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leishmania parasites

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527905/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-mediated-polarization-of-macrophages-in-neospora-caninum-infection
#1
Xuexiu He, Pengtao Gong, Zhengkai Wei, Weijian Liu, Weili Wang, Jianhua Li, Zhengtao Yang, Xichen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite closely related Toxoplasma gondii, which causes neurological disease and abortion in multiple animal species. Macrophage polarization plays an important role in host immune responses to parasites infection, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi. However, the dynamics of macrophage polarization, as well as the possible mechanism that regulate macrophage polarization, during N. caninum infection remains unclear...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524774/cytotoxicity-and-anti-leishmania-amazonensis-activity-of-citrus-sinensis-leaf-extracts
#2
Andreza R Garcia, Ana Claudia F Amaral, Mariana M B Azevedo, Suzana Corte-Real, Rosana C Lopes, Celuta S Alviano, Anderson S Pinheiro, Alane B Vermelho, Igor A Rodrigues
CONTEXT: Leishmania amazonensis is the main agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, a disease characterized by lesional polymorphism and the commitment of skin surface. Previous reports demonstrated that the Citrus genus possess antimicrobial activity. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the anti-L. amazonensis activity of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Citrus sinensis dried leaves were subjected to maceration with hexane (CH), ethyl acetate (CEA), dichloromethane/ethanol (CD/Et - 1:1) or ethanol/water (CEt/W - 7:3)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522323/in-vivo-imaging-of-pathogen-homing-to-the-host-tissues
#3
Joana Tavares, David M Costa, Ana Rafaela Teixeira, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Rogerio Amino
Hematogenous dissemination followed by tissue tropism is a characteristic of the infectious process of many pathogens including those transmitted by blood-feeding vectors. After entering into the blood circulation, these pathogens must arrest in the target organ before they infect a specific tissue. Here, we describe a non-invasive method to visualize and quantify the homing of pathogens to the host tissues. By using in vivo bioluminescence imaging we quantify the accumulation of luciferase-expressing parasites in the host organs during the first minutes following their intravascular inoculation in mice...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518475/lipid-bodies-accumulation-in-leishmania-infantum-infected-c57bl-6-macrophages
#4
Nilda E Rodríguez, Ryan D Lockard, Elizabeth A Turcotte, Théo Araujo-Santos, Patrícia T Bozza, Valéria M Borges, Mary E Wilson
Lipid bodies (LBs) are intracellular accumulations of neutral lipids surrounded by a single membrane. These organelles are involved in the production of eicosanoids, which modulate immunity by either promoting or dampening inflammatory responses. Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, is an intracellular parasite that causes disease by suppressing macrophage microbicidal responses. C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with L. infantum strain LcJ had higher numbers of LB+ cells (P<0...
May 18, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515660/environmental-factors-associated-with-the-distribution-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-endemic-areas-of-bangladesh-modeling-the-ecological-niche
#5
Abu Yousuf Md Abdullah, Ashraf Dewan, Md Rakibul Islam Shogib, Md Masudur Rahman, Md Faruk Hossain
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic infection (also called kala-azar in South Asia) caused by Leishmania donovani that is a considerable threat to public health in the Indian subcontinent, including densely populated Bangladesh. The disease seriously affects the poorest subset of the population in the subcontinent. Despite the fact that the incidence of VL results in significant morbidity and mortality, its environmental determinants are relatively poorly understood, especially in Bangladesh...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511704/the-use-of-kdna-minicircle-subclass-relative-abundance-to-differentiate-between-leishmania-l-infantum-and-leishmania-l-amazonensis
#6
Marcello Ceccarelli, Luca Galluzzi, Aurora Diotallevi, Francesca Andreoni, Hailie Fowler, Christine Petersen, Fabrizio Vitale, Mauro Magnani
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by many Leishmania species, belonging to subgenera Leishmania (Leishmania) and Leishmania (Viannia). Several qPCR-based molecular diagnostic approaches have been reported for detection and quantification of Leishmania species. Many of these approaches use the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles as the target sequence. These assays had potential cross-species amplification, due to sequence similarity between Leishmania species. Previous works demonstrated discrimination between L...
