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Caroline Charette, Krista L Best, Emma M Smith, William C Miller, François Routhier
Background: Mobility limitations represent the third most prevalent cause of disability, affecting more than 1.9 million community-dwelling Canadians. Walking aids are often prescribed to reduce the impacts of mobility impairments. There are limited data on walking aids since 2004. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of walking aid use in Canada and to explore demographic characteristics among users of walking aids. Design: The design used was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional national survey...
March 14, 2018: Physical Therapy
Jitka Rybová, Ladislav Kuchar, Helena Hulková, Befekadu Asfaw, Robert Dobrovolný, Jakub Sikora, Vladimír Havlícek, Ludovít Škultéty, Jana Ledvinová
Blood group B glycosphingolipids (B-GSLs) are substrates of the lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A (AGAL). Similar to its major substrate - globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) - B-GSLs are not degraded and accumulate in the cells of patients affected by an inherited defect of AGAL activity (Fabry disease - FD).The pancreas is a secretory organ known to have high biosynthesis of blood group GSLs. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of the biochemical and structural abnormalities in pancreatic tissue from two male FD patients with blood group B...
March 14, 2018: Glycobiology
Anna Wallerstedt, Peter Strom, Henrik Gronberg, Tobias Nordstrom, Martin Eklund
Background: Studies have shown that 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) decrease the risk for low-grade prostate cancer (PC), but results are conflicting concerning high-grade PCs. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the association between 5-ARI treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms and the risk for PC. Methods: This is a population-based prospective study on all men age 40 years and older with at least one prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in Stockholm County from January 2007 until December 2015...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Steve Geoffrion, Jane Goncalves, André Marchand, Richard Boyer, Alain Marchand, Marc Corbière, Stéphane Guay
Background: Serious violent acts (e.g. physical violence, robbery, sexual aggression and death threats) are among the most visible and notable examples of workplace violence. Although women are commonly found to be at higher risk for post-traumatic reactions following workplace violence, little is known as regards sex differences concerning the types of post-traumatic reactions and their predictors. Objective: This study aimed to describe sex differences in the post-traumatic reactions of serious violent acts and the predictors of such reactions...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Antonella Sferra, Fabiana Fattori, Teresa Rizza, Elsabetta Flex, Emanuele Bellacchio, Alessandro Bruselles, Stefania Petrini, Serena Cecchetti, Massimo Teson, Fabrizia Restaldi, Andrea Ciolfi, Filippo M Santorelli, Ginevra Zanni, Sabina Barresi, Claudia Castiglioni, Marco Tartaglia, Enrico Bertini
Microtubules participate in fundamental cellular processes, including chromosomal segregation and cell division, migration, and intracellular trafficking. Their proper function is required for correct central nervous system development and operative preservation, and mutations in genes coding tubulins, the constituting units of microtubules, underlie a family of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as "tubulinopathies", characterized by a wide range of neuronal defects resulting from defective proliferation, migration, and function...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Zhanfeng Si, Hui Liu, Jiankun Zhu, Jiedan Chen, Qiong Wang, Lei Fang, Fengkai Gao, Yue Tian, Yali Chen, Lijing Chang, Bingliang Liu, Zegang Han, Baoliang Zhou, Yan Hu, Xianzhong Huang, Tianzhen Zhang
In cotton, the formation of fruiting branches affects both plant architecture and fiber yield. Here, we report map-based cloning of the Gossypium barbadense axillary flowering (GbAF) mutation gene, which causes bolls to be borne directly on the main plant stem, and of the G. hirsutum clustered boll (cl1) mutation gene. Both mutant alleles were found to represent point mutations at the Cl1 locus of the corresponding species, and therefore we propose that the GbAF mutation be referred to as cl1b. These Cl1 loci correspond to homologs of tomato SELF-PRUNING (SP), i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Rika Fukumori, Yoji Masuda, Ayaka Takeuchi, Rina Yanai, Khurchabiling Atchalalt, Borjigin Sarentonglaga, Kazuko Ogata, Mio Yamaguchi, Asuka Hara, Akane Sato, Toshihisa Sugino, Yoshikazu Nagao
