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Stine Hasselholt, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg, Jens Lykkesfeldt
Vitamin C (VitC) deficiency is surprisingly common in humans even in developed parts of the world. The micronutrient has several established functions in the brain; however, the consequences of its deficiency are not well characterised. To elucidate the effects of VitC deficiency on the brain, increased knowledge about the distribution of VitC to the brain and within different brain regions after varying dietary concentrations is needed. In the present study, guinea pigs (like humans lacking the ability to synthesise VitC) were randomly divided into six groups (n 10) that received different concentrations of VitC ranging from 100 to 1500 mg/kg feed for 8 weeks, after which VitC concentrations in biological fluids and tissues were measured using HPLC...
May 28, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
Elizabeth J Campbell, Gabi U Dachs
The role of vitamin C (ascorbate) in cancer prevention, tumor growth, and treatment is of intense public interest. Clinical trial data have been sparse, contradictory, and highly controversial, and robust pre-clinical data are required for progress. This paper reviews pre-clinical models and their limitations with respect to ascorbate research. Most studies have utilized animals able to synthesize ascorbate and thus are not ideal models of the human condition. More recently, genetically modified mouse models have become available; yet, all studies compared healthy and scorbutic mice...
2014: Frontiers in Oncology
R Moreau, S J Kaushik, K Dabrowski
A study was conducted to evaluate tissue storage and mobilisation of L-ascorbic acid (AA) in the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri) fed three different experimental diets. The three treatments consisted of a diet devoid of vitamin C (diet A0) and two diets supplemented with equivalent of 300 mg AA kg(-1) in the form of either silicone-coated ascorbic acid (diet SC) or of ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (diet AP). During the first phase (4 months) of the trial, six batches of 130 Siberian sturgeon (initial body weight: 25...
November 1996: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Sharanabasappa R Japatti, Anuradha Bhatsange, Manjunath Reddy, Y S Chidambar, Satish Patil, Priyanka Vhanmane
This case reports a rare condition of scurvy which posed a diagnostic difficulty. However, a thorough medical and diet history, along with clinical and histopathological examination aided in prompt diagnosis and successful management of the case. Occurrence of scurvy in today's contemporary society is said to be rare. Lack of fresh fruits and vegetables in the diet can lead to this condition. Diagnosis may be difficult due to its rarity and presence of non specific symptoms, which may pose a challenge to the clinician...
May 2013: Dental Research Journal
Joyce E Chaplin
From their distinctive experience of going around the world, maritime circumnavigators concluded that their characteristic disease, sea scurvy, must result from their being away from land too long, much longer than any other sailors. They offered their scorbutic bodies as proof that humans were terrestrial creatures, physically suited to the earthly parts of a terraqueous globe. That arresting claim is at odds with the current literature on the cultural implications of European expansion, which has emphasized early modern colonists' and travelers' fear of alien places, and has concluded that they had a small and restricted geographic imagination that fell short of the planetary consciousness associated with the nineteenth and twentieth centuries...
2012: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Kenneth J Carpenter
The term 'scurvy' for the disease resulting from prolonged vitamin C deficiency had origins in 'scorbutus' (Latin), 'scorbut' (French), and 'Skorbut' (German). Scurvy was a common problem in the world's navies and is estimated to have affected 2 million sailors. In 1747, James Lind conducted a trial of six different treatments for 12 sailors with scurvy: only oranges and lemons were effective in treating scurvy. Scurvy also occurred on land, as many cases occurred with the 'great potato famine' in Ireland in 1845...
2012: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
John Cha, M Waheed Roomi, Vadim Ivanov, Tatiana Kalinovsky, Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Matthias Rath
Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a critical role in the formation of tumors and metastasis and has been found to correlate with the aggressiveness of tumor growth and invasiveness of cancer. Ascorbic acid, which is known to be essential for the structural integrity of the intercellular matrix, is not produced by humans and must be obtained from the diet. Cancer patients have been shown to have very low reserves of ascorbic acid. Our main objective was to determine the effect of ascorbate supplementation on metastasis, tumor growth and tumor immunohistochemistry in mice unable to synthesize ascorbic acid [gulonolactone oxidase (gulo) knockout (KO)] when challenged with B16FO melanoma or 4T1 breast cancer cells...
January 2013: International Journal of Oncology
Margaret S Ward, Jonathan Lamb, James M May, Fiona E Harrison
Severe vitamin C deficiency (ascorbic acid; AA) was induced in gulo-/- mice incapable of synthesizing their own AA. A number of behavioral measures were studied before and during the deprivation period, including a scorbutic period, during which weight loss was observed in the mice. Mice were then resuscitated with AA supplements. During the scorbutic period, gulo-/- mice showed decreased voluntary locomotor activity, diminished physical strength, and increased preference for a highly palatable sucrose reward...
