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Sahoo Swapnajeet, Subodh Bn, Gupta Gourav
Apart from sleep wake disorders, nowadays, modafinil is being prescribed for several psychiatric disorders including depression. Despite being reported as to be having very low abuse potential, cases of modafinil dependence had come to the limelight. In this case report, we describe a 35 year old man with bipolar affective disorder while in remission who developed modafinil dependence and later on, had hypersexuality when he increased the dose of modafinil from 400 to 1,000 mg/day. Existing literature suggests that modafinil when taken above prescribed doses can cause many side effects ranging from nausea, vomiting to psychotic exacerbation and mania...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ahye Kwon, Jungeun Song, Ki-Hwan Yook, Duk-In Jon, Myung Hun Jung, Narei Hong, Hyun Ju Hong
We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tamanna Jahan Mony, Jae Won Lee, Cheryl Dreyfus, Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, Hee Jae Lee
Objective: We reported that postnatal exposure of rats to valproic acid (VPA) stimulated proliferation of glial precursors during cortical gliogenesis. However, there are no reports whether enhanced postnatal gliogenesis affects behaviors related to neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: After VPA treatment during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 4, four behavioral test, such as open field locomotor test, elevated plus maze test, three-chamber social interaction test, and passive avoidance test, were performed at PND 21 or 22...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kimona Issa, Todd P Pierce, Chukwuweieke Gwam, Peter Goljan, Anthony Festa, Anthony J Scillia, Michael A Mont
Airport security measures continue to be updated with the incorporation of the new body scanners and automatic target recognition software. The purpose of this study was analyze the incidence of: (1) triggering the security alarm; (2) extra security searches; (3) perceived inconvenience; and (4) presence of other surgical hardware in those who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and passed through airport security. A questionnaire was given to 125 consecutive patients with a TKA. Those who passed through airport security after January 2014 were considered for inclusion...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
Yuanfei Zhou, Tingxing Song, Jie Peng, Zheng Zhou, Hongkui Wei, Rui Zhou, Siwen Jiang, Jian Peng
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) regulates adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation. However, the underlying mechanism should be investigated. This study revealed that SIRT1 acts as a crucial repressor of adipogenesis. RNA-interference-mediated SIRT1 knockdown or genetic ablation enhances adipogenic potential, whereas SIRT1 overexpression inhibits adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). SIRT1 also deacetylates the histones of sFRP1, sFRP2, and Dact1 promoters; inhibits the mRNA expression of sFRP1, sFRP2, and Dact1; activates Wnt signaling pathways; and suppresses adipogenesis...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Ming Guo, Xiaowang Lu, Yan Wang, Peter E Brodelius
The binding properties of pentacyclic triterpenoid isomeric drugs, i.e. ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA), to bovine lactoferrin (BLF) have been studied by molecule modeling, fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Molecular docking, performed to reveal the possible binding mode or mechanism, suggested that hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding play important roles to stabilize the complex. The results of spectroscopic measurements showed that the two isomeric drugs both strongly quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BLF through a static quenching procedure although some differences between UA and OA binding strength and non-radiation energy transfer occurred within the molecules...
October 18, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
A C Sampaio, R J Mendes, P G Castro, A M Silva
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers for drug delivery, and are high biocompatible and designed to endure in the host organism. Despite its current industrial production is low, many of these substances are available on the market, and much more are in the production pipeline. As a result, many of them will end in aquatic systems raising the question whether they can pose a risk to aquatic biota and the associated ecological processes. Microbial decomposers of plant litter, play a key role in forested streams being responsible for the energy flow between terrestrial and aquatic environments...
October 21, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ayse Sakalli Kani, Ann K Shinn, Kathryn E Lewandowski, Dost Öngür
OBJECTIVES: A variety of treatment options exist for schizophrenia, but the effects of these treatments on brain function are not clearly understood. To facilitate the development of more effective treatment strategies, it is important to identify how brain function in schizophrenia patients is affected by the diverse therapeutic approaches that are currently available. The aim of the present article is to systematically review the evidence for functional brain changes associated with different treatment modalities for schizophrenia...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Shi Gao, Guohao Wang, Zainen Qin, Xiangyu Wang, Guoqing Zhao, Qingjie Ma, Lei Zhu
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising tumor treatment modality that can convert oxygen into cytotoxic singlet oxygen (SO) via photosensitizer to ablate tumor growth. However, the uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation during tumor development and the oxygen consumption during PDT always result in an insufficient oxygen level in tumors, which can adversely affect the PDT efficiency in turn. We designed an oxygen-generating PDT nanocomplex by encapsulating a manganese dioxide nanoparticle (MnO2 NP) in an indocyanine green (ICG) modified hyaluronic acid nanoparticle (HANP) to overcome this limitation...
October 19, 2016: Biomaterials
Michael D Nevarez, Johanna C Malone, Dorene M Rentz, Robert J Waldinger
OBJECTIVE: Identifying adaptive ways to cope with extreme stress is essential to promoting long-term health. Memory systems are highly sensitive to stress, and combat exposure during war has been shown to have deleterious effects on cognitive processes, such as memory, decades later. No studies have examined coping styles used by combat veterans and associations with later-life cognitive functioning. Defenses are coping mechanisms that manage difficult memories and feelings, with some more closely related to memory processes (e...