May 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509873/leishmanicidal-activity-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-essential-oil-constituents
#7
Audrey R S T Silva, Ricardo Scher, Flaviane V Santos, Sebastião R Ferreira, Sócrates C H Cavalcanti, Cristiane B Correa, Lilian L Bueno, Ricardo J Alves, Damião P Souza, Ricardo T Fujiwara, Silvio S Dolabella
Several constituents of essential oils have been shown to be active against pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. This study demonstrated the in vitro action of ten compounds present in essential oils against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. With the exception of p-cymene, all evaluated compounds presented leishmanicidal activity, exhibiting IC50 between 25.4 and 568.1 μg mL(-1). Compounds with the best leishmanicidal activity presented a phenolic moiety (IC50 between 25.4 and 82.9 μg mL(-1))...
May 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509385/molecular-events-leading-to-death-of-leishmania-donovani-under-spermidine-starvation-after-hypericin-treatment
#8
Shalini Singh, Ekta Kumari, Ruchika Bhardwaj, Ritesh Kumar, Vikash Kumar Dubey
We have previously reported that the hypericin treatment caused spermidine starvation and death of Leishmania parasite. Here, we report different molecular events under spermidine starvation and potential role of spermidine in processes other than redox homeostasis of the parasite. We have analyzed changes in expression of several genes by using quantitative gene expression analysis. Further, these changes at molecular level were also confirmed by using biochemical and cellular studies. Altered expression of several genes involved in redox metabolism, hypusine modification of eIF5A, DNA repair pathway and autophagy was observed...
May 16, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508745/natural-leishmania-viannia-infections-of-phlebotomines-diptera-psychodidae-indicate-classical-and-alternative-transmission-cycles-of-american-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-the-guiana-shield-brazil
#9
Adelson Alcimar Almeida de Souza, Iorlando da Rocha Barata, Maria das Graças Soares Silva, José Aprígio Nunes Lima, Yara Lúcia Lins Jennings, Edna Aoba Yassui Ishikawa, Ghislaine Prévot, Marine Ginouves, Fernando Tobias Silveira, Jeffrey Shaw, Thiago Vasconcelos Dos Santos
From 1996 to 1999 multi-trapping methods (Center of Diseases Control, CDC) light traps, light-baited Shannon traps, and aspiration on tree bases) were used to study the phlebotomine fauna of the "Serra do Navio" region of the Brazilian State of Amapá, which is part of the Guiana Shield. Fifty-three species were identified among 8,685 captured individuals. The following species, associated with the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Amazonian Brazil, were captured: Nyssomyia umbratilis (3,388), Psychodopygus squamiventris maripaensis (995), Ny...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507113/efficacy-of-a-binuclear-cyclopalladated-compound-therapy-for-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-the-murine-model-of-infection-with-leishmania-amazonensis-and-its-inhibitory-effect-on-topoisomerase-1b
#10
Angela Maria Arenas Velásquez, Willian Campos Ribeiro, Vutey Venn, Silvia Castelli, Mariana Santoro, Renata Pires de Assis, Rodrigo Alves de Souza, Aline Rimoldi Ribeiro, Thaís Gaban Passalaqua, João Aristeu da Rosa, Amanda Martins Baviera, Antonio Eduardo Mauro, Alessandro Desideri, Elmo Eduardo Almeida-Amaral, Marcia A S Graminha
Leishmaniasis is a disease found throughout the (sub)tropical parts of the world caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. Despite the numerous problems associated with existing treatments, pharmaceutical companies continue to neglect the development of better ones. The high toxicity of current drugs combined with emerging resistance makes the discovery of new therapeutic alternatives urgent. Here we report the evaluation of a binuclear cyclopalladated complex containing Pd(II) and N,N' -dimethylbenzylamine (Hdmba) against Leishmania amazonensis...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507071/characterization-of-the-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-lmprl-1-secreted-by-leishmania-major-via-the-exosome-pathway
#11
Sabine Leitherer, Joachim Clos, Elisabeth M Liebler-Tenorio, Ulrike Schleicher, Christian Bogdan, Didier Soulat
