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Virus C and liver transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344022/aga-institute-clinical-practice-update-care-of-patients-who-have-achieved-a-sustained-virologic-response-svr-following-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection
#1
REVIEW
Ira M Jacobson, Joseph K Lim, Michael W Fried
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is well-recognized as a common blood borne infection with global public health impact, affecting 3 to 5 million persons in the U.S. and over 170 million persons worldwide. Chronic HCV infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to complications of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Current therapies with all-oral directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are associated with high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR), generally exceeding 90%...
March 23, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340836/effect-of-dosage-and-type-of-hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin-on-hepatitis-antibody-levels-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#2
A Ulku, A T Akcam, A Rencuzogullari, K Dalci, O Yalav, I C Eray, G Saritas
BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of dosage and type (intramuscular [IM] vs intravenous [IV]) of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) on hepatitis antibody level in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: Between September 2000 and August 2016, patients who underwent orthotropic liver transplantation for chronic liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma secondary to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) were retrospectively reviewed from a prospectively maintained database...
April 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329027/prevalence-and-predictors-for-compensated-advanced-chronic-liver-disease-c-acld-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-delta-virus-hdv-infection
#3
Ingrid Couto, Marilu Victoria, Valdiléa G Veloso, Lorena Rodrigues, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Marcus Lacerda, Flamir Victoria, Hugo Perazzo
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictor factors for compensated advanced chronic liver disease (c-ACLD) in patients with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included consecutive HDV-infected patients defined by positive anti-HDV. Patients with hepatitis C coinfection, liver transplantation or presence of conditions that limit liver (LSM) or spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) were excluded. Blood tests, abdominal ultrasound, SSM and LSM by transient elastography (FibroScan®) were performed at the same day...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322704/transmission-of-hepatitis-a-virus-through-combined-liver-small-intestine-pancreas-transplantation
#4
Monique A Foster, Lauren M Weil, Sherry Jin, Thomas Johnson, Tonya R Hayden-Mixson, Yury Khudyakov, Pallavi D Annambhotla, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Saleem Kamili, Jana M Ritter, Noele Nelson, George Mazariegos, Michael Green, Ryan W Himes, David T Kuhar, Matthew J Kuehnert, Jeffrey A Miller, Rachel Wiseman, Anne C Moorman
Although transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) through blood transfusion has been documented, transmission through organ transplantation has not been reported. In August 2015, state health officials in Texas, USA, were notified of 2 home health nurses with HAV infection whose only common exposure was a child who had undergone multi-visceral organ transplantation 9 months earlier. Specimens from the nurses, organ donor, and all organ recipients were tested and medical records reviewed to determine a possible infection source...
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321877/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-hepatitis-b-infection-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Konstantinos Mantzoukis, Manuel Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Elena Buzzetti, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Apart from chronic HBV infection, the complications related to acute HBV infection are severe acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis characterised by liver failure. The optimal pharmacological treatment of acute HBV infection remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological interventions in the treatment of acute HBV infection through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the available treatments according to their safety and efficacy...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321272/future-of-liver-disease-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c
#6
REVIEW
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Francesca Mangiola, Cecilia Binda, Maria Assunta Zocco, Massimo Siciliano, Antonio Grieco, Gian Lodovico Rapaccini, Maurizio Pompili, Antonio Gasbarrini
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been a global health problem for decades, due to the high number of infected people and to the lack of effective and well-tolerated therapies. In the last 3 years, the approval of new direct acting antivirals characterized by high rates of virological clearance and excellent tolerability has dramatically improved HCV infection curability, especially for patients with advanced liver disease and for liver transplant recipients. Long-term data about the impact of the new direct acting antivirals on liver fibrosis and liver disease-related outcomes are not yet available, due to their recent introduction...
March 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316109/airway-inflammation-and-symptoms-in-children-following-liver-and-heart-transplantation
#7
Andrew J Redmann, John C Bucuvalas, Robert E Wood, Clifford Chin, Catherine K Hart
OBJECTIVES: Describe the upper airway endoscopic findings of children with upper airway symptoms after liver transplantation (LT) or heart transplantation (HT). METHODS: Review of children undergoing airway endoscopy after LT or HT from 2011 to 2015 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Airway findings, biopsy results, immunosuppression and Ebstein Barr virus (EBV) levels were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-three of 158 LT (111) and HT (47) recipients underwent endoscopy...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295849/efficacy-safety-and-pharmacokinetics-of-simeprevir-daclatasvir-and-ribavirin-in-patients-with-recurrent-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1b-infection-after-orthotopic-liver-transplantation-the-phase-ii-saturn-study
#8
Xavier Forns, Marina Berenguer, Kerstin Herzer, Martina Sterneck, Maria Francesca Donato, Pietro Andreone, Stefano Fagiuoli, Tomasz Cieciura, Magdalena Durlik, Jose Luis Calleja, Zoe Mariño, Umesh Shukla, Thierry Verbinnen, Oliver Lenz, Sivi Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Monika Peeters, Katrien Janssen, Ronald Kalmeijer, Wolfgang Jessner
BACKGROUND: Recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection following liver transplantation is associated with accelerated progression to graft failure and reduced patient survival. METHODS: The Phase II, open-label SATURN study (NCT01938625) investigated the combination of simeprevir (SMV), daclatasvir (DCV), and ribavirin (RBV) administered for 24 weeks in 35 patients with recurrent HCV genotype (GT) 1b infection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). RESULTS: High rates of both on-treatment and sustained virologic response 12 weeks after end of treatment (SVR12) were achieved in patients who were either treatment-naïve or had failed post-OLT treatment with peginterferon and RBV...
