishmania-donovani-and-its-application-in-diagnosis-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#10
Fauzia Jamal, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Manish K Singh, Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Pushpanjali, Amit K Dubey, Prakash Kumar, Shyam Narayan, Anil K Gupta, Krishna Pandey, V N R Das, Sanjiva Bimal, Pradeep Das, Shubhankar K Singh
Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is often hindered by cross-reactions with antigens from other related parasite infections. This study aimed to develop an immunochromatographic test (ICT) which can detect the antigen present in circulating immune complexes (CICs) of VL patients using B cell epitope-specific antibodies. MS analysis of six immunoreactive 2DE spots revealed two epitopes i.e RFFVQGDGIGQHSLQEALERR (P1) and RRVAVLVLLDRL (P2) (From a hypothetical protein [Acc No: XP_003861458.1]). The epitope conservancy analysis suggested that the linear epitope (P1P2) is 97% to 100% conserved among Leishmania species and diverged from Homo sapiens (61% query coverage and 80% identity)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890957/unusual-presentation-of-mucocutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-hiv-infected-patient
#11
Anupama Bains, Deepak Vedant, Priyanka Gupta, G R Tegta
Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasite of genus leishmania. Visceral leishmaniasis, diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, and atypical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis are common in HIV-infected patients. Our patient presented with an obstructive mass in nasal cavity and was diagnosed as a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Spontaneous healing of lesions in HIV-infected patients is rare rather they are unresponsive to treatment and have frequent relapses, especially in patients with low CD4 count. However, in our patient, the lesion improved significantly after 2 months of highly active antiretroviral therapy and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890081/association-between-leishmania-infantum-dna-in-the-hair-of-dogs-and-their-infectiousness-to-lutzomyia-longipalpis
#12
Rafaela de Sousa Gonçalves, Carlos R Franke, Jairo T Magalhães-Junior, Bárbara M P S Souza, Manuela S Solcà, Daniela F Larangeira, Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo
Diagnosis of infection with Leishmania infantum by DNA detection in the hair has been recently demonstrated in dogs and wild animals. Our objective was to investigate if polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in hair might be used to identify infectious dogs. Thus, we assessed the infectiousness to Lutzomyia longipalpis by xenodiagnosis in comparison with the detection of L. infantum DNA by PCR in the hair, and with serology for anti-Leishmania IgG by ELISA in 15 positive dogs for L. infantum infection. Eight healthy dogs were included as negative controls...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889243/antiprotozoal-and-antioxidant-alkaloids-from-alternanthera-littoralis
#13
Hector H F Koolen, Elizabeth M F Pral, Silvia C Alfieri, Jane V N Marinho, Alessandra F Serain, Alvaro J Hernández-Tasco, Nathalia L Andreazza, Marcos J Salvador
Five alkaloids, in addition to hydroxytyrosol and uridine, were isolated from aerial parts of Alternanthera littoralis P. Beauv. Among the isolated compounds, alternamide A was an unusual tricyclic alkaloid with a bridged benzoazepine core. All isolated alkaloids have a catechol moiety, indicating a possible common biosynthetic route. Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy in combination with extensive tandem MS experiments by collisional induced dissociation (CID). The antiprotozoal activity of the isolated compounds was assayed against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis...
November 23, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886396/5-ala-mediated-photodynamic-therapy-reduces-the-parasite-load-in-mice-infected-with-leishmania-braziliensis
#14
Danila Malheiros Souza, Polyanna Miranda Alves, Mona Lisa Fabiana Silva, Tony Paiva Paulino, Henrique Ovidio Coraspe, Mônica Miguel Sawan Mendonça, Betânia Maria Ribeiro, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Virmondes Rodrigues Júnior, Denise Bertulucci Rocha Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has proven to be an effective alternative for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Skin lesions consist of ulcers with well-defined raised edges, and granular floor. Th1 immune response is the protective profile in patients infected with Leishmania. In the present study, the photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid, the parasitic load, and the modulation of the immune response were evaluated in mice infected with Leishmania braziliensis...
