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Virus C and liver transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751875/chronic-hepatitis-c-and-direct-acting-antivirals
#1
REVIEW
Maria Westerhoff, Joseph Ahn
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common blood-borne infection in the United States and is the most common cause of end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplant. Over the last 10 years, direct acting antiviral therapies have revolutionized HCV treatment, increasing the cure rates from less than 50% to more than 90% in those who reach access to care. This article is an overview for pathologists and clinicians covering the histologic findings of HCV as well as direct acting antiviral therapy.
June 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734473/treatment-for-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-mixed-cryoglobulinaemia
#2
REVIEW
Nuria Montero, Alexandre Favà, Eva Rodriguez, Clara Barrios, Josep M Cruzado, Julio Pascual, Maria Jose Soler
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated mixed cryoglobulinaemia is the manifestation of an inflammation of small and medium-sized vessels produced by a pathogenic IgM with rheumatoid factor activity generated by an expansion of B-cells. The immune complexes formed precipitate mainly in the skin, joints, kidneys or peripheral nerve fibres. Current therapeutic approaches are aimed at elimination of HCV infection, removal of cryoglobulins and also of the B-cell clonal expansions. The optimal treatment for it has not been established...
May 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731083/single-center-experience-using-marginal-liver-grafts-in-korea
#3
P-J Park, Y-D Yu, Y-I Yoon, S-R Kim, D-S Kim
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) is an established therapeutic modality for patients with end-stage liver disease. The use of marginal donors has become more common worldwide due to the sharp increase in recipients, with a consequent shortage of suitable organs. We analyzed our single-center experience over the last 8 years in LT to evaluate the outcomes of using so-called "marginal donors." METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the database of all LTs performed at our institution from 2009 to 2017...
May 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729258/compliance-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-surveillance-guidelines-associated-with-increased-lead-time-adjusted-survival-of-patients-with-compensated-viral-cirrhosis
#4
Charlotte Costentin, Richard Layese, Valérie Bourcier, Carole Cagnot, Patrick Marcellin, Dominique Guyader, Stanislas Pol, Dominique Larrey, Victor De Lédinghen, Denis Ouzan, Fabien Zoulim, Dominique Roulot, Albert Tran, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre Zarski, Ghassan Riachi, Paul Calès, Jean-Marie Péron, Laurent Alric, Marc Bourlière, Philippe Mathurin, Jean-Frédéric Blanc, Armand Abergel, Lawrence Serfaty, Ariane Mallat, Jean-Didier Grangé, Pierre Attali, Yannick Bacq, Claire Wartelle, Thông Dao, Dominique Thabut, Christophe Pilette, Christine Silvain, Christos Christidis, Eric Nguyen-Khac, Brigitte Bernard-Chabert, David Zucman, Vincent Di Martino, Angela Sutton, Eric Letouzé, Sandrine Imbeaud, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Etienne Audureau, Françoise Roudot-Thoraval, Pierre Nahon
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Semi-annual surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is recommended for patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine how compliance with HCC surveillance guidelines affects survival times of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)- or HBV-associated compensated cirrhosis who developed HCC. METHODS: We collected data from the prospective ANRS CO12 CirVir study, from March 2006 through June 2012, on 1671 patients with biopsy-proven viral cirrhosis and no previous liver complications who were undergoing surveillance for HCC at 35 centers in France...