March 13, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293093/clinical-features-and-natural-history-of-cryptogenic-cirrhosis-compared-to-hepatitis-c-virus-related-cirrhosis
#9
Luca Rinaldi, Fabio Nascimbeni, Mauro Giordano, Chiara Masetti, Barbara Guerrera, Annalisa Amelia, Maria Chiara Fascione, Stefano Ballestri, Dante Romagnoli, Rosa Zampino, Riccardo Nevola, Enrica Baldelli, Natalina Iuliano, Valerio Rosato, Amedeo Lonardo, Luigi Elio Adinolfi
AIM: To characterize natural history of cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) and compare its clinical features and outcomes to those of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 102 consecutive patients at their first diagnosis of CC were enrolled in this study. The clinical data and outcomes were compared to an age- and Child-Pugh class-matched cohort of 110 patients with HCV-related cirrhosis. Diagnosis of cirrhosis was based on compatible clinical and laboratory parameters, ultrasound/endoscopic parameters and, whenever possible, on histological grounds and transient elastography...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288061/impact-of-donor-age-on-recipient-survival-in-adult-to-adult-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#10
Toyonari Kubota, Koichiro Hata, Takashi Sozu, Yoshihide Ueda, Hirofumi Hirao, Yusuke Okamura, Ichiro Tamaki, Junichi Yoshikawa, Jiro Kusakabe, Hirokazu Tanaka, Shoichi Kageyama, Takayuki Anazawa, Atsushi Yoshizawa, Shintaro Yagi, Noriyo Yamashiki, Hideaki Okajima, Toshimi Kaido, Shinji Uemoto
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of donor age on recipient outcome after living-donor partial liver transplantation (LDLT). BACKGROUND: Donor age is a well-known prognostic factor in deceased donor liver transplantation; however, its role in LDLT remains unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 315 consecutive cases of primary adult-to-adult LDLT in our center between April 2006 and March 2014. Recipients were divided into 5 groups according to the donor age: D-20s (n = 60); D-30s (n = 72); D-40s (n = 57); D-50s (n = 94); and D-60s (n = 32)...
March 10, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285495/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-hepatitis-c-infection-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Maria Kalafateli, Elena Buzzetti, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person who was previously negative for HCV antibody). Approximately 40% to 95% of people with acute HCV infection develop chronic HCV infection, that is, have persistent HCV RNA in their blood...
March 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275823/beyond-immune-thrombocytopenia-the-evolving-role-of-thrombopoietin-receptor-agonists
#12
REVIEW
Francesco Rodeghiero, Giuseppe Carli
Since its discovery, the thrombopoietin (TPO) pathway has been an important pharmaceutical target for the treatment of thrombocytopenia. The first generation of TPO mimetics included peptide agents sharing homology with endogenous TPO, but these introduced a risk of antibody formation to endogenous TPO and were not successful. However, second-generation TPO mimetics or TPO receptor agonists (RAs) are currently being used to treat thrombocytopenia associated with a number of conditions, such as immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), severe aplastic anaemia (SAA), and hepatitis C virus-associated chronic liver disease...
March 8, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273391/liver-transplantation-for-fulminant-genotype-2a-c-hepatitis-c-virus-marked-by-a-rapid-recurrence-followed-by-cure
#13
Brett Tracy, Roshan Shrestha, Lance Stein, Devina Bhasin, Harrison Pollinger, Raymond A Rubin
Although chronic hepatitis C is still the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the United States and Europe, acute liver failure caused by to hepatitis C is distinctly uncommon and transplantation for fulminant hepatitis C virus (HCV) has not been documented in the United States. We present a case report of fulminant hepatic failure caused by genotype 2a/c HCV not only treated with LT, but also complicated by severe, rapid recurrence of HCV within 6 days of transplantation. The risk factor for the infection was likely sexual, as there were no other concomitant causes of liver disease pre-transplant or explanations for acute hepatitis post-transplant...