Similar to other intracellular pathogens, Leishmania parasites are known to evade the antimicrobial effector functions of host immune cells. To date, however, only few virulence factors have been described for Leishmania (L.) major, one of the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, we characterized the expression and function of a L. major phosphatase which we termed LmPRL-1. This enzyme shows a strong structural similarity to the human phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRL-1, -2, and -3) that are regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of cells...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505185/combined-treatment-of-miltefosine-and-paromomycin-delays-the-onset-of-experimental-drug-resistance-in-leishmania-infantum
#12
Sarah Hendrickx, Magali Van den Kerkhof, Dorien Mabille, Paul Cos, Peter Delputte, Louis Maes, Guy Caljon
BACKGROUND: Since miltefosine monotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani has been discontinued in the Indian subcontinent due to an increase in the number of treatment failures, single dose liposomal amphotericin B is now advocated as a treatment option of choice. Paromomycin-miltefosine combination therapy can be used as substitute first-line treatment in regions without cold-chain potential. Previous laboratory studies in the closely related species Leishmania infantum have demonstrated that paromomycin monotherapy fairly rapidly selects for resistance producing a phenotype with increased fitness...
May 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505157/structurally-optimized-analogs-of-the-retrograde-trafficking-inhibitor-retro-2cycl-limit-leishmania-infections
#13
Evan Craig, Charles-Eugene Huyghues-Despointes, Chun Yu, Emma L Handy, Jason K Sello, Peter E Kima
In infected mammalian cells, Leishmania parasites reside within specialized compartments called parasitophorous vacuoles (LPVs). We have previously shown that Retro-2, a member of a novel class of small retrograde pathway inhibitors caused reduced LPV sizes and lower parasite numbers during experimental L. mexicana sp. infections. The purpose of this study was to determine if structural analogs of Retro-2cycl reported to have superior potency in the inhibition of retrograde pathway-dependent phenomena (i.e...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504099/zoonotic-intestinal-parasites-and-vector-borne-pathogens-in-italian-shelter-and-kennel-dogs
#14
Donato Traversa, Angela Di Cesare, Giulia Simonato, Rudi Cassini, Carmine Merola, Anastasia Diakou, Lénaïg Halos, Frederic Beugnet, Antonio Frangipane di Regalbono
This study investigated the presence of zoonotic parasites and vector-borne pathogens in dogs housed in kennels and shelters from four sites of Italy. A total of 150 adoptable dogs was examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular methods. Overall 129 dogs (86%) were positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-eight (32%) were positive for one infection, while 81 (54%) for more than one pathogen. The most common zoonotic helminths recorded were hookworms, roundworms and Capillaria aerophila, followed by mosquito-borne Dirofilaria spp...
April 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502644/leishmania-v-braziliensis-infecting-bats-from-pantanal-wetland-brazil-first-records-for-platyrrhinus-lineatus-and-artibeus-planirostris
#15
Eduardo de Castro Ferreira, Agnes Antônio Sampaio Pereira, Maurício Silveira, Carina Margonari, Glaucia Elisete Barbosa Marcon, Adriana de Oliveira França, Ludiele Souza Castro, Marcelo Oscar Bordignon, Erich Fischer, Walfrido Moraes Tomas, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo
In the New World genus Leishmania parasites are etiological agents of neglected zoonoses known as leishmaniasis. Its epidemiology is very complex due to the participation of several species of sand fly vectors and mammalian hosts, and man is an accidental host. Control is very difficult because of the different epidemiological patterns of transmission observed. Studies about Leishmania spp. infection in bats are so scarce, which represents a large gap in knowledge about the role of these animals in the transmission cycle of these pathogens, especially when considering that Chiroptera is one of the most abundant and diverse orders among mammals...
