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Virus C and liver transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732019/rate-of-hepatitis-c-viral-clearance-by-human-livers-in-human-patients-liver-transplantation-modeling-primary-infection-and-implications-for-studying-entry-inhibition
#1
Michael G Hughes, William W Tucker, Sreelatha Reddy, Michael E Brier, David Koch, Craig J McClain, Colleen B Jonsson, Nobuyuki Matoba, Donghoon Chung
To better understand the dynamics of early hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we determined how rapidly non-cirrhotic HCV-uninfected liver allografts clear HCV from the circulation of cirrhotic HCV-infected patients at the time of transplantation but before administration of immunosuppression. Specifically, we characterized serum HCV kinetics during the first 90 min of reperfusion for 19 chronically HCV-infected patients transplanted with an HCV-uninfected liver by measuring serum viral load immediately prior to reperfusion (t = 0) and then every 15 min for a total of 90 min (t = 90)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731371/determinants-of-infection-outcome-in-hcv-genotype-4
#2
Rania A Zayed, Dalia Omran, Abeer A Zayed, Lobna O Elmessery
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a worldwide health problem and has been for long an attractive point of research due to diversity among different genotypes regarding unique geographical distribution and diverse treatment outcome. HCV is considered a major cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, which leads to liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma requiring liver transplantation. Of the HCV genotypes identified, HCV genotype 4 (HCV-4) is the least studied. HCV-4 is responsible for ∼10% of HCV infections and is common in the Middle East and Africa; recently it is increasingly prevalent in European Countries...
July 21, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702738/impact-of-etiological-treatment-on-prognosis
#3
REVIEW
Chien-Wei Su, Ying-Ying Yang, Han-Chieh Lin
Portal hypertension (PHT) is a frequent and severe complication of cirrhosis. PHT may lead to the development of various complications with high mortality. Liver transplantation is the gold standard as a surgical curative treatment for end-stage liver disease. Theoretically, etiological treatment focusing on the pathophysiology of the underlying disease should be the objective of the nonsurgical management of cirrhotic PHT. Chronic viral hepatitis is the major etiology of cirrhosis and PHT. In cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, antiviral therapies can suppress viral replication, ameliorate hepatic inflammation, regress fibrosis, and restore liver functional reserve...
July 12, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689596/extrahepatic-manifestations-of-hepatitis-c-virus-after-liver-transplantation
#4
REVIEW
Robert J Wong, Sammy Saab, Aijaz Ahmed
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a leading cause of chronic liver disease in the United States. Although the hepatic impact of chronic HCV leading to cirrhosis and the need for liver transplantation is paramount, the extrahepatic manifestations of chronic HCV infection are equally important. In particular, a better understanding of the prevalence and impact of extrahepatic manifestations of chronic HCV infection in the post-liver transplant setting relies on understanding the interplay between the effects of chronic HCV infection in a posttransplant environment characterized by strong immunosuppression and the associated risks of this milieu...