March 8, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270038/inf-free-sofosbuvir-based-treatment-of-post-transplant-hepatitis-c-relapse-a-swedish-real-life-experience
#14
Castedal Maria, Segenmark Michael, Cederberg Susanne, Skoglund Catarina, Weiland Ola
BACKGROUND: Relapse of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after liver transplantation has been universal, and the fibrosis progression faster than in non-transplanted patients. Interferon (IFN)-free treatment with direct antiviral agents (DAA) has improved the treatment outcome dramatically. We here report on the outcome of IFN-free treatment for HCV relapse after liver transplantation in a real life setting in Sweden. MATERIAL: In total, 93 patients with a mean age of 60 years (range 32-80) with HCV relapse after liver transplantation were given sofosbuvir-based treatment in combination with a protease inhibitor (simeprevir) or a NS5A inhibitor (daclatasvir or ledipasvir) with or without addition of ribavirin (RBV), or sofosbuvir and RBV only...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267622/effectiveness-of-hepatitis-c-antiviral-treatment-in-a-usa-cohort-of-veteran-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Lauren A Beste, Pamela K Green, Kristin Berry, Matthew J Kogut, Stephen K Allison, George N Ioannou
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was uncommon before direct acting antiviral (DAA) medications. Real-world effectiveness of DAAs for HCV in patients with HCC is unclear. We describe rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) with DAA regimens by HCV genotype in patients with history of HCC. METHODS: We identified patients who initiated antiviral treatment between January 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 in the national Veterans Affairs health care system...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266658/targeted-antigen-delivery-to-dendritic-cells-elicits-robust-antiviral-t-cell-mediated-immunity-in-the-liver
#16
Julia Volckmar, Marcus Gereke, Thomas Ebensen, Peggy Riese, Lars Philipsen, Stefan Lienenklaus, Dirk Wohlleber, Robert Klopfleisch, Sabine Stegemann-Koniszewski, Andreas J Müller, Achim D Gruber, Percy Knolle, Carlos A Guzman, Dunja Bruder
Hepatotropic viruses such as hepatitis C virus cause life-threatening chronic liver infections in millions of people worldwide. Targeted in vivo antigen-delivery to cross-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) has proven to be extraordinarily efficient in stimulating antigen-specific T cell responses. To determine whether this approach would as well be suitable to induce local antiviral effector T cells in the liver we compared different vaccine formulations based on either the targeting of DEC-205 or TLR2/6 on cross-presenting DCs or formulations not involving in vivo DC targeting...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260480/living-donor-liver-transplant-follow-up-a-singlecenter-experience
#17
Syed Mudassir Laeeq, Farina M Hanif, Nasir Hassan Luck, Rajesh Kumar Mandhwani, Jawed Iqbal, Syed Haider Mehdi
OBJECTIVES: Liver transplant is a definite treatment of decompensated liver disease. Because of the shortage of livers from deceased donors, living-donor liver transplant is becoming more common. Here, we analyzed our clinical experience in the follow-up care of these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liver transplant recipients seen at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (Karachi, Pakistan) were included in this analysis. Baseline characteristics and follow-up events were recorded...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260429/low-utility-of-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-for-detecting-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-before-liver-transplantation
#18
Faisal Alotaibi, Monther Kabbani, Faisal Abaalkhail, Alicia Chorley, Hany Elbeshbeshy, Waleed Al-Hamoudi, Saleh Alabbad, Markus U Boehnert, Mohammad Alsofayan, Wael Al-Kattan, Baderaldeen Ahmed, Dieter Broering, Mohamed Al Sebayel, Hussien Elsiesy
OBJECTIVES: Our program routinely used fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography as part of the liver transplant evaluation of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of this imaging modality in the pretransplant work-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of our liver transplant database from January 2011 to December 2014 for all patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent a liver transplant...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260422/pre-versus-posttransplant-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-with-direct-acting-antivirals-in-liver-transplant-recipients-more-issues-to-be-solved
#19
Abdelhai Abdelqader, Gokhan Kabacam, Tinsay A Woreta, James P Hamilton, Harry Luu, Kawtar Al Khalloufi, Behnam Saberi, Benjamin Philosophe, Andrew M Cameron, Ahmet Gurakar
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to investigate wait times related to hepatitis C virus treatment with direct acting antivirals before versus after liver transplant at a single center as well as wait times for insurance approval for preemptive treatment with these agents after liver transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated hepatitis C virus infections in transplant recipients of deceased liver donations in 2014 and 2015. Demographics, hepatocellular carcinoma incidence, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, and transplant wait times were compared between patients treated before or after liver transplant...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247572/long-term-outcome-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-chc-virus-infection-in-a-real-world-setting-the-german-lotos-study
#20
Heiner Wedemeyer, Jens Reimer, Petra Sandow, Dietrich Hueppe, Thomas Lutz, Kurt Gruengreiff, Joerg Goelz, Stefan Christensen, Heike Pfeiffer-Vornkahl, Ulrich Alshuth, Michael P Manns
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are few large-scale, prospective studies comparing liver-associated events in treated and untreated patients with CHC managed in routine clinical practice. METHODS: Patients with CHC were prospectively enrolled in a non-interventional study. Data from patients with available documentation who had either achieved a sustained virological response, or were non-responders, relapsers, or had virological breakthrough following treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a ± ribavirin, or who had been diagnosed but never treated at least 3 years previously, and who remained under medical observation were analyzed...
March 1, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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