May 11, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501450/exploring-prognosis-in-chronic-relapsing-visceral-leishmaniasis-among-hiv-infected-patients-circulating-leishmania-dna
#16
Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Marcos Roberto de Sousa, Tália Santana Machado de Assis, Bruna Fernandes Pinto, Ana Rabello
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affecting HIV-infected patients is considered a challenging condition because of its high mortality and relapse rates. The approach of this condition is still surrounded by many uncertainties, especially regarding the criteria to institute and discontinue secondary prophylaxis for VL. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Leishmania parasitism kinetic assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a possible tool in the prognostic assessment in a context in which patients are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy and secondary prophylaxis...
May 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499874/pyrrole-indolinone-su11652-targets-the-nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase-from-leishmania-parasites
#17
Plínio Salmazo Vieira, Tatiana de Arruda Campos Brasil Souza, Rodrigo Vargas Honorato, Letícia Maria Zanphorlin, Kelven Ulisses Severiano, Silvana Aparecida Rocco, Arthur Henrique Cavalcante de Oliveira, Artur Torres Cordeiro, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de Oliveira, Priscila Oliveira de Giuseppe, Mário Tyago Murakami
Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs) are key enzymes in the purine-salvage pathway of trypanosomatids and have been associated with the maintenance of host-cell integrity for the benefit of the parasite, being potential targets for rational drug discovery and design. The NDK from Leishmania major (LmNDK) and mutants were expressed and purified to homogeneity. Thermal shift assays were employed to identify potential inhibitors for LmNDK. Calorimetric experiments, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular docking analysis were performed to validate the interaction and to evaluate the structural basis of ligand recognition...
May 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499458/evaluation-of-a-multilocus-sequence-typing-mlst-scheme-for-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis-and-leishmania-viannia-panamensis-in-colombia
#18
Giovanny Herrera, Carolina Hernández, Martha S Ayala, Carolina Flórez, Aníbal A Teherán, Juan David Ramírez
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniases are parasitic vector-borne diseases affecting more than 12 million people in 98 countries. In Colombia, leishmaniasis is widespread and the most common clinical manifestation is cutaneous, mainly caused by L. panamensis and L. braziliensis. Currently, the genetic diversity of these species in Colombia is unknown. To address this, we applied molecular techniques for their characterization, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to explore the genetic variability and phylodynamics of the disease...
May 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495197/randomized-allopurinol-controlled-trial-of-the-effects-of-dietary-nucleotides-and-active-hexose-correlated-compound-in-the-treatment-of-canine-leishmaniosis
#19
Sergi Segarra, Guadalupe Miró, Ana Montoya, Luis Pardo-Marín, Noemí Boqué, Lluis Ferrer, José Cerón
First-line treatment for canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is N-methylglucamine antimoniate (MGA) combined with allopurinol. However, in some dogs allopurinol may induce hyperxanthinuria leading to urolithiasis. Moreover, allopurinol resistance has recently been described in Leishmania infantum isolates from treated dogs with a relapse of the disease. Alternative treatments are thus needed. Since the type of host immune response strongly influences CanL progression and prognosis, dogs could benefit from treatments targeted at modulating such response, such as nucleotides and active hexose correlated compound (AHCC)...
May 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495190/antibodies-to-toxoplasma-gondii-and-leishmania-spp-in-domestic-cats-from-luanda-angola
#20
Ana Patrícia Lopes, Ana Cristina Oliveira, Sara Granada, Filipa T Rodrigues, Elias Papadopoulos, Henk Schallig, Jitender P Dubey, Luís Cardoso
Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. are zoonotic protozoa of importance to animal and public health. The present study aimed to assess for the first time the seroprevalence of these zoonotic parasites in a domestic feline population living in Luanda, Angola. One hundred and two cats were sampled at a veterinary medical centre, from May 2014 to February 2016. The age of the cats ranged from 2.5 to 143 months (median: 12 months; interquartile range: 7.5-24). Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to T...
May 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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