October 7, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Bunmi O Olatunji, Chad Ebesutani, Eun Ha Kim
Although some studies suggest that the association between disgust proneness (DP) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) is specific to the contamination subtype, others suggest that DP is associated with OCS more broadly. To examine if the discrepant findings may partially reflect differences in self-report measures used, this investigation employed structural equation modeling to examine the association between DP and OCS in three samples that completed different combinations of measures of DP, OCS, and anxiety/negative affect...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Kuntal Kanti Goswami, Madhurima Sarkar, Sarbari Ghosh, Akata Saha, Tithi Ghosh, Ipsita Guha, Subhasis Barik, Saptak Banerjee, Soumyabrata Roy, Anamika Bose, Parthasarathi Dasgupta, Rathindranath Baral
Heterogeneous tumor microenvironment (TME), broadly divided into tumor core and peripheral sub-microenvironments, differentially polarize normal macrophages into a different form known as tumor associated M2 macrophages (M2TAMs) to promote tumor growth. In view of the extensive immune-editing role of NLGP, here, we have observed that NLGP is effective to convert M2TAMs (CD11b(+)F4/80(high)) to M1 (CD11b(+)F4/80(low)) more prominently in tumor core, along with downregulation of other M2 associated markers, like, ManR, Ym1, Fizz1...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Éric Kodi Ono, Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi, Kenia Fernanda Aguiar Santos, Pedro Takao Yamamoto
The impacts of six insect growth-regulators were assessed on the predator Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) larvae and adults. Our results showed that diflubenzuron, lufenuron and pyriproxyfen caused 100% larva mortality, whereas buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide were similar to control treatment. In comparison to the control, buprofezin prolonged the duration of larval stage, while methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide reduced the predator larva development time. Buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide did not affect the C...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Thi Xuan Trang Nguyen, Marc Amyot, Michel Labrecque
A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of diverse plant species (four herbaceous and four woody species) on the labile pool of six metals (Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Se) present in their rhizosphere. After three months of cultivation, concentrations of trace elements (TE) in above and below-ground biomass of each species were determined. The labile and presumably bioavailable fraction of these TE in the rhizosphere as well as key soil parameters (e.g. pH, electrical conductivity (EC), percent of organic matter and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) were also measured and compared as a function of plant species...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Yang Wu, Guanyong Su, Song Tang, Wei Liu, Zhiyuan Ma, Xinmei Zheng, Hongling Liu, Hongxia Yu
Tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), a substitute for brominated flame retardants (FRs) that have been phased out of use, is frequently detected in aqueous environments. However, previous studies on its endocrine disrupting effects have mainly focused on terrestrial mammals. Here, to comprehensively evaluate the potential adverse effects of TCEP on aquatic vertebrates, zebrafish was used as a model to examine developmental phenotypes. The underlying mechanisms of toxicity of TCEP were further explored using in silico and in vivo approaches...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
G Besson, G Barragan-Jason, S J Thorpe, M Fabre-Thorpe, S Puma, M Ceccaldi, E J Barbeau
Verifying that a face is from a target person (e.g. finding someone in the crowd) is a critical ability of the human face processing system. Yet how fast this can be performed is unknown. The 'entry-level shift due to expertise' hypothesis suggests that - since humans are face experts - processing faces should be as fast - or even faster - at the individual than at superordinate levels. In contrast, the 'superordinate advantage' hypothesis suggests that faces are processed from coarse to fine, so that the opposite pattern should be observed...
October 21, 2016: Cognition
Christine Gross, Veit Wiesmann, Sebastian Millen, Martina Kalmer, Thomas Wittenberg, Jan Gettemans, Andrea K Thoma-Kress
The delta-retrovirus Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells via cell-to-cell transmission. Viruses are transmitted by polarized budding and by transfer of viral biofilms at the virological synapse (VS). Formation of the VS requires the viral Tax protein and polarization of the host cytoskeleton, however, molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission remain incompletely understood. Recently, we could show Tax-dependent upregulation of the actin-bundling protein Fascin (FSCN-1) in HTLV-1-infected T-cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Cristian Torres-Díaz, Jorge Gallardo-Cerda, Paris Lavin, Rómulo Oses, Fernando Carrasco-Urra, Cristian Atala, Ian S Acuña-Rodríguez, Peter Convey, Marco A Molina-Montenegro
Most climate and environmental change models predict significant increases in temperature and precipitation by the end of the 21st Century, for which the current functional output of certain symbioses may also be altered. In this context we address the following questions: 1) How the expected changes in abiotic factors (temperature, and water) differentially affect the ecophysiological performance of the plant Colobanthus quitensis? and 2) Will this environmental change indirectly affect C. quitensis photochemical performance and biomass accumulation by modifying its association with fungal endophytes? Plants of C...
2016: PloS One
Yuko Okumura, Tessei Kobayashi, Shoji Itakura
Social cues in interaction with others enable infants to extract useful information from their environment. Although previous research has shown that infants process and retain different information about an object depending on the presence of social cues, the effect of eye contact as an isolated independent variable has not been investigated. The present study investigated how eye contact affects infants' object processing. Nine-month-olds engaged in two types of social interactions with an experimenter. When the experimenter showed an object without eye contact, the infants processed and remembered both the object's location and its identity...
2016: PloS One
Bruna Bellincanta Nicoletto, Thaiana Cirino Krolikowski, Daisy Crispim, Luis Henrique Canani
Progranulin has been recognized as an adipokine related to obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are scarce data regarding progranulin and kidney disease, but there are some data linking diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and increased progranulin levels. We aimed to better describe the relationship between serum and urinary progranulin levels and DKD in T2DM. This is a case-control study including four groups of subjects: 1) Advanced DKD cases: T2DM patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1...
2016: PloS One
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