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leishmania parasites

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154845/effects-of-trans-stilbene-and-terphenyl-compounds-on-different-strains-of-leishmania-and-on-cytokines-production-from-infected-macrophages
#1
Federica Bruno, Germano Castelli, Fabrizio Vitale, Elisa Giacomini, Marinella Roberti, Claudia Colomba, Antonio Cascio, Manlio Tolomeo
Most of the antileishmanial modern therapies are not satisfactory due to high toxicity or emergence of resistance and high cost of treatment. Previously, we observed that two compounds of a small library of trans-stilbene and terphenyl derivatives, ST18 and TR4, presented the best activity and safety profiles against Leishmania infantum promastigotes and amastigotes. In the present study we evaluated the effects of ST18 and the TR4 in 6 different species of Leishmania and the modifications induced by these two compounds in the production of 8 different cytokines from infected macrophages...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153064/-comparison-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-using-kinetoplast-dna-specific-primers-and-other-parasitological-methods-in-the-diagnosis-of-clinical-samples-of-suspected-patients-with-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-%C3%A5-anl%C3%A4-urfa
#2
Fadile Yıldız Zeyrek, Seray Töz, Fehmi Yüksel, Nevin Turgay, Yusuf Özbel
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are seen endemically in Turkey and CL caused by Leishmania tropica is an important public health problem in southeastern as well as other regions of Turkey. The diagnosis has been usually made by clinical view of lesion and/or parasitologically using lesion aspiration smears. Histological examination does not, always reveal the parasite in the skin biopsy, particularly in chronic lesions. Besides this, due to CL infections caused by different species in endemic areas, diagnostic methods enabling species identification are in great need...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150609/atomic-resolution-snapshot-of-leishmania-ribosome-inhibition-by-the-aminoglycoside-paromomycin
#3
Moran Shalev-Benami, Yan Zhang, Haim Rozenberg, Yuko Nobe, Masato Taoka, Donna Matzov, Ella Zimmerman, Anat Bashan, Toshiaki Isobe, Charles L Jaffe, Ada Yonath, Georgios Skiniotis
Leishmania is a single-celled eukaryotic parasite afflicting millions of humans worldwide, with current therapies limited to a poor selection of drugs that mostly target elements in the parasite's cell envelope. Here we determined the atomic resolution electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the Leishmania ribosome in complex with paromomycin (PAR), a highly potent compound recently approved for treatment of the fatal visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The structure reveals the mechanism by which the drug induces its deleterious effects on the parasite...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149474/interventions-for-old-world-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#4
REVIEW
Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Mariona Pinart, Patricia Lopez Pereira, Emely Garcia-Carrasco, Pedro Campuzano Cuadrado, Ana Royuela, Irene Mendez Roman, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141753/serological-evaluation-of-cutaneous-leishmania-tropica-infection-in-northern-israel
#5
Iva Rohoušová, Dalit Talmi-Frank, Michaela Vlková, Tatiana Spitzová, Koranit Rishpon, Charles L Jaffe, Petr Volf, Gad Baneth, Moshe Efrat
Leishmania spp. are medically important unicellular parasites transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. The World Health Organization recently highlighted the importance of reliable diagnostic tools for leishmaniasis. Our study of human infection was conducted in two endemic foci of Leishmania tropica in the Galilee region, northern Israel. Elevated anti-Leishmania antibodies were present in the majority (78.6%) of L. tropica-PCR positive individuals. Moreover, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed high sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values (ranging between 73% and 79%), thus fulfilling the basic requirement for future development of a serodiagnostic and screening tool...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141704/human-competence-to-transmit-leishmania-infantum-to-lutzomyia-longipalpis-and-the-influence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#6
Gabriel Reis Ferreira, José Carlos Castelo Branco Ribeiro, Antônio Meneses Filho, Teresinha de Jesus Cardoso Farias Pereira, Daniela Moura Parente, Humberto Feitosa Pereira, Jailthon Carlos da Silva, Danielle Alves Zacarias, Letiano Vieira da Silva, Symonara Karina Medeiros Faustino, Walfrido Salmito Almeida Neto, Dorcas Lamounier Costa, Ivete Lopes de Mendonça, Carlos Henrique Nery Costa
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a lethal disease transmitted by sand flies. Although, considered a zoonosis with dogs held as the main reservoirs, humans are also sources of infection. Therefore, control policies currently focused on dog culling may need to consider that VL and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/VL patients may also be infectious, contributing to transmission. Reservoir competence of patients with VL without and with HIV infection and of persons asymptomatically infected with Leishmania was assessed by xenodiagnosis with the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136036/correction-occurrence-of-leishmania-infantum-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-naturally-infected-dogs-parasite-load-viability-co-infections-and-histological-alterations
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135995/efficacy-of-a-new-rapid-diagnostic-test-kit-to-diagnose-sri-lankan-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-caused-by-leishmania-donovani
#8
Gayani De Silva, Vijani Somaratne, Sujai Senaratne, Manuja Vipuladasa, Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Renu Wickremasinghe, Shalindra Ranasinghe
