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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224250/multiple-autologous-bone-marrow-derived-cd271-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-overcomes-drug-resistant-epilepsy-in-children
#1
Olga Milczarek, Danuta Jarocha, Anna Starowicz-Filip, Stanislaw Kwiatkowski, Bogna Badyra, Marcin Majka
There is a need among patients suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) for more efficient and less toxic treatments. The objective of the present study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy of autologous bone marrow cell transplantation in pediatric patients with DRE. Two females and two males (11 months to 6 years) were enrolled and underwent a combined therapy consisting of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs) transplantation (intrathecal: 0.5 × 109 ; intravenous: 0...
December 10, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224246/circadian-peak-dopaminergic-activity-response-at-the-biological-clock-pacemaker-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-area-mediates-the-metabolic-responsiveness-to-a-high-fat-diet
#2
Shuqin Luo, Yahong Zhang, Michael Ezrokhi, Yang Li, Tsung-Huang Tsai, Anthony H Cincotta
Among vertebrate species of the major vertebrate classes in the wild, a seasonal rhythm of whole body fuel metabolism, oscillating from lean to obese condition, is a common biological phenomenon. This annual cycle is driven in part by annual changes in the circadian dopaminergic signaling at the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), with diminution of circadian peak dopaminergic activity at the SCN facilitating development of the seasonal obese insulin resistant condition. The present study investigated whether such an ancient circadian dopamine-SCN activity system for expression of the seasonal obese, insulin resistant phenotype may be operative in animals made obese, insulin resistant by high fat feeding and if so whether reinstatement of the circadian dopaminergic peak at the SCN would be sufficient to reverse the adverse metabolic impact of the high fat diet without alteration of caloric intake...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224245/regulation-of-c-myc-transcriptional-activity-by-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-stimulated-clone-22
#3
Ling Zheng, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Yuka Nakajo, Akinobu Nakano, Mitsuyasu Kato
C-MYC stimulates cell proliferation through the suppression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors including P15 (CDKN2B) and P21 (CDKN1A). It also activates E-box-mediated transcription of various target genes including telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) that is involved in cellular immortality and tumorigenesis. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-stimulated clone 22 (TSC-22/TSC22D1) encodes a highly conserved leucine zipper protein that is induced by various stimuli, including TGF-β. TSC-22 inhibits cell growth in mammalian cells and in Xenopus embryos...
December 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224243/discovery-of-a-novel-thermostable-zn2-dependent-alcohol-dehydrogenase-from-chloroflexus-aurantiacus-through-conserved-domains-mining
#4
Christoph Loderer, David Wagner, Frances Morgenstern, Antje Spieß, Marion B Ansorge-Schumacher
AIMS: The purpose of the study was to demonstrate feasibility of the Conserved Domains Database (CDD) for identification of novel biocatalysts with desirable properties from a class of well-characterized biocatalysts. METHODS AND RESULTS: The thermostable ADH from Sulfolobus solfataricus with a broad substrate range was applied as a template for the search for novel thermostable ADHs via Conserved Domains Database. From the resulting hits, a putative ADH gene from the thermophilic organism Chloroflexus aurantiacus was cloned and expressed in E...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224235/long-term-cardiovascular-re-programming-by-short-term-perinatal-exposure-to-nicotine-s-main-metabolite-cotinine
#5
Stefano Bastianini, Viviana Lo Martire, Alessandro Silvani, Giovanna Zoccoli, Chiara Berteotti, Hugo Lagercrantz, Anders Arner, Gary Cohen
AIM: Gather "proof-of-concept" evidence of the adverse developmental potential of cotinine (a seemingly benign biomarker of recent nicotine / tobacco smoke exposure). METHODS: Pregnant C57 mice drank nicotine or cotinine-laced water for 6wks from conception (NPRE = 2% saccharin+100μg nicotine/ml; CPRE = 2% saccharin + 10μg cotinine/ml) or 3wks after birth (CPOST = 2% saccharin + 30μg cotinine/ml). Controls drank 2% saccharin (CTRL). At 17±1weeks (male pups; CTRL n=6; CPOST n=6; CPRE n=8; NPRE n=9) we assessed (i) cardiovascular control during sleep; (ii) arterial reactivity ex vivo; (iii) expression of genes involved in arterial constriction / dilation...
December 9, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224234/an-observational-study-of-benzodiazepine-prescription-during-inpatient-alcohol-detoxification-for-patients-with-versus-without-chronic-pretreatment-with-high-dosage-baclofen
#6
Laura Martinez, Florence Vorspan, Xavier Declèves, Julien Azuar, Maeva Fortias, Franck Questel, Alexandra Dereux, Leslie Grichy, Hélène Barreteau, Frank Bellivier, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Vanessa Bloch
High dose baclofen is prescribed as a maintenance treatment to reduce alcohol use in patients with alcohol use disorder. Nevertheless, some patients still have massive alcohol intakes and require inpatient alcohol withdrawal. AIM: to compare the oral dose of benzodiazepine prescribed to manage alcohol withdrawal symptoms in patients with versus without steady state pre-treatment with high dose baclofen. METHODS: Retrospective chart review study. Prescribed benzodiazepine dose expressed in diazepam-equivalent was compared between groups...