May 2, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723692/a-learning-collaborative-approach-increases-specificity-of-diagnosis-of-acute-liver-failure-in-pediatric-patients
#5
Michael R Narkewicz, Simon Horslen, Regina M Hardison, Benjamin L Shneider, Norberto Rodriguez-Baez, Estella M Alonso, Vicky L Ng, Mike A Leonis, Kathleen M Loomes, David A Rudnick, Philip Rosenthal, Rene Romero, Girish C Subbarao, Ruosha Li, Steven H Belle, Robert H Squires
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Many pediatric patients with acute liver failure (PALF) do not receive a specific diagnosis (such as herpes simplex virus or Wilson disease or fatty acid oxidation defects)-they are left with an indeterminate diagnosis and are more likely to undergo liver transplantation, which is contraindicated for some disorders. Strategies to facilitate complete diagnostic testing should increase identification of specific liver diseases and might reduce liver transplantation...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718546/improvement-of-lsm-arfi-measurements-and-non-invasive-fibrosis-markers-after-daas-for-hcv-g4-recurrence-post-living-donor-liver-transplantation-egyptian-cohort
#6
Shereen Abdel Alem, Mohamed Said, Ismail Anwar, Zeinab Abdellatif, Tamer Elbaz, Rasha Eletreby, Mahmoud AbouElKhair, Magdy El-Serafy, Sherif Mogawer, Mona El-Amir, Mostafa El-Shazly, Adel Hosny, Ayman Yosry
BACKGROUND: Progression of recurrent hepatitis C is accelerated in liver transplant (LT) recipients. Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have recently emerged as a promising therapeutic regimen for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Rates of sustained virological response (SVR) have drastically improved since introduction of DAAs. AIM: To elucidate the changes in liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by Transient elastography (TE) as well as ARFI elastography and fibrosis scores after DAAs treatment in LT recipients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713388/post-operative-stress-hyperglycemia-is-a-predictor-of-mortality-in-liver-transplantation
#7
Elena Giráldez, Evaristo Varo, Ipek Guler, Carmen Cadarso-Suarez, Santiago Tomé, Patricia Barral, Antonio Garrote, Francisco Gude
Background: A significant association is known between increased glycaemic variability and mortality in critical patients. To ascertain whether glycaemic profiles during the first week after liver transplantation might be associated with long-term mortality in these patients, by analysing whether diabetic status modified this relationship. Method: Observational long-term survival study includes 642 subjects undergoing liver transplantation from July 1994 to July 2011...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710288/the-drug-overdose-epidemic-and-deceased-donor-transplantation-in-the-united-states-a-national-registry-study
#8
Christine M Durand, Mary G Bowring, Alvin G Thomas, Lauren M Kucirka, Allan B Massie, Andrew Cameron, Niraj M Desai, Mark Sulkowski, Dorry L Segev
Background: The epidemic of drug overdose deaths in the United States has led to an increase in organ donors. Objective: To characterize donors who died of overdose and to analyze outcomes among transplant recipients. Design: Prospective observational cohort study. Setting: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, 1 January 2000 to 1 September 2017. Participants: 138 565 deceased donors; 337 934 transplant recipients at 297 transplant centers...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707618/transplantation-of-a-liver-allograft-from-a-hepatitis-c-virus-seropositive-donor-with-previous-sustained-virologic-response-to-an-uninfected-recipient-suffering-steroid-refractory-acute-graft-rejection-with-no-evidence-of-hcv-transmission
#9
Robert A Mitchell, Trana Hussaini, Alan H Yau, Mel Krajden, Alissa J Wright, Charles H Scudamore, Vladimir Marquez Azalgara, Siegfried R Erb, Eric M Yoshida
Background: The goal of treating chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is sustained virologic response (SVR). There is concern that despite achieving SVR, replication-competent HCV may be sequestered at low levels within the liver and could theoretically reactivate with immunosuppression. We report transplantation of a HCV-seropositive liver donor, who achieved SVR, into a seronegative patient without HCV reactivation despite profound immunosuppression. Method: Retrospective chart review...
March 2018: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705278/diagnostic-usefulness-of-apri-and-fib-4-for-the-prediction-of-liver-fibrosis-after-liver-transplantation-in-patients-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus
#10
H Imai, H Kamei, Y Onishi, Y Ishizu, M Ishigami, H Goto, Y Ogura
BACKGROUND: Aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) are well known as representative indirect serum biomarkers related to liver fibrosis. The usefulness of these markers for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis after liver transplantation (LT) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients and the influence of splenectomy were investigated. METHODS: From June 2003 to May 2014, 31 HCV-infected patients who underwent LT and postoperative follow-up liver biopsies were included in this study...