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani. This study assessed the diagnostic value of a new rapid diagnostic immunochromatographic strip (CL-Detect™ IC-RDT), that captures the peroxidoxin antigen of Leishmania amastigotes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled 74 clinically suspected CL lesions, of which 59 (79.7%) were positive by PCR, 43 (58.1%) by Giemsa stained slit skin smear (SSS) and 21 (28.4%) by the new IC-RDT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135983/arginase-expression-modulates-nitric-oxide-production-in-leishmania-leishmania-amazonensis
#9
Stephanie Maia Acuña, Juliana Ide Aoki, Maria Fernanda Laranjeira-Silva, Ricardo Andrade Zampieri, Juliane Cristina Ribeiro Fernandes, Sandra Marcia Muxel, Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter
BACKGROUND: Arginase is an enzyme that converts L-arginine to urea and L-ornithine, an essential substrate for the polyamine pathway supporting Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis replication and its survival in the mammalian host. L-arginine is also the substrate of macrophage nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) to produce nitric oxide (NO) that kills the parasite. This competition can define the fate of Leishmania infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The transcriptomic profiling identified a family of oxidoreductases in L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133249/immunomodulation-of-dual-specificity-phosphatase-4-during-visceral-leishmaniasis
#10
Shabina Parveen, Atish Roy Chowdhury, Junaid Jibran Jawed, Suchandra Bhattacharyya Majumdar, Bhaskar Saha, Subrata Majumdar
DUSP4, an inducible protein has a substrate specificity toward ERK1/2, a component of MAP kinase which is enhanced during Leishmania infection. The DUSP4(-/-) mice show increased susceptibility towards the infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania mexicana. These observations emphatically established the fact that unlike DUSP1, DUSP4 has host protective role. In our study, it has been Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) significantly reduced the expression of DUSP4 during infection...
November 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132413/germacranolide-type-sesquiterpene-lactones-from-smallanthus-sonchifolius-with-promising-activity-against-leishmania-mexicana-and-trypanosoma-cruzi
#11
Jerónimo L Ulloa, Renata Spina, Agustina Casasco, Patricia B Petray, Virginia Martino, Miguel A Sosa, Fernanda M Frank, Liliana V Muschietti
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease are life-threatening illnesses caused by the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively. They are known as "neglected diseases" due to the lack of effective drug treatments and the scarcity of research work devoted to them. Therefore, the development of novel and effective drugs is an important and urgent need. Natural products are an important source of bioactive molecules for the development of new drugs. In this study, we evaluated the activity of enhydrin, uvedalin and polymatin B, three sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) isolated from Smallanthus sonchifolius, on Leishmania mexicana (MNYC/BZ/62/M) and Trypanosoma cruzi (Dm28c)...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129568/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-distinct-functions-of-dendritic-cells-and-macrophages-in-the-interaction-of-the-host-immune-system-with-leishmania-major
#12
REVIEW
Esther von Stebut, Stefan Tenzer
Leishmaniasis is transmitted by sand flies leading to parasite inoculation into skin. In the mammalian host, the parasite primarily resides in skin macrophages (MΦ) and dendritic cells (DC). MΦ are silently invaded by the parasite eliciting a stress response, whereas DC become activated, release IL-12, and prime antigen-specific T cells. Here we review the basics of the immune response against this human pathogen and elucidate the role and function DC and MΦ for establishment of protective immunity against leishmaniasis...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128656/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-two-malic-enzymes-from-leishmania-parasites
#13
Lucila Giordana, Máximo Hernán Sosa, Alejandro E Leroux, Elkin F Rodas Mendoza, Patricia Petray, Cristina Nowicki
Leishmania parasites cause a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations in humans and the available clinical treatments are far from satisfactory. Since these pathogens require large amounts of NADPH to maintain intracellular redox homeostasis, oxidoreductases that catalyze the production of NADPH are considered as potential drug targets against these diseases. In the sequenced genomes of most Leishmania spp. two putative malic enzymes (MEs) with an identity of about 55% have been identified. In this work, the ME from L...
November 8, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128045/recombinant-prohibitin-protein-of-leishmania-infantum-acts-as-a-vaccine-candidate-and-diagnostic-marker-against-visceral-leishmaniasis
#14
Daniel S Dias, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Vívian T Martins, Daniela P Lage, Fernanda F Ramos, Anna L T Dias, Marcella R Rodrigues, Áquila S B Portela, Lourena E Costa, Rachel B Caligiorne, Bethina T Steiner, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Beatriz C S Salles, Thaís T O Santos, Julia A G Silveira, Danielle F Magalhães-Soares, Bruno M Roatt, Ricardo A Machado-de-Ávila, Mariana C Duarte, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Eduardo S Silva, Alexsandro S Galdino, Eduardo A F Coelho
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) represents a serious public health problem, as Leishmania infantum is one of main disease causative agents in the Americas. In a previous immunoproteomic study, the prohibitin (PHB) protein was identified in L. infantum promastigote and amastigote extracts by antibodies in asymptomatic and symptomatic VL dog sera. This protein was found to be highly conserved between different Leishmania spp., but it presented a low identity with amino acid sequences of other organisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cellular response induced by the recombinant PHB (rPHB) protein in BALB/c mice, as well as in PBMCs purified from untreated and treated VL patients, as well as to evaluate its protective efficacy against an infection by L...