December 10, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224228/newcastle-disease-virus-ndv-co-expressing-il7-and-il15-modified-tumor-cells-as-a-vaccine-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#7
Xiaojing Xu, Qing Sun, Yu Mei, Yonghao Liu, Lixiang Zhao
IL15 and IL7 are two cytokines essential for T cell development and homeostasis. In order to improve the antitumor activity by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV)-modified tumor vaccine, we generated a recombinant NDV co-expressing IL15 and IL7 (LX/IL(15+7)) by incorporation of a 2A self-processing peptide into IL15 and IL7 using reverse genetics. B16 cells infected with LX/IL(15+7) expressed both IL15 and IL7 stably. The cytotoxicity assay showed that murine melanoma cells modified with LX/IL(15+7) could significantly enhance the antitumor immune response in vitro...
December 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224225/down-regulation-of-15-pgdh-by-interleukin-1-beta-from-activated-macrophages-leads-to-poor-prognosis-in-pancreatic-cancer
#8
Kota Arima, Yoshihiro Komohara, Luke Bu, Masayo Tsukamoto, Rumi Itoyama, Keisuke Miyake, Tomoyuki Uchihara, Yoko Ogata, Shigeki Nakagawa, Hirohisa Okabe, Katsunori Imai, Daisuke Hashimoto, Akira Chikamoto, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Hideo Baba, Takatsugu Ishimoto
Chronic inflammation has a crucial role in cancer development and the progression of various tumors, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The arachidonate cascade is a major inflammatory pathway that produces several metabolites, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ). The enzyme 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) degrades prostaglandin and is frequently decreased in several types of cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms of 15-PGDH suppression are unclear. The current study was conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and clinical significance of 15-PGDH suppression in PDAC...
December 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224185/tension-force-induced-bone-formation-in-orthodontic-tooth-movement-via-modulation-of-the-gsk-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#9
Yelin Mao, Liangliang Wang, Ye Zhu, Yu Liu, Hongwei Dai, Jianping Zhou, Dechun Geng, Lin Wang, Yong Ji
Orthodontic force-induced osteogenic differentiation and bone formation at tension sites play a critical role in orthodontic tooth movement. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the involvement of the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway, which is critical for bone formation during tooth movement. We established a rat tooth movement model to test the hypothesis that orthodontic force may stimulate bone formation at the tension site of the moved tooth and promote the rate of tooth movement via regulation of the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224181/social-cognition-and-aggression-in-methamphetamine-dependence-with-and-without-a-history-of-psychosis
#10
Anne Uhlmann, Jonathan C Ipser, Don Wilson, Dan J Stein
In substance use and psychotic disorders, socially problematic behaviours, such as high aggression may, in part, be explained by deficits in social cognition skills, like the detection of emotions or intentions in others. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of social cognition impairment and its association with aggression in individuals with methamphetamine (MA) dependence, methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP), and healthy controls (CTRL). A total of 20 MAP participants, 21 MA-dependent participants without psychosis, and 21 CTRL participants performed a facial morphing emotion recognition task (ERT) across four basic emotions (anger, fear, happiness and sadness) and the reading the mind in the eyes task (RMET), and completed the aggression questionnaire...
December 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224178/evaluation-of-the-anti-inflammatory-and-urotoxicity-ameliorative-effects-of-%C3%AE-humulene-containing-active-fraction-of-emilia-sonchifolia-l-dc
#11
Gilcy George Kallivalappil, Girija Kuttan
In folklore medicine, the plant Emilia sonchifolia, belonging to the family Asteraceae, is used for treating tumour and inflammation. In our previous studies, we have done a thorough phytochemical investigation of E. sonchifolia with a report on its potent antimetastatic activity. Further, we isolated and characterised its active fraction (AFES) containing the major compound γ-humulene with an evaluation of the antiangiogenic effect of AFES (5 mg/kg b.wt.). In the first part of the present study, AFES in different concentrations was used for the assessment of its possible anti-inflammatory effect employing three in vivo inflammatory models...
