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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161214/a-randomized-trial-of-an-advanced-sun-safety-intervention-for-vacationers-at-41-north-american-resorts
#1
Peter A Andersen, David B Buller, Barbara J Walkosz, Michael D Scott, Larry Beck, Xia Liu, Allison Abbott, Rachel Eye, Gary Cutter
Taking vacations in sunny locations is associated with the development of skin cancer. This study tested a multi-component sun protection intervention based on diffusion of innovations theory and transportation theory designed to increase vacationers' comprehensive sun protection, i.e., use of clothing, hats, and shade, and use, pre-application, and reapplication of sunscreen. The trial enrolled 41 warm weather resorts in North America in a pair-matched group randomized pretest-posttest design and assessed samples of adult vacationers at resort outdoor recreation venues regarding sun protection at pretest (n = 3,531) and posttest (n = 3,226)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160503/alert-severe-cases-and-deaths-associated-with-chikungunya-in-brazil
#2
Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito
Since the detection of the Chikungunya virus in America in 2013, two million cases of the disease have been notified worldwide. Severe cases and deaths related to Chikungunya have been reported in India and Reunion Island, estimated at 1 death per 1,000 inhabitants. Joint involvement in the acute and chronic phase is the main clinical manifestation associated with Chikungunya. The severity of the infection may be directly attributable to viral action or indirectly, owing to decompensation of preexisting comorbidities...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160188/post-transitional-fertility-the-role-of-childbearing-postponement-in-fuelling-the-shift-to-low-and-unstable-fertility-levels
#3
Tomáš Sobotka
This study discusses fertility trends and variation in countries that completed the transition from high to around-replacement fertility in the 1950s to 1980s, especially in Europe, East Asia and North America, and summarizes the key relevant findings for those countries with a more recent experience of fertility decline towards replacement level. A central finding is that there is no obvious theoretical or empirical threshold around which period fertility tends to stabilize. Period fertility rates usually continue falling once the threshold of replacement fertility is crossed, often to very low levels...
November 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160038/endoplasmic-reticulum-in-health-and-disease-the-12th-international-calreticulin-workshop-delphi-greece
#4
REVIEW
Aristidis S Charonis, Marek Michalak, Jody Groenendyk, Luis B Agellon
Starting from 1994, every 2 years, an international workshop is organized focused on calreticulin and other endoplasmic reticulum chaperones. In 2017, the workshop took place at Delphi Greece. Participants from North and South America, Europe, Asia and Australia presented their recent data and discussed them extensively with their colleagues. Presentations dealt with structural aspects of calreticulin and calnexin, the role of Ca(2+) in cellular signalling and in autophagy, the endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response, the role of calreticulin in immune responses...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160037/interactions-of-host-plant-resistance-and-seed-treatments-on-soybean-aphid-aphis-glycines-matsumura-and-soybean-cyst-nematode-heterodera-glycines-ichinohe
#5
Eric H Clifton, Gregory L Tylka, Aaron J Gassmann, Erin W Hodgson
BACKGROUND: Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, and soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, are invasive, widespread and economically important pests of soybean, Glycines max, in North America. Management of these pests relies primarily on use of pesticides and soybean germplasm with genetic resistance. A three-year field study and complementary greenhouse experiment were conducted to determine the benefits of host-plant resistance (HPR) and pesticidal seed treatments for managing pest populations and preserving soybean yield...
November 21, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159592/uptake-of-a-partner-notification-model-for-hiv-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-in-tijuana-mexico
#6
Shirley J Semple, Heather A Pines, Steffanie A Strathdee, Alicia Harvey Vera, Gudelia Rangel, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Thomas L Patterson
Undiagnosed HIV infection is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Latin America. We examined uptake of a partner notification (PN) model among MSM and TW in Tijuana, Mexico. Forty-six HIV-positive MSM/TW enrolled as index patients, and reported 132 MSM/TW sexual partners for PN. Of notified partners (90/132), 39% declined eligibility screening or participation, 39% tested for HIV, and of those 28% were newly-diagnosed HIV-positive. Partners who were seen by the index patient more than once in the past 4 months and those who primarily had sex with the index patient in one of their homes were more likely to be notified via PN (76% vs...
November 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159546/sport-related-concussion-and-mental-health-outcomes-in-elite-athletes-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Simon M Rice, Alexandra G Parker, Simon Rosenbaum, Alan Bailey, Daveena Mawren, Rosemary Purcell
BACKGROUND: Elite athletes can experience a diverse range of symptoms following post-concussive injury. The impact of sport-related concussion on specific mental health outcomes is unclear in this population. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to appraise the evidence base regarding the association between sport-related concussion and mental health outcomes in athletes competing at elite and professional levels. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and Cinahl databases was conducted...