August 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686707/molecular-characterization-of-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-patients-with-end-stage-liver-disease-in-colombia
#5
Julio Cesar Rendon, Fabian Cortes-Mancera, Juan Carlos Restrepo-Gutierrez, Sergio Hoyos, Maria-Cristina Navas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) occult infection (OBI) is a risk factor to be taken into account in transfusion, hemodialysis and organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize at the molecular level OBI cases in patients with end-stage liver disease. METHODS: Sixty-six liver samples were obtained from patients with diagnosis of end-stage liver disease submitted to liver transplantation in Medellin (North West, Colombia). Samples obtained from patients who were negative for the surface antigen of HBV (n = 50) were tested for viral DNA detection by nested PCR for ORFs S, C, and X and confirmed by Southern-Blot...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685914/rates-of-liver-re-transplantation-in-the-united-states-are-declining-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#6
George Cholankeril, Eric R Yoo, Menghan Hu, Chiranjeevi Gadiparthi, Muhammad Ali Khan, Ryan B Perumpail, C Andrew Bonham, Aijaz Ahmed
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) and liver re-transplantation (re-LT) in the United States (US). Following LT, the recurrence of HCV infection is universal, with 40% of grafts developing cirrhosis within five years, often necessitating re-LT. Until recently, treatment strategies for liver transplant recipients with recurrent HCV infection were less than ideal; however, the recent development and approval of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents have shifted the treatment paradigm in this difficult-to-treat cohort...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683174/the-oncologic-burden-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-clinical-perspective
#7
Harrys A Torres, Terri Lynn Shigle, Nassim Hammoudi, James T Link, Felipe Samaniego, Ahmed Kaseb, Vincent Mallet
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with cancer. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have changed HCV treatment paradigms, but little is known about the management of HCV infection in patients with cancer. The substantial burden of HCV infection and the inconclusive evidence regarding its detection and management in patients with cancer prompted the authors to review the literature and formulate recommendations. Patients for whom HCV screening is recommended included all patients with hematologic malignancies, hematopoietic cell transplantation candidates, and patients with liver cancer...
July 6, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679992/chemotherapy-for-a-child-with-relapsed-acute-myeloid-leukemia-complicated-with-persistent-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#8
Shunsuke Kimura, Shinsuke Hirabayashi, Daisuke Hasegawa, Wakako Sumiya, Megumi Seya, Toshihiro Matsui, Yuri Yoshimoto, Yosuke Hosoya, Nobuyoshi Mori, Akira Matsui, Atsushi Manabe
An 8-year-old Mongolian female was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and treated at a hospital in Mongolia according to the BFM-AML2004 SR protocol. Although complete remission (CR) was achieved, chemotherapy was interrupted because of shortage of drugs. The patient moved to Japan 7 months after diagnosis. Screening for viral infection revealed the presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody and RNA. At 11 months after initial diagnosis, the patient experienced bone marrow relapse and a RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion transcript was detected...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668876/hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-a-patient-receiving-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer-a-case-report
#9
Mylene Remo, Ivy Abraham, Vineel Kankanala, Wadih Chacra, Oana C Danciu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a known complication of immunosuppressive therapy. While patients who are undergoing treatment with anti-CD20 agents or stem cell transplantation are commonly screened for chronic HBV infection prior to treatment, there are no consensus guidelines regarding HBV screening for patients undergoing chemotherapy for solid tumors. We present a rare case of fulminant liver failure due to HBV reactivation in a patient receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Our case highlights the importance of developing definitive guidelines regarding HBV screening in patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors and raises the question of the need for universal screening...
July 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667451/pretransplant-diabetes-mellitus-predicts-worse-outcomes-of-liver-transplantation-evidence-from-meta-analysis
#10
P Li, H Fan, Q He
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that the prognosis of liver transplantation (LT) is significantly influenced by pretransplant factors, such as diabetes mellitus (DM). However, inconsistent observations are obtained. METHODS: We comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science to identify eligible cohort studies to evaluate the impact of preexisting DM on LT prognosis. Overall mortality and graft loss, as the most frequently observed parameters, were used to evaluate the outcomes of LT...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662883/paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-plus-dasabuvir-with-ribavirin-for-treatment-of-recurrent-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-1-infection-after-liver-transplantation-real-world-experience
#11
Ming-Lung Yu, Yao-Li Chen, Chung-Feng Huang, Kuo-Hua Lin, Ming-Lun Yeh, Ching-I Huang, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Jee-Fu Huang, Chia-Yen Dai, Wan-Long Chuang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The registered trial has demonstrated that paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir plus dasabuvir (PrOD) with ribavirin was effective for recurrent hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection after liver transplantation in patients with mild fibrosis; however, the real-world efficacy and safety of this regimen have not been determined. METHODS: The efficacy (sustained virological response, SVR12, undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks post-treatment) and safety were evaluated in 12 patients with recurrent HCV-1 infection after liver transplantation...