November 25, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876928/in-silico-sequence-analysis-homology-modeling-and-function-annotation-of-leishmanolysin-from-leishmania-donovani
#15
Somnath Waghmare, Abhishek Buxi, Yogesh Nandurkar, Anil Shelke, Ramrao Chavan
Leishmaniases are a complex of diseases that range from the deadly visceral disease and some self-curing lesions to gross disfigurations. About 12 million peoples from 88 different countries get infected by this protozoan parasite through the sand flies. Visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially fatal disease endemic to large parts of Asia and Africa, primarily caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. L. donovani is a species of Leishmania, a hemoflagellate parasite and causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876902/evaluation-of-the-alum-naloxone-adjuvant-activity-against-experimental-murine-leishmaniasis-due-to-l-major
#16
REVIEW
Arezoo Bozorgomid, Habib Mohammadzadeh Hajipirloo, Khosrow Hazrati Tappeh, Naser Nazari, Seyed Ahmad Karamati, Samira Shirooie
Leishmaniasis is caused by intracellular parasites of Leishmania species, which are transmitted by the bite of the sandfly. Recovery and protection against the infection depends on the induction of a strong Th1 type of immune response. Vaccination of mice with the opioid antagonist naloxone can promote the activation of the Th1 responses. We studied the efficacy of the mixture of naloxone and alum, as an adjuvant, to enhance immune responses and induce protection against Leishmania major infection in BALB/c as a susceptible mouse model...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876366/leishmania-amazonensis-infection-induces-behavioral-alterations-and-modulates-cytokine-and-neurotrophin-production-in-the-murine-cerebral-cortex
#17
Alex Portes, Elizabeth Giestal-de-Araujo, Aline Fagundes, Pablo Pandolfo, Arnaldo de Sá Geraldo, Marie Luce Flores Lira, Veronica Figueiredo Amaral, Jussara Lagrota-Candido
Neurological symptoms have been associated with Leishmania infection, however little is known about how the nervous system is affected in leishmaniasis. This work aimed to analyze parasitic load, production of cytokines/neurotrophins in the prefrontal cortex and behavioral changes in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis. At 2 and 4months post-infection, infected mice showed a decrease in IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 cytokines and BDNF and NGF neurotrophins in prefrontal cortex associated with increased anxiety behavior...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876275/development-of-leishmania-donovani-stably-expressing-dsred-for-flow-cytometry-based-drug-screening-using-chalcone-thiazolyl-hydrazone-as-a-new-antileishmanial-target
#18
Anil Kumar Jaiswal, K Bhaskara Rao, Pragati Kushwaha, Keerti Rawat, Ram K Modukuri, Prashant Khare, Sumit Joshi, Shikha Mishra, Ambak Rai, Koneni V Sashidhara, Anuradha Dube
Green fluorescent protein produces significant fluorescence and is extremely stable, however its excitation maximum is close to the ultraviolet range and thus can damage living cells. Hence, Leishmania donovani stably expressing DsRed were developed and their suitability for flow cytometry-based antileishmanial screening was assessed by evaluating the efficacies of standard drugs as well as newly synthesised chalcone thiazolyl-hydrazone compounds. The DsRed gene was successfully integrated at the 18S rRNA locus of L...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876097/leishmania-donovani-development-in-phlebotomus-argentipes-comparison-of-promastigote-and-amastigote-initiated-infections
#19
Jovana Sadlova, Jitka Myskova, Tereza Lestinova, Jan Votypka, Matthew Yeo, Petr Volf
Leishmania parasites alternate in their life cycle between promastigote stages that develop in the gut of phlebotomine sand flies and amastigotes residing inside phagocytic cells of vertebrate hosts. For experimental infections of sand flies, promastigotes are frequently used as this way of infection is technically easier although ingestion of promastigotes by sand flies is unnatural. Here we aimed to answer a critical question, to what extent do promastigote-initiated experimental infections differ from those initiated with intracellular amastigotes...
November 23, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870860/gene-expression-profile-of-high-ifn-%C3%AE-producers-stimulated-with-leishmania-braziliensis-identifies-genes-associated-with-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#20
Marcia W Carneiro, Kiyoshi F Fukutani, Bruno B Andrade, Rebecca P Curvelo, Juqueline R Cristal, Augusto M Carvalho, Aldina Barral, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Manoel Barral-Netto, Camila I de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The initial response to Leishmania parasites is essential in determining disease development or resistance. In vitro, a divergent response to Leishmania, characterized by high or low IFN-γ production has been described as a potential tool to predict both vaccine response and disease susceptibility in vivo. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified uninfected and healthy individuals that were shown to be either high- or low IFN-γ producers (HPs and LPs, respectively) following stimulation of peripheral blood cells with Leishmania braziliensis...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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