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Mojtaba Shafiee, Mahsa Ahmadnezhad, Maryam Tayefi, Soheil Arekhi, Hassanali Vatanparast, Habibollah Esmaeili, Mohsen Moohebati, Gordon A Ferns, Naghmeh Mokhber, Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are significantly associated with systemic inflammation. Moreover, oxidative stress resulting from a disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance is linked to inflammation-related conditions. Therefore, depression/anxiety symptoms may also be associated with oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between depression/anxiety symptoms and serum prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) in adults who participated in a large population-based, cross-sectional study...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jinglong Li, Yuqing Sun, Xin Zhang, Yajun Hu, Tao Li, Xuemeng Zhang, Zhi Wang, Songlin Wu, Zhaoxiang Wu, Baodong Chen
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), ubiquitous symbiotic fungi associated with the majority of terrestrial plants, were demonstrated to play important roles in arsenic (As) translocation and transformation in the plant-soil continuum, and substantially influence plant As tolerance. However, the direct involvement of AMF in As methylation and volatilization and their molecular mechanisms remain unsolved. Here, an arsenite methyltransferase gene RiMT-11 was identified and characterized from AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis...
June 20, 2018: Chemosphere
Aline G Pereira, Michael L Jaramillo, Aline P Remor, Alexandra Latini, Carla E Davico, Mariana L da Silva, Yara M R Müller, Dib Ammar, Evelise M Nazari
Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) (GLY) is the active ingredient of the most used herbicides in the world. GLY is applied in formulated products known as glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), which could induce effects that are not predicted by toxicity assays with pure GLY. This herbicide is classified as organophosphorus compound, which is known to induce neurotoxic effects. Although this compound is classified as non-neurotoxic by regulatory agencies, acute exposure to GBH causes neurological symptoms in humans...
June 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Muhammad Imtiaz, Muhammad Adnan Mushtaq, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Shahid Rizwan, Sajid Mehmood, Omar Aziz, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Safiullah Virk, Qaiser Shakeel, Raina Ijaz, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Michael D Coleman
The present study aimed to elucidate the photosynthetic performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, anthocyanin contents, anthocyanin biosynthetic gene expression, and vanadium uptake in mustard genotypes (purple and green) that differ in photosynthetic capacity under vanadium stress. The results indicated that vanadium significantly reduced photosynthetic activity in both genotypes. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes were increased significantly in response to vanadium in both genotypes, although the purple exhibited higher...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Eduard Tolosa, Teresa Botta-Orfila, Xavier Morató, Carles Calatayud, Raquel Ferrer-Lorente, María-José Martí, Manel Fernández, Carles Gaig, Ángel Raya, Antonella Consiglio, Mario Ezquerra, Rubén Fernández-Santiago
MicroRNA (miRNA) misregulation in peripheral blood has been linked to Parkinson disease (PD) but its role in the disease progression remains elusive. We performed an explorative genome-wide study of miRNA expression levels in dopaminergic neurons (DAn) from PD patients generated by somatic cell reprogramming and induced pluripotent stem cells differentiation. We quantified expression levels of 377 miRNAs in DAn from 3 sporadic PD patients (sPD), 3 leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-associated PD patients (L2PD) (total 6 PD), and 4 healthy controls...
May 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Dayna Mason, Xiaoying Zhang, Tânia Monteiro Marques, Barbara Rose, Samantha Khoury, Meredith Hill, Fiona Deutsch, J Guy Lyons, Margarida Gama-Carvalho, Nham Tran
Human papillomavirus (HPV), notably type 16, is a risk factor for up to 75% of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). It has been demonstrated that small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs play a vital role in the cellular transformation process. In this study, we used an LNA array to further investigate the impact of HPV16 on the expression of microRNAs in oropharyngeal (tonsillar) cancer. A number of miRNAs were found to be deregulated, with miR-496 showing a four-fold decrease. Over-expression of the high risk E6 oncoprotein down-regulated miR-496, impacting upon the post-transcriptional control of the transcription factor E2F2...
June 20, 2018: Virology
Da Som Kim, Ho Won Lee, Jong Hyun Lee, Hyuck Gi Kwon, Sang Wook Lee, Seung Jin Han, Ok Chan Jeong
Spontaneous wrinkling of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface was induced by repeated thermal shrinkage of liquid PDMS coated onto a cured PDMS layer. We investigated and evaluated the potential of the resulting surface as a cell culture substrate by monitoring the viability, spreading area, and proliferation rate of MG-63 cells cultured on native, wrinkled, and poly-L-lysine (PLL)-coated PDMS surfaces. Cells seeded on the wrinkled and PLL-coated PDMS surfaces spread and adhered better than those on native surfaces...