June 26, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661190/current-clinical-evidence-for-nucleos-t-ide-analogues-in-patients-with-hbv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Yiqi Yu, Jingwen Ai, Wenhong Zhang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of death globally and is frequently seen following Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or Hepatitis C virus infection. Areas with high HBV infection rates, such as Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, are therefore also high-risk areas for HCC. Areas covered: This review identifies and discusses the current evidence from robust clinical trials which have investigated the benefits of Nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) antiviral therapy in HBV-related HCC patients, including HCC patients that underwent liver transplantation and HCC patients with or without curative treatment...
June 29, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660147/effectiveness-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-with-without-ribavarin-in-liver-transplant-recipients-with-hepatitis-c
#13
Sammy Saab, Justin Rheem, Melissa A Jimenez, Tiffany M Fong, Michelle H Mai, Caterina A Kachadoorian, Negin L Esmailzadeh, Sherona N Bau, Susan Kang, Samantha D Ramirez, Jonathan Grotts, Gina Choi, Francisco A Durazo, Mohammed M El-Kabany, Steven-Huy B Han, Ronald W Busuttil
Background and Aims: Recurrent infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is universal and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with and without ribavirin in LT recipients with recurrent genotype 1 hepatitis C. Results: Eighty-five LT recipients were treated for recurrent HCV with ledipasvir/sofosbuvirwith and without ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) time from LT to treatment initiation was 68 (±71) months...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657945/expanding-the-margins-high-volume-utilization-of-marginal-liver-grafts-among-2000-liver-transplants-at-a-single-institution
#14
Karim J Halazun, Ralph C Quillin, Russel Rosenblatt, Advaith Bongu, Adam D Griesemer, Tomoaki Kato, Craig Smith, Fabrizio Michelassi, James V Guarrera, Benjamin Samstein, Robert S Brown, Jean C Emond
OBJECTIVE: Marginal livers (ML) have been used to expand the donor pool. National utilization of MLs is variable, and in some centers, they are never used. We examined the outcomes of MLs in the largest single center series of MLs used to date and compared outcomes to standard (SL) and living donor (LD) livers. METHODS: Analysis of a prospectively maintained database of all liver transplants performed at our institution from 1998 to 2016. ML grafts were defined as livers from donors >70, livers discarded regionally and shared nationally, livers with cold ischemic time >12 hours, livers from hepatitis C virus positive donors, livers from donation after cardiac death donors, livers with >30% steatosis, and livers split between 2 recipients...
June 27, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638096/identification-of-a-flavonoid-isolated-from-plum-prunus-domestica-as-a-potent-inhibitor-of-hepatitis-c-virus-entry
#15
Mihika Bose, Mohini Kamra, Ranajoy Mullick, Santanu Bhattacharya, Saumitra Das, Anjali A Karande
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver diseases that often requires liver transplantation. The standard therapies are limited by severe side effects, resistance development, high expense and in a substantial proportion of cases, fail to clear the infection which bespeak the need for development of well-tolerated antivirals. Since most of the drug development strategies target the replication stage of viral lifecycle, the identification of entry inhibitors might be crucial especially in case of liver-transplant recipients...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634131/cost-effectiveness-of-pre-versus-post-liver-transplant-hepatitis-c-treatment-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#16
Sumeyye Samur, Brian Kues, Turgay Ayer, Mark S Roberts, Fasiha Kanwal, Chin Hur, Drew Michael S Donnell, Raymond T Chung, Jagpreet Chhatwal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment offer new hope to both pre- and post-liver transplant (LT) patients. However, whether to treat HCV patients pre- versus post-LT is not clear, as treatment can improve liver function but could reduce the chance of receiving a LT while on the waiting list. Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of pre-LT versus post-LT HCV treatment with oral DAAs in decompensated cirrhotic patients on the LT waiting list...