November 20, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159227/draft-genome-and-sequence-variant-data-of-the-oomycete-pythium-insidiosum-strain-pi45-from-the-phylogenetically-distinct-clade-iii
#8
Weerayuth Kittichotirat, Preecha Patumcharoenpol, Thidarat Rujirawat, Tassanee Lohnoo, Wanta Yingyong, Theerapong Krajaejun
Pythium insidiosum is a unique oomycete microorganism, capable of infecting humans and animals. The organism can be phylogenetically categorized into three distinct clades: Clade-I (strains from the Americas); Clade-II (strains from Asia and Australia), and Clade-III (strains from Thailand and the United States). Two draft genomes of the P. insidiosum Clade-I strain CDC-B5653 and Clade-II strain Pi-S are available in the public domain. The genome of P. insidiosum from the distinct Clade-III, which is distantly-related to the other two clades, is lacking...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158688/a-time-for-new-north-south-relationships-in-global-health
#9
Jin Un Kim, Obinna Oleribe, Ramou Njie, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
The modern concept of globalization in health care and clinical research often carries a positive message for the "Global South" nations of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia. However, bioethical abuse of participants in clinical trials still exists in the Global South. Unethical studies directed by the "Global North", formed by the medically advanced nations in North America, Western Europe and Japan, have been hugely concerning. The issue between the Global North and South is a well-recognized socioeconomic phenomenon of globalization...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158604/antiviral-cd8-t-cells-induce-zika-virus-associated-paralysis-in-mice
#10
Kellie A Jurado, Laura J Yockey, Patrick W Wong, Sarah Lee, Anita J Huttner, Akiko Iwasaki
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging, mosquito-borne RNA virus. The rapid spread of ZIKV within the Americas has unveiled microcephaly (1) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (2,3) as ZIKV-associated neurological complications. Recent reports have also indicated other neurological manifestations to be associated with ZIKV, including myelitis (4) , meningoencephalitis (5) and fatal encephalitis (6) . Here, we investigate the neuropathogenesis of ZIKV infection in type I interferon receptor IFNAR knockout (Ifnar1 (-/-) ) mice, an infection model that exhibits high viral burden within the central nervous system...
November 20, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158528/fine-mapping-of-genetic-loci-driving-spontaneous-clearance-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#11
Hailiang Huang, Priya Duggal, Chloe L Thio, Rachel Latanich, James J Goedert, Alessandra Mangia, Andrea L Cox, Gregory D Kirk, Shruti Mehta, Jasneet Aneja, Laurent Alric, Sharyne M Donfield, Matthew E Cramp, Salim I Khakoo, Leslie H Tobler, Michael Busch, Graeme J Alexander, Hugo R Rosen, Brian R Edlin, Florencia P Segal, Georg M Lauer, David L Thomas, Mark J Daly, Raymond T Chung, Arthur Y Kim
Approximately three quarters of acute hepatitis C (HCV) infections evolve to a chronic state, while one quarter are spontaneously cleared. Genetic predispositions strongly contribute to the development of chronicity. We have conducted a genome-wide association study to identify genomic variants underlying HCV spontaneous clearance using ImmunoChip in European and African ancestries. We confirmed two previously reported significant associations, in the IL28B/IFNL4 and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) regions, with spontaneous clearance in the European population...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158502/competing-tradeoffs-between-increasing-marine-mammal-predation-and-fisheries-harvest-of-chinook-salmon
#12
Brandon E Chasco, Isaac C Kaplan, Austen C Thomas, Alejandro Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Dawn P Noren, Michael J Ford, M Bradley Hanson, Jonathan J Scordino, Steven J Jeffries, Kristin N Marshall, Andrew O Shelton, Craig Matkin, Brian J Burke, Eric J Ward
Many marine mammal predators, particularly pinnipeds, have increased in abundance in recent decades, generating new challenges for balancing human uses with recovery goals via ecosystem-based management. We used a spatio-temporal bioenergetics model of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to quantify how predation by three species of pinnipeds and killer whales (Orcinus orca) on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) has changed since the 1970s along the west coast of North America, and compare these estimates to salmon fisheries...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158405/origin-evolution-and-global-transmission-of-community-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-st8
#13
Lena Strauß, Marc Stegger, Patrick Eberechi Akpaka, Abraham Alabi, Sebastien Breurec, Geoffrey Coombs, Beverly Egyir, Anders Rhod Larsen, Frederic Laurent, Stefan Monecke, Georg Peters, Robert Skov, Birgit Strommenger, François Vandenesch, Frieder Schaumburg, Alexander Mellmann
USA300 is a pandemic clonal lineage of hypervirulent, community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) with specific molecular characteristics. Despite its high clinical relevance, the evolutionary origin of USA300 remained unclear. We used comparative genomics of 224 temporal and spatial diverse S. aureus isolates of multilocus sequence type (ST) 8 to reconstruct the molecular evolution and global dissemination of ST8, including USA300. Analyses of core SNP diversity and accessory genome variations showed that the ancestor of all ST8 S...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158343/amphitropical-disjunctions-in-new-world-menthinae-three-pliocene-dispersals-to-south-america-following-late-miocene-dispersal-to-north-america-from-the-old-world