April 25, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696373/risk-factors-for-early-viral-infections-after-liver-transplantation
#11
Cornelius Johannes Busch, Benedikt Hermann Siegler, Heike Werle, Christoph Lichtenstern, Thomas Bruckner, Alexandra Heininger, Arianeb Mehrabi, Karl Heinz Weiss, Markus Alexander Weigand, Marcel Hochreiter
PURPOSE: Viral infections represent a serious threat for patients after liver transplantation (LT). The identification of risk factors during the early post-transplant period might help to improve prevention of viral infections after LT. METHODS: Between 2004 and 2010, 530 adult patients underwent LT at a large university hospital serving a metropolitan region in Europe. This retrospective single-centre study analysed putative risk factors for early viral infections with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis A/B/C (HAV/HBV/HCV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the first 3 months after LT...
April 25, 2018: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695614/the-drug-drug-interaction-potential-of-antiviral-agents-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection
#12
Kimberly L Garrison, Polina German, Erik Mogalian, Anita Mathias
Several safe and highly-effective directly-acting antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been developed and greatly increase the number of treatment options available to successfully treat HCV infection. However, as treatment regimens contain at least two drugs (e.g., sofosbuvir with daclatasvir, simeprevir, ledipasvir, or velpatasvir; elbasvir and grazoprevir) and up to five drugs (ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir+dasabuvir+ribavirin), the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDI) becomes an important consideration for HCV-infected individuals with comorbidities that require concomitant medications, such as HIV/HCV co-infection or immunosuppression following liver transplantation...
April 25, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694728/rationale-for-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-who-are-not-kidney-transplant-candidates
#13
REVIEW
Laith Al-Rabadi, Terry Box, Girish Singhania, Catreena Al-Marji, Adhish Agarwal, Isaac Hall, Craig E Gordon, Huy Tran
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common problem in patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality and lower quality of life. The major causes of HCV-associated mortality are liver and cardiovascular-related death. HCV-infected HD patients have a higher prevalence of inflammation-related metabolic and vascular diseases, leading to high rates of cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. In the current era of highly effective direct-acting antiviral regimens, HCV treatment may also confer hepatic, cardiovascular and other morbidity and mortality benefits even to dialysis-dependent patients who do not qualify for kidney transplantation...
April 2018: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694726/treatment-and-management-options-for-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-kidney-transplant-candidate
#14
REVIEW
Adriana Dejman, Marco A Ladino, David Roth
A substantial body of literature has unequivocally established that prevalent hepatitis C virus infection in chronic kidney disease (CKD), end stage renal disease (ESRD) and kidney transplant recipients is associated with a negative impact on patient survival. As a consequence of remarkable work that explained the details of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome, a class of drugs referred to as the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents were developed that targeted specific key sites in viral replication. Large clinical trials in the HCV-infected general population followed soon after that demonstrated cure rates exceeding 95%...