June 18, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Namrata Chaudhari, Palaniyandi Ravanan
BACKGROUND: Bardoxolone methyl (RTA 402, CDDOMe) has been long known for its anti-inflammatory and exceptional cytotoxic activity. The biological responses to CDDOMe are truly dose dependent. And owing to the structural modifications introduced in its parent molecule oleanolic acid, CDDOMe is able to form reversible adducts with cellular proteins containing redox sensitive cysteine residues. This nature of CDDOMe makes it a multifunctional molecule targeting multiple signaling pathways...
February 10, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Saeed Mehrzadi, Iman Fatemi, Ali Reza Malayeri, Ali Khodadadi, Fatemeh Mohammadi, Esrafil Mansouri, Mohammad Rashno, Mehdi Goudarzi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ellagic acid (EA) on arsenic-induced renal and hepatic toxicity in rats. METHODS: A total number of 35 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups. Group 1 received normal saline (po). Group 2 received sodium arsenite (SA, 10 mg/kg, po) for 21 days. Group 3 received EA (30 mg/kg, po) for 14 days. Groups 4 and 5 received SA 7 days prior to EA (10 and 30 mg/kg respectively) treatment and continued up to 21 days simultaneous with SA administration...
February 5, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Steven K Jones, Kirk Douglas, Anthony F Shields, Olivia M Merkel
Using an orthotopic model of ovarian cancer, we studied the delivery of siRNA in nanoparticles of tri-block copolymers consisting of hyperbranched polyethylenimine-graft-polycaprolactone-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (hyPEI-g-PCL-b-PEG) with and without a folic acid targeting ligand. A SKOV-3/LUC FRα overexpressing cell line was employed to mimic the clinical manifestations of ovarian cancer. Both targeted and non-targeted micelleplexes were able to effectively deliver siRNA to the primary tumor and its metastases, as measured by gamma scintillation counting and confocal microscopy...
June 13, 2018: Biomaterials
Wenjia Lou, Hsiu-Chi Ting, Christian jA Reynolds, Yulia Y Tyurina, Vladimir A Tyurin, Yiran Li, Jiajia Ji, Wenxi Yu, Zhuqing Liang, Detcho A Stoyanovsky, Tamil S Anthonymuthu, Michael A Frasso, Peter Wipf, Joel S Greenberger, Hülya Bayir, Valerian E Kagan, Miriam L Greenberg
Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique phospholipid localized almost exclusively within the mitochondrial membranes where it is synthesized. Newly synthesized CL undergoes acyl remodeling to produce CL species enriched with unsaturated acyl groups. Cld1 is the only identified CL specific phospholipase in yeast and is required to initiate the CL remodeling pathway. In higher eukaryotes, peroxidation of CL, yielding CLOX , has been implicated in the cellular signaling events that initiate apoptosis. CLOX can undergo enzymatic hydrolysis, resulting in the release of lipid mediators with signaling properties...
June 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ines Desanlis, Hannah L Felstead, Dylan R Edwards, Grant N Wheeler
Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling by metalloproteinases is crucial during development. The ADAMTS (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin type I motifs) enzymes are secreted, multi-domain matrix-associated zinc metalloendopeptidases that have diverse roles in tissue morphogenesis and patho-physiological remodeling. The human family includes 19 members. In this study we identified the 19 members of the ADAMTS family in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. Gene identification and a phylogenetic study revealed strong conservation of the ADAMTS family and contributed to a better annotation of the Xenopus genomes...