#14
Bryan T Drew, Sitong Liu, Jose M Bonifacino, Kenneth J Sytsma
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The subtribe Menthinae (Lamiaceae), with 35 genera and 750 species, is among the largest and most economically important subtribes within the mint family. Most genera of Menthinae are found exclusively in the New World, where the group has a virtually continuous distribution ranging from temperate North America to southern South America. In this study, we explored the presence, timing, and origin of amphitropical disjuncts within Menthinae. METHODS: Our analyses were based on a data set consisting of 89 taxa and the nuclear ribosomal DNA markers ITS and ETS...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158342/fates-of-angiosperm-species-following-long-distance-dispersal-examples-from-american-amphitropical-polemoniaceae
#15
Leigh A Johnson, J Mark Porter
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Following establishment after long-distance dispersal, species may experience stasis, accumulate changes leading to new species identity, diversify into multiple species, interact with related species to form novel species, and even become extirpated. We examined each species of temperate Polemoniaceae in South America via the literature and new analyses to better understand the fates of species in this family after their dispersal from North America. METHODS: We reviewed literature for the 15 species of Polemoniaceae in South America amphitropically disjunct from their relatives in North America...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157194/patient-involvement-in-healthcare-professional-practice-a-question-about-knowledge
#16
Tine Aagaard
The concept of patient involvement is ambiguous and contested in the healthcare systems in Western Europe and North America. Current research indicates that patients only feel moderately involved in their treatment and care. This article builds on a study of chronically ill patients' perspectives on healthcare practice in Greenland. It discusses the significance of including in healthcare practice knowledge of patients' everyday lives with illness and their own views on their situations. Research was qualitative and ethnographic...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157065/small-spotted-bodies-with-multiple-specific-mitochondrial-dnas-existence-of-diverse-and-differentiated-tigrina-lineages-or-species-leopardus-spp-felidae-mammalia-throughout-latin-america
#17
Manuel Ruiz-García, Myreya Pinedo-Castro, Joseph Mark Shostell
We analysed two sets of mitochondrial (mt) DNA data from tigrinas (traditionally, Leopardus tigrinus) we sampled in Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, northwestern and northeastern Argentina and southern Brazil. Additionally, the analysis included some GenBank sequences from southern, central and northeastern Brazil. The first mt set (mt ATP8+mt 16S rRNA with 41 tigrina) revealed the existence of seven different tigrina-like haplogroups. They could represent, at least, 4-6 different tigrina species following the Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC)...
November 20, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157031/early-prenatal-vitamin-d-concentrations-and-social-emotional-development-in-infants
#18
Devika Chawla, Bernard Fuemmeler, Sara Benjamin Neelon, Cathrine Hoyo, Susan Murphy, Julie Daniels
BACKGROUND: Many pregnant women in the USA have suboptimal vitamin D, but the impact on infant development is unclear. Moreover, no pregnancy-specific vitamin D recommendations have been widely accepted. AIMS: Given the ubiquitous expression of vitamin D receptors in the brain, we investigated the association between early prenatal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and children's social and emotional development in the Newborn Epigenetic Study, a prospective study of pregnancies from 2009 to 2011 in Durham, North Carolina, United States of America...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156918/challenges-and-ethical-issues-in-the-course-of-palliative-care-management-for-people-living-with-advanced-neurologic-diseases
#19
Varun Sreenivasan, Christa O'Hana S Nobleza
In the recent years, there has been an increase in awareness with regards to the role of palliative care (PC) in management of neurologic diseases. In 1996, the need to incorporate PC in the care for patients with neurologic conditions was recognized by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) Ethics and Humanities Subcommittee. The gaps in research, education and the ability to deliver adequate PC were then acknowledged by the National Academy of Sciences with their publication of "Approaching death: improving care at the end of life" and most recently, continued goals in improving PC was highlighted by another recent publication "Dying in America: improving quality and honoring individual preferences near the end of life"...
October 19, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156089/assessing-the-geographical-dichotomy-hypothesis-with-cacti-in-south-america
#20
A A Arzabe, L F Aguirre, M P Baldelomar, M A Molina-Montenegro
The Cactaceae is one of the most conspicuous and ecologically important plant families in the world; its species may have specialist or generalist pollination systems that show geographical patterns, which are synthesized in the Geographical Dichotomy Hypothesis. Here, we assess this hypothesis in five countries in both tropical and extratropical regions, evaluating the pollinator visitation rate and pollinator identity and abundance. We calculate the Shannon diversity index (H') and evenness (J) and evaluate the differences between latitude parameters by a t-student test...
November 20, 2017: Plant Biology
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