The aim of this study was to investigate how intra-duodenal infusions of fatty acids (FA) affect appetite-related gut peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin in sheep. We hypothesized that these peptides can be highly reactive to unsaturated long-chain FA, because they are well known to decrease DMI. Four ewes were fitted with a duodenal cannula and a jugular vein catheter for a 6-h duodenal infusion of the nine FA (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3) and water (control)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Vassilis E Papadopoulos, Georgia Nikolopoulou, Ivi Antoniadou, Antonia Karachaliou, Giovanna Arianoglou, Evangelia Emmanouilidou, S Pablo Sardi, Leonidas Stefanis, Kostas Vekrellis
Glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) mutations are the most common genetic contributor to Parkinson's Disease (PD) and are associated with decreased Glucocerebrosidase (GCase) enzymatic activity in PD. PD patients without GBA mutations also exhibit lower levels of GCase activity in the central nervous system (CNS) suggesting a potential contribution of the enzyme activity in disease pathogenesis, possibly by alteration of lysosomal function. α-synuclein, a protein with a central role in PD pathogenesis, has been shown to be secreted partly in association with exosomes...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Christian B Theodotou, George M Ghobrial, Andrew L Middleton, Michael Y Wang, Allan D Levi
BACKGROUND: Cervical facet dislocations are among the most common traumatic spinal injuries. Posterior, anterior, and combined surgical approaches have been described and are widely debated. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate efficacy in anterior-only surgical management for subaxial cervical facet dislocations. METHODS: A consistent surgical algorithm for cervical facet dislocation was applied over a 19-yr period and analyzed retrospectively in adults with acute unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation of the subaxial cervical spine...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Christos Dimitrakopoulos, Sravanth Kumar Hindupur, Luca Häfliger, Jonas Behr, Hesam Montazeri, Michael N Hall, Niko Beerenwinkel
Motivation: Several molecular events are known to be cancer-related, including genomic aberrations, hypermethylation of gene promoter regions, and differential expression of microRNAs. These aberration events are very heterogeneous across tumors and it is poorly understood how they affect the molecular makeup of the cell, including the transcriptome and proteome. Protein interaction networks can help decode the functional relationship between aberration events and changes in gene and protein expression...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Marine Landa, Stéphane Blain, Jérôme Harmand, Sébastien Monchy, Alain Rapaport, Ingrid Obernosterer
In the Southern Ocean, natural iron fertilization in the wake of islands leads to annually occurring spring phytoplankton blooms associated with enhanced heterotrophic activity through the release of labile dissolved organic matter (DOM). The aim of this study was to investigate experimentally how diatom-derived DOM affects the composition of Southern Ocean winter water bacterial communities and to identify the most responsive taxa. A bacterial community collected in the naturally iron-fertilized region off Kerguelen Island (KEOPS2 October-November 2011) was grown onboard in continuous cultures, on winter water alone or amended with diatom-derived DOM supplied at identical DOC concentrations...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Michael Z L Zhu, Andrew Martin, Andrew D Cochrane, Julian A Smith, Amanda G Thrift, Gerard K Harrop, Jennifer P Ngo, Roger G Evans
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after cardiac surgery and profoundly affects postoperative mortality and morbidity. There are no validated methods to assess risk of AKI intraoperatively. Methods: We determined the association between postoperative AKI and intraoperative urinary oxygen tension (PO2), measured via a fiber optic probe in the tip of the urinary catheter, in 65 patients undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)...
March 14, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Bríd M Ryan
Compared with all other racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., African Americans are disproportionally affected by lung cancer, both in terms of incidence and survival. It is likely that smoking, as the main etiological factor associated with lung cancer, contributes to these disparities, but the precise mechanism is still unclear. This paper seeks to explore the history of lung cancer disparities and review to the literature regarding the various factors that contribute to them.