June 20, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Jeroen Koomen, Heidy M W den Besten, Karin I Metselaar, Marcel H Tempelaars, Lucas M Wijnands, Marcel H Zwietering, Tjakko Abee
Microbial population heterogeneity allows for a differential microbial response to environmental stresses and can lead to the selection of stress resistant variants. In this study, we have used two different stress resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes LO28 with mutations in the rpsU gene encoding ribosomal protein S21, to elucidate features that can contribute to fitness, stress-tolerance and host interaction using a comparative gene profiling and phenotyping approach. Transcriptome analysis showed that 116 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in both rpsU variants...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Qiuming Yao, Zhenyu Song, Bin Wang, Jin-An Zhang
Immunometabolism is an emerging field that focuses on the role of cellular metabolism in the regulation of immune cells. Recent studies have revealed an intensive link between the metabolic state and the functions of immune cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding, single-stranded RNAs generally consisting of 18-25 nucleotides that exert crucial roles in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Although the role of miRNAs in immune regulation has long been recognized, their roles in immunometabolism have not yet been well established...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Letters
Yang Yanfang, Zhang Kaikai, Yang Liying, Lv Xing, Wu Ying, Liu Hongwei, Lu Qiang, Chen Duanfen, Qiu Deyou
Myelocytomatosis (MYC) transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. In cell cultures, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) can improve the production of taxol, which is a complex terpenoid compound with an intense antitumor activity. However, the functions of MYC genes in Taxus sp. (yew trees) remain poorly known. Based on Taxus sp. transcriptome changes induced by MeJA, a TcMYC gene was isolated in a previous study. Here, we further characterized the TcMYC TF encoded by that gene and four other yew MYC TFs previously obtained...
June 20, 2018: Gene
Yingzhi Qin, Xiaoyun Zhou, Cheng Huang, Li Li, Hongsheng Liu, Naixin Liang, Yeye Chen, Dongjie Ma, Zhijun Han, Xiaohui Xu, Jia He, Shangqing Li
Aberrantly microRNAs (miRs) expression is reported to be involved in tumorigenesis and development in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MiR-340 had been identified to be downregulated in NSCLC in the previous study. However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-340 involved in NSCLC progression still needed to be well known. In the present study, we confirmed that miR-340 expression was notably down-regulated in NSCLC tissues compared to matched adjacent noncancerous lung tissues by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses...
June 20, 2018: Gene
Robert D Maynard, Dana A Godfrey, Carolina Medina Gomez, Cheryl L Ackert-Bicknell
Cadherin-like and PC-esterase domain containing 1 (CPED1) is an uncharacterized gene with no known function. Human genome wide association studies (GWAS) for bone mineral density (BMD) have repeatedly identified a significant locus on Chromosome 7 that contains the gene CPED1, but it remains unclear if this gene could be causative. While an open reading frame for this gene has been predicted, there has been no systematic exploration of expression or alternate splicing for CPED1 in humans or mice. Using mouse models, we demonstrate that Cped1 is alternately spliced whereby transcripts are generated with exon 3 or exons 16 and 17 removed...
June 20, 2018: Gene
Eunsun Jung, Youngmo Seong, Bohyun Jeon, Young-Soo Kwon, Hoseok Song
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) of the miR-17-92 cluster are overexpressed in human cancers, and their enforced expression is tumorigenic in mouse models. A number of genes are reported to be targets of these miRNAs and are implicated in their tumorigenic potential. However, the mode of action by miRNAs suggests that global analysis of their targets is required to understand their cellular roles. In this study, we globally analyzed AGO2-bound mRNAs and found that the miR-17-92 miRNAs coherently repress multiple targets involved in the destabilization of mRNA...
June 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Chun-Bo Song, Wei Shan, Ying-Ying Yang, Xiao-Li Tan, Zhong-Qi Fan, Jian-Ye Chen, Wang-Jin Lu, Jian-Fei Kuang
The biological processes involved in banana fruit ripening are extremely complex and modulated by a number of genes such as transcription factors (TFs). Although TFs like MADS, ERF and NAC are implicated in controlling banana ripening, little is known about other TFs such as TCP in this process. In this work, 25 MaTCPs named MaTCP1 to MaTCP25 were characterized from our previously reported transcriptomes related to banana ripening. Expression analysis revealed that these MaTCPs displayed differential expression patterns during the progression of banana ripening...
June 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Matteo Biolatti, Francesca Gugliesi, Valentina Dell'Oste, Santo Landolfo
The interplay between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and the innate immune response is a critical process that has attracted the attention of many research groups. The emerging scenario is that the immune response of an HCMV-infected host is mediated by a plethora of viral DNA sensors acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are capable of inhibiting indirectly viral infection through the activation of two distinct downstream signaling cascades. The first one triggers the production of cytokines, chemokines and interferons (IFNs), while the second one leads to inflammasome complex formation, which in turn promotes the maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β)...
June 20, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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