April 2018: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686997/identification-of-il-28b-genotype-modification-in-hepatocytes-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation-by-laser-capture-microdissection-and-pyrosequencing-analysis
#15
King-Wah Chiu, Toshiaki Nakano, Kuang-Den Chen, Tsung-Hui Hu, Chih-Che Lin, Li-Wen Hsu, Chao-Long Chen, Shigeru Goto
The aim of this study is to elucidate the biogenetic modification of donor and recipient interleukin-28B (IL-28B) genotypes in liver graft biopsies after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for chronic hepatitis C virus- (HCV-) related, end-stage liver disease. Fifty liver graft biopsies were collected from recipients during LDLT treatment for HCV-related, end-stage liver disease. DNA was extracted from all 50 liver tissues, and the IL-28B single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs8099917 and rs12979860 were studied for allelic discrimination by real-time PCR analysis...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679347/pre-emptive-treatment-of-hcv-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#16
Jinmin Jung, Jae Hyun Kwon, Gi-Won Song, Eun-Young Tak, Vavara A Kirchner, Sung-Gyu Lee
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) universally recurs after liver transplantation (LT). Although the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has revolutionized the treatment of HCV infection, no optimal treatment for HCV recurrence after LT has been developed. METHODS: This study retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of DAAs as a pre-emptive treatment for recurrent HCV infection after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). From January 2010 to December 2016, 70 patients received pegylated interferon (PegIFN) and 35 patients were treated with DAA-based regimens to treat recurrent HCV after LDLT...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675064/resolution-of-refractory-hepatic-hydrothorax-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-cirrhosis-after-treatment-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#17
Maged H Hussein, Musthafa Chalikandy Peedikayil, Zamir Ahmed Zamir, Abdulrahman Alfadda
Hepatic hydrothorax (HH) is a transudative pleural effusion that complicates advanced liver cirrhosis. Cases refractory to medical treatment in the form of salt restriction and diuretics are labeled refractory hepatic hydrothorax (RHH) and may require transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPSS) or even liver transplantation. Renal impairment is common in advanced liver disease, worsens its prognosis, and makes the management of HH more challenging. Successful antiviral therapy reduces some of the complications of cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection...
April 2018: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672891/glecaprevir-pibrentasvir-treatment-in-liver-or-kidney-transplant-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#18
Nancy Reau, Paul Y Kwo, Susan Rhee, Robert S Brown, Kosh Agarwal, Peter Angus, Edward Gane, Jia-Horng Kao, Parvez S Mantry, David Mutimer, K Rajender Reddy, Tram T Tran, Yiran B Hu, Abhishek Gulati, Preethi Krishnan, Emily O Dumas, Ariel Porcalla, Nancy S Shulman, Wei Liu, Suvajit Samanta, Roger Trinh, Xavier Forns
Well-tolerated, ribavirin-free, pangenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments for transplant recipients remain a high priority. Once-daily glecaprevir/pibrentasvir demonstrates high rates of sustained virologic response for 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) across all major HCV genotypes (GT). This trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir for patients with chronic HCV GT1-6 infection who had received a liver or kidney transplant. MAGELLAN-2 was a phase 3, open-label trial conducted in patients who were ≥3 months post-transplant...
April 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670408/acute-hepatitis-e-in-a-renal-transplantation-recipient-a-case-report
#19
Mitsutoshi Shindo, Hiroaki Takemae, Takafumi Kubo, Masatsugu Soeno, Tetsuo Ando, Yoshiyuki Morishita
Hepatitis E is caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV is transmitted orally via HEV-contaminated food or drink. Hepatitis E usually shows mild symptoms and is self-limiting in the general population; however, it may progress to chronic hepatitis in immunosuppressed patients such as recipients of organ transplantation. However, a few cases of acute hepatitis E have been reported in organ transplantation recipients. We herein report a case of acute hepatitis E in a 31-year-old male renal transplant recipient...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669332/paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-plus-dasabuvir-regimen-in-the-treatment-of-genotype-1-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-in-patients-with-severe-renal-impairment-and-end-stage-renal-disease-a-real-life-cohort
#20
Jan Sperl, Miluse Kreidlova, Dusan Merta, Klara Chmelova, Renata Senkerikova, Sona Frankova
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) virus infection reactivates under immunosuppressive drugs and therefore has a negative impact on long-term survival of kidney transplant recipients. Treatment-induced clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in kidney transplant candidates prevents virus reactivation after transplantation. Paritaprevir/Ritonavir/Ombitasvir with Dasabuvir (PrOD) represents a highly effective treatment regimen for HCV genotype 1 (GT1), also suitable for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD)...
April 13, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
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