November 9, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127992/leishmania-infantum-exerts-immunomodulation-in-canine-kupffer-cells-reverted-by-meglumine-antimoniate
#15
A Rodrigues, D Santos-Mateus, G Alexandre-Pires, A Valério-Bolas, M Rafael-Fernandes, M A Pereira, D Ligeiro, J de Jesus, R Alves-Azevedo, S Lopes-Ventura, M Santos, A M Tomás, I Pereira da Fonseca, G Santos-Gomes
Kupffer cells (KC) are the liver macrophage population that resides in the hepatic sinusoids and efficiently phagocyte pathogens by establishing an intimate contact with circulating blood. KC constitute the liver host cells in Leishmania infection, nevertheless little is described about their role, apart from their notable contribution in granulomatous inflammation. The present study aims to investigate how canine KC sense and react to the presence of Leishmania infantum promastigotes and amastigotes by evaluating the gene expression of specific innate immune cell receptors and cytokines, as well as the induction of nitric oxide and urea production...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127526/phlebotomine-sandflies-and-factors-associated-with-their-abundance-in-the-leishmaniasis-endemic-area-of-attiki-greece
#16
Sofia Boutsini, Labrini V Athanasiou, Gregory Spanakos, Dimitra Ntousi, Eleni Dotsika, Marina Bisia, Elias Papadopoulos
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease of animals and humans caused by several Leishmania species and transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. The aim of the present study was to identify the species of field collected phlebotomine sandflies in the endemic area of the Attiki during 4 consecutive years, to isolate the Leishmania parasites from the infected sandflies, and identify possible factors associated with sandfly abundance in the area. A total of 542 trappings were made in 46 collection sites, in purely urban areas, periurban areas, and purely rural areas in Attiki...
November 10, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123157/the-nod2-receptor-is-crucial-for-immune-responses-towards-new-world-leishmania-species
#17
Jéssica Cristina Dos Santos, Michelle S M A Damen, Marije Oosting, Dirk J de Jong, Bas Heinhuis, Rodrigo Saar Gomes, Carla Santos Araújo, Mihai G Netea, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias, Leo A B Joosten
American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis is a chronic infection caused by Leishmania protozoan. It is not known whether genetic variances in NOD-like receptor (NLR) family members influence the immune response towards Leishmania parasites and modulate intracellular killing. Using functional genomics, we investigated whether genetic variants in NOD1 or NOD2 influence the production of cytokines by human PBMCs exposed to Leishmania. In addition, we examined whether recognition of Leishmania by NOD2 contributes to intracellular killing...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121981/intrinsic-dna-curvature-in-trypanosomes
#18
Pablo Smircich, Najib M El-Sayed, Beatriz Garat
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei are protozoan parasites causing Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness, displaying unique features of cellular and molecular biology. Remarkably, no canonical signals for RNA polymerase II promoters, which drive protein coding genes transcription, have been identified so far. The secondary structure of DNA has long been recognized as a signal in biological processes and more recently, its involvement in transcription initiation in Leishmania was proposed...
November 9, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117727/crispoic-acid-a-new-compound-from-laelia-marginata-orchidaceae-and-biological-evaluations-against-parasites-human-cancer-cell-lines-and-zika-virus
#19
Andrezza C Belloto, Gredson K Souza, Paula C Perin, Ivania T A Schuquel, Silvana M O Santin, Lucas U R Chiavelli, Francielle P Garcia, Vanessa Kaplum, Jean H S Rodrigues, Débora B Scariot, Rodrigo Delvecchio, Erik Machado-Ferreira, Renato Santana Aguiar, Carlos A G Soares, Celso V Nakamura, Armando M Pomini
The phytochemical study of Laelia marginata (Lindl.) L. O. Williams (Orchidaceae) led to the isolation of a new natural product named crispoic acid (1), together with six other known compounds (2-7). The new natural product was identified as a dimer of eucomic acid and was structurally characterised based upon 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS data. Biological assays with plant crude extract, fractions and isolated compounds were performed against two human cancer cell lines (Hela and Siha), and the tropical parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis...
November 8, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114029/rapid-selection-free-high-efficiency-genome-editing-in-protozoan-parasites-using-crispr-cas9-ribonucleoproteins
#20
Lia Carolina Soares Medeiros, Lilith South, Duo Peng, Juan M Bustamante, Wei Wang, Molly Bunkofske, Natasha Perumal, Fernando Sanchez-Valdez, Rick L Tarleton
Trypanosomatids (order Kinetoplastida), including the human pathogens Trypanosoma cruzi (agent of Chagas disease), Trypanosoma brucei, (African sleeping sickness), and Leishmania (leishmaniasis), affect millions of people and animals globally. T. cruzi is considered one of the least studied and most poorly understood tropical disease-causing parasites, in part because of the relative lack of facile genetic engineering tools. This situation has improved recently through the application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) technology, but a number of limitations remain, including the toxicity of continuous Cas9 expression and the long drug marker selection times...
November 7, 2017: MBio
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