March 14, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Waleed K Mohammed, Natalio Krasnogor, Nicholas S Jakubovics
The ability of microorganisms to regulate gene expression is thought to be critical for survival and growth during the development of polymicrobial biofilms such as dental plaque. The commensal dental plaque colonizer, Streptococcus gordonii, responds to cell-cell contact (coaggregation) with Actinomyces oris by regulating > 20 genes, including those involved in arginine biosynthesis. We hypothesized that an S. gordonii extracellular protease is critical for sensing by providing amino acids that modulate gene expression...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Yidi Sheng, Huiyuan Xiao, Chunli Guo, Hong Wu, Xiaojing Wang
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, often accumulates in plants exposed to certain environmental stimuli. Previous studies indicated that a closed relationship existed between endogenous GABA and seed germination. However, there are few studies on the effect of exogenous GABA on seed germination. The objective of this study was to explore whether exogenous GABA affected α-amylase activity which the activation is an important stage in seed germination. The level of endogenous GABA in barley seeds rose gradually during germination, suggesting that endogenous GABA was involved in germination...
March 3, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Luís M Félix, Ana M Vidal, Cindy Serafim, Ana M Valentim, Luís M Antunes, Sandra M Monteiro, Manuela Matos, Ana M Coimbra
Ketamine is a widely used pharmaceutical that has been detected in water sources worldwide. Zebrafish embryos were used in this study to investigate the oxidative stress and apoptotic signals following a 24h exposure to different ketamine concentrations (0, 50, 70 and 90 mg L-1 ). Early blastula embryos (∼2 h post fertilisation-hpf) were exposed for 24 h and analysed at 8 and 26 hpf. Reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cells were identified in vivo, at 26 hpf. Enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)), glutathione levels (oxidised (GSSG) and reduced (GSH)), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyls (CO)) as well as oxidative stress (gclc, gstp1, sod1 and cat), apoptosis (casp3a, casp6, casp8, casp9, aifm1 and tp53) and cell proliferation (pcna) related-genes were evaluated at 8 and 26 hpf...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Sijie Ge, Sujing Wang, Qiang Xu, Thomas Ho
Emergency shutdowns of chemical plants (ESCP) inevitably generate intensive and huge amounts of VOCs and NOx emissions through flaring that can cause highly localized and transient air pollution events with elevated ozone concentrations. However, quantitative studies of regional ozone impact due to ESCP, in terms of how ESCP would affect and to what extent ESCP could impact, are still lacking. This paper reports a systematic study on regional air quality impact from an olefin plant emergency shutdown due to the sudden failure of its cracked gas compressor (CGC)...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Tianhua Yang, Jian Wang, Bingshuo Li, Xingping Kai, Wanli Xing, Rundong Li
This study extended previous work investigating two-step liquefaction by supercritical ethanol of rice straw under CO2 atmosphere at temperatures of 270-345 °C. Subcritical CO2 -subcritical ethanol (SubCO2 -SubEtOH) pretreatment decreased the content of lignin in the rice stalk from 22.94 to 21.43 wt%. The results showed that although oxygen-transfer reaction, transesterification, carbonylation, and other reactions may occur with the supercritical CO2 -supercritical ethanol (ScCO2 -ScEtOH) liquefaction reactions, transesterification was the main reaction...
February 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Claudia Kruger, Susan J Burke, J Jason Collier, Trang-Tiffany Nguyen, J Michael Salbaum, Krisztian Stadler
Early podocyte loss is characteristic of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in obesity and diabetes. Since treatments for hyperglycemia and hypertension do not prevent podocyte loss, there must be additional factors causing podocyte depletion. The role of oxidative stress has been implicated in CKD but it is not known how exactly free radicals affect podocyte physiology. To assess this relationship, we investigated the effects of lipid radicals on podocytes, as lipid peroxidation is a major form of oxidative stress in diabetes...
March 6, 2018: Redox Biology
Andleeb Z Naqvi, Kabir-Ud-Din
Phase separation in amphiphilic systems is an important phenomenon. The temperature at which an amphiphilic solution phase separates is known as Cloud Point (CP). This article reviews in detail the process of phase separation in various amphiphiles (surfactants, polymers and drugs) and effect of different classes of additives on the CP of these amphiphilic systems. Ions affect the CP of drugs in a different way: kosmotropes and hard bases decrease while chaotropes and soft bases increase the CP of nonionic and cationic surfactants...
February 3, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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