December 9, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224168/tet-assisted-bisulfite-sequencing-tab-seq
#12
Miao Yu, Dali Han, Gary C Hon, Chuan He
5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a modified form of cytosine, which has recently been found in mammalian cells and tissues. 5hmC is derived from 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by Ten-eleven translocation (TET) family protein-mediated oxidation and may regulate gene expression. Numerous affinity-based profiling methods have been developed to help understand the exact function of 5hmC in the genome. However, these methods have a relatively low resolution (~100 bp) without quantitative information of the modification percentage on each site...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224150/bisulphite-sequencing-of-chromatin-immunoprecipitated-dna-bischip-seq
#13
Clare Stirzaker, Jenny Z Song, Aaron L Statham, Susan J Clark
Epigenetic regulation plays a critical role in gene expression, cellular differentiation, and disease. There is a complex interplay between the different layers of epigenetic information, including DNA methylation, nucleosome positions, histone modifications, histone variants, and other important epigenetic regulators. The different modifications do not act independently of each other and their relationship plays an important role in governing the regulation of the epigenome. Of these, DNA methylation is the best-studied epigenetic modification in mammals...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224144/low-input-whole-genome-bisulfite-sequencing-using-a-post-bisulfite-adapter-tagging-approach
#14
Julian R Peat, Sébastien A Smallwood
The epigenetic mark 5-methylcytosine confers heritable regulation of gene expression that can be dynamically modulated during transitions in cell fate. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, it is now possible to obtain comprehensive genome-wide maps of the mammalian DNA methylation landscape, but the application of these techniques to limited material remains challenging. Here, we present an optimized protocol to perform whole-genome bisulfite sequencing on low inputs (100-5000 somatic cells) using a post-bisulfite adapter tagging approach...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224136/a-summary-of-the-biological-processes-disease-associated-changes-and-clinical-applications-of-dna-methylation
#15
Gitte Brinch Andersen, Jörg Tost
DNA methylation at cytosines followed by guanines, CpGs, forms one of the multiple layers of epigenetic mechanisms controlling and modulating gene expression through chromatin structure. It closely interacts with histone modifications and chromatin remodeling complexes to form the local genomic and higher-order chromatin landscape. DNA methylation is essential for proper mammalian development, crucial for imprinting and plays a role in maintaining genomic stability. DNA methylation patterns are susceptible to change in response to environmental stimuli such as diet or toxins, whereby the epigenome seems to be most vulnerable during early life...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224107/sex-dependent-role-of-estrogen-sulfotransferase-and-steroid-sulfatase-in-metabolic-homeostasis
#16
Wojciech G Garbacz, Mengxi Jiang, Wen Xie
Sulfonation and desulfation are two opposing processes that represent an important layer of regulation of estrogenic activity via ligand supplies. Enzymatic activities of families of enzymes, known as sulfotransferases and sulfatases, lead to structural and functional changes of the steroids, thyroids, xenobiotics, and neurotransmitters. Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) and steroid sulfatase (STS) represent negative and positive regulation of the estrogen activity, respectively. This is because EST-mediated sulfation deactivates estrogens, whereas STS-mediated desulfation converts the inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224105/nuclear-and-membrane-actions-of-estrogen-receptor-alpha-contribution-to-the-regulation-of-energy-and-glucose-homeostasis
#17
Maeva Guillaume, Alexandra Montagner, Coralie Fontaine, Françoise Lenfant, Jean-François Arnal, Pierre Gourdy
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) has been demonstrated to play a key role in reproduction but also to exert numerous functions in nonreproductive tissues. Accordingly, ERα is now recognized as a key regulator of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism and mediates the protective effects of estrogens against obesity and type 2 diabetes. This chapter attempts to summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms of ERα activation and their involvement in the modulation of energy balance and glucose metabolism...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224098/role-of-estrogens-in-the-regulation-of-liver-lipid-metabolism
#18
Brian T Palmisano, Lin Zhu, John M Stafford
Before menopause, women are protected from atherosclerotic heart disease associated with obesity relative to men. Sex hormones have been proposed as a mechanism that differentiates this risk. In this review, we discuss the literature around how the endogenous sex hormones and hormone treatment approaches after menopause regulate fatty acid, triglyceride, and cholesterol metabolism to influence cardiovascular risk.The important regulatory functions of estrogen signaling pathways with regard to lipid metabolism have been in part obscured by clinical trials with hormone treatment of women after menopause, due to different formulations, routes of delivery, and pairings with progestins...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224094/sexual-dimorphism-and-estrogen-action-in-mouse-liver
#19
Sara Della Torre, Federica Lolli, Paolo Ciana, Adriana Maggi
Recent studies have demonstrated that in mice, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is expressed in the liver and has a direct effect on the regulation of the hepatic genes relevant for energy metabolism and drug metabolism. The sex-related differential expression of the hepatic ERα raises the questions as to whether this receptor is responsible for the sexual differences observed in the physiopathology of the liver.
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224092/sex-differences-in-leptin-control-of-cardiovascular-function-in-health-and-metabolic-diseases
#20
Eric J Belin de Chantemèle
Leptin, the adipocyte-derived hormone identified in 1994 for its major role in the control of satiety and body weight regulation, is an adipokine secreted in a sex-specific manner. Although it has clearly been established that females secrete three to four times more leptin than males and that this sexual dimorphism in leptin secretion is exacerbated with overweight and obesity, the origin and the physiological consequences of this sexual dimorphism remain ill-defined. The adipose tissue is the major site of leptin secretion; however, leptin receptors are ubiquitously expressed, conferring to leptin, and indirectly to the adipose tissue, a potential role in the control of numerous physiological functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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