June 17, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630341/pig-model-mimicking-chronic-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-immunocompromised-patients-to-assess-immune-correlates-during-chronicity
#17
Dianjun Cao, Qian M Cao, Sakthivel Subramaniam, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Adam J Rogers, Scott P Kenney, Debin Tian, Shannon R Matzinger, Christopher Overend, Nicholas Catanzaro, Tanya LeRoith, Heng Wang, Pablo Piñeyro, Nicole Lindstrom, Sherrie Clark-Deener, Lijuan Yuan, Xiang-Jin Meng
Chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a significant clinical problem in immunocompromised individuals such as organ transplant recipients, although the mechanism remains unknown because of the lack of an animal model. We successfully developed a pig model of chronic HEV infection and examined immune correlates leading to chronicity. The conditions of immunocompromised patients were mimicked by treating pigs with an immunosuppressive regimen including cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone. Immunocompromised pigs infected with HEV progressed to chronicity, because 8/10 drug-treated HEV-infected pigs continued fecal virus shedding beyond the acute phase of infection, whereas the majority (7/10) of mock-treated HEV-infected pigs cleared fecal viral shedding at 8 wk postinfection...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618165/herpes-simplex-virus-2-transmission-following-solid-organ-transplantation-donor-derived-infection-and-transplantation-from-prior-organ-recipients
#18
Nenad Macesic, Ian J Abbott, Matthew Kaye, Julian Druce, Allan R Glanville, Paul J Gow, Peter D Hughes, Tony M Korman, William R Mulley, Phillip J O'Connell, Helen Opdam, Miranda Paraskeva, Matthew C Pitman, Stella Setyapranata, William D Rawlinson, Paul D R Johnson
BACKGROUND: Owing to limited availability of donor organs, previous solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are increasingly considered as potential organ donors. We report donor-derived transmission of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) to two clusters of SOT recipients with transmission from the original donor and an HSV-2-infected recipient who subsequently became a donor. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of the donors and recipients in both clusters. Pre-transplant serology and virological features of HSV-2 were characterized...
June 15, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608619/efficacy-and-safety-of-daclatasvir-based-antiviral-therapy-in-hcv-recurrence-after-liver-transplantation-role-of-cirrhosis-and-genotype-3-a-multi-centre-cohort-study
#19
Magdalena Salcedo, Martín Prieto, Lluís Castells, Juan Manuel Pascasio, Jose Luis Montero Alvarez, Inmaculada Fernández, Gloria Sánchez-Antolín, Luisa González-Diéguez, Miguel García-Gonzalez, Alejandra Otero, Sara Lorente, Maria Dolores Espinosa, Milagros Testillano, Antonio González, Jose Castellote, Fernando Casafont, Maria-Carlota Londoño, Jose Antonio Pons, Esther Molina Pérez, Valentín Cuervas-Mons, Sonia Pascual, Jose Ignacio Herrero, Isidoro Narváez, Carmen Vinaixa, Jordi Llaneras, Jose Manuel Sousa, Rafael Bañares
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) combining daclatasvir (DCV) have reported good outcomes in the recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after liver transplant (LT). However, its effect on the severe recurrence and the risk of death remains controversial. We evaluated the efficacy, predictors of survival, and safety of DAC-based regimens in a large real-world cohort. METHODS: A total of 331 patients received DCV-based therapy. Duration of therapy and ribavirin use were at the investigator's discretion...
June 13, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601232/pegylated-interferon-plus-ribavirin-combination-therapy-in-postliver-transplant-recipients-with-recurrent-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#20
Ta-Ya Lin, Ming-Lun Yeh, Ching-I Huang, Yao-Li Chen, Chia-Yen Dai, Jee-Fu Huang, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Lung Yu, Wan-Long Chuang
Posttransplant hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence is universal in chronic hepatitis C recipients. Antiviral therapy is suggested after liver transplant to halt disease progression. Pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy remains the standard of care in many areas where direct antiviral agents are poorly accessible. This study aimed to assess the treatment efficacy and safety of the regimen for Taiwanese patients with post-transplant HCV recurrence. Nine patients with HCV recurrence postliver transplantation were allocated...
June 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
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