February 2013: Journal of Neurochemistry
Sumit Gupta, Rajesh Kanojia, Ashish Jaiman, Dhananjaya Sabat
Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid, in which the breakdown of intercellular cement substances leads to capillary hemorrhages and defective growth of fibroblasts, osteoblasts and odontoblasts, resulting in impaired synthesis of collagen, osteoid and dentine. It is characterized by hemorrhagic gingivitis, subperiosteal hemorrhages, perifollicular hemorrhages, and frequently petechial hemorrhages (especially on the feet). People with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disability are prone to develop this disease...
May 18, 2012: World Journal of Orthopedics
Jonny Geber, Eileen Murphy
Scurvy has increasingly been recognized in archaeological populations since the 1980s but this study represents the first examination of the paleopathological findings of scurvy in a known famine population. The Great Famine (1845-1852) was a watershed in Irish history and resulted in the death of one million people and the mass emigration of just as many. It was initiated by a blight which completely wiped out the potato-virtually the only source of food for the poor of Ireland. This led to mass starvation and a widespread occurrence of infectious and metabolic diseases...
August 2012: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Y Chen, C P Curran, D W Nebert, K V Patel, M T Williams, C V Vorhees
Organisms using oxygen for aerobic respiration require antioxidants to balance the production of reactive oxygen species during metabolic processes. Various species--including humans and other primates--suffer mutations in the GULO gene encoding L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase; GULO is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of ascorbate, an important cellular antioxidant. Animals lacking the ability to synthesize vitamin C develop scurvy without dietary supplementation. The Gulo-/- knockout (KO) mouse requires oral supplemental vitamin C; without this supplementation the animal dies with a scorbutic condition within several weeks...
April 2012: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
J Cha, M W Roomi, V Ivanov, T Kalinovsky, A Niedzwiecki, M Rath
AIM: Our main objective was to determine the effect of ascorbate supplementation in mice unable to synthesize ascorbic acid (gulo KO) when challenged with murine B16FO cancer cells. METHODS: Gulo KO female mice 36-40 weeks of age were deprived of or maintained on ascorbate in food and water for 4 weeks prior to subcutaneous injection of 2.5×10(6) B16FO murine melanoma cells in the right flank of mice. A control group of wild type mice were also injected with the melanoma cells and maintained on a regular murine diet...
December 2011: Experimental Oncology
Pernille Tveden-Nyborg, Stine Hasselholt, Namiyo Miyashita, Torben Moos, Henrik E Poulsen, Jens Lykkesfeldt
Increased oxidative stress in the brain has consistently been implied in ageing and in several degenerative brain disorders. Acting as a pivotal antioxidant in the brain, vitamin C is preferentially retained during deficiency and may play an essential role in neuroprotection during ageing. Thus, a lack of vitamin C could be associated with an increase in redox imbalance in the ageing brain. The present study compared oxidative stress of ageing to that of a long-term non-scorbutic vitamin C deficiency in guinea pigs...
June 2012: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Kilmer S McCully
Hyperhomocysteinemia was first associated with degenerative disease by observation of accelerated arteriosclerosis in children with inherited disorders of cystathionine synthase, methionine synthase, and methylene tetrohydrofolate reductase. The metabolic blockade of sulfate synthesis from homocysteine thiolactone in malignant cells is ascribed to a deficiency of a chemopreventive derivative of homocysteine thiolactone that occurs in normal cells. Its chemical structure was elucidated by the organic synthesis of thioretinamide from retinoic acid and homocysteine thiolactone...
2011: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
M Pohanka, J Pejchal, S Snopkova, K Havlickova, J Z Karasova, P Bostik, J Pikula
Ascorbic acid is a low molecular weight antioxidant well known as anti-scorbut acting vitamin C in humans, primates and guinea pigs. This review summarizes basic data about ascorbic acid in its physiological action point of view. It is divided into biochemistry of ascorbic acid synthesis, mechanism of antioxidant action and participation in anabolism, pharmacokinetics and excretion, exogenous ascorbic acid immunomodulatory effect and participation in infectious diseases, impact on irradiation and intoxication pathogenesis, and supplementary demands...
January 2012: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
R M Stewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1925: Journal of Neurology and Psychopathology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1946: Federation Proceedings
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1946: Federation Proceedings
P P Rohmer, N Bezssonoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1935: Archives of Disease in Childhood
H M Oddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1931: Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine
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