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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151281/skeletal-muscle-performance-and-ageing
#1
REVIEW
Michael Tieland, Inez Trouwborst, Brian C Clark
The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151265/cnn3-regulates-neural-tube-morphogenesis-and-neuronal-stem-cell-properties
#2
Dirk Junghans, Sebastian Herzog
Calponin 3 (Cnn3) is a member of the calponin family of actin binding molecules that is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and has been shown to control dendritic spine morphology, density and plasticity by regulating actin cytoskeletal reorganization and dynamics. However, little is known about the role of Cnn3 during embryonic development. In this study we analyzed mutant animals deficient in Cnn3 to gain a better understanding of its role in brain morphogenesis. Embryos lacking Cnn3 exhibited massive malformation of the developing brain including exoencephaly, closure defects at the rostral neural tube and strong enlargement of brain tissue...
November 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151234/excavating-the-psyche-a-social-history-of-soviet-psychiatry-in-bulgaria
#3
Julian Chehirian
This article investigates how an imported Soviet psychiatric model affected Bulgarians who experienced psychological crisis by examining therapeutic possibilities that were available and foreclosed in the People's Republic of Bulgaria. Bulgarians struggling with psychological disorders in the present day experience polar forms of marginalization: non-recognition on one extreme, and chronic medicalization on the other. Both tendencies can be traced to the Communist-period remodeling of mental healthcare, which outlawed private practice and individual-centered therapy, which reified empirically observable, physiological underpinnings of pathology while suppressing therapies that engaged with the existential context of mental illness...
November 18, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151224/the-potential-role-of-the-osteopontin-osteocalcin-osteoprotegerin-triad-in-the-pathogenesis-of-prediabetes-in-humans
#4
Giuseppe Daniele, Deidre Winnier, Andrea Mari, Jan Bruder, Marcel Fourcaudot, Zuo Pengou, Andrea Hansis-Diarte, Christopher Jenkinson, Devjit Tripathy, Franco Folli
AIMS: To examine the relationship between hormones involved in bone remodeling and glucose metabolism alterations in prediabetes. METHODS: Individuals (n = 43) with NGT (BMI = 31.1 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) and individuals (n = 79) with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) (BMI = 31.9 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)) including subjects with IFG, IGT, and IFG-IGT underwent OGTT and DXA. Osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and PTH levels were measured at fasting...
November 18, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151200/a-closer-look-at-racism-and-heterosexism-in-medical-students-clinical-decision-making-related-to-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-implications-for-prep-education
#5
Sarah K Calabrese, Valerie A Earnshaw, Douglas S Krakower, Kristen Underhill, Wilson Vincent, Manya Magnus, Nathan B Hansen, Trace S Kershaw, Kenneth H Mayer, Joseph R Betancourt, John F Dovidio
Social biases among healthcare providers could limit PrEP access. In this survey study of 115 US medical students, we examined associations between biases (racism and heterosexism) and PrEP clinical decision-making and explored prior PrEP education as a potential buffer. After viewing a vignette about a PrEP-seeking MSM patient, participants reported anticipated patient behavior (condomless sex, extra-relational sex, and adherence), intention to prescribe PrEP to the patient, biases, and background characteristics...
November 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151196/oral-cancer-radiotherapy-affects-enamel-microhardness-and-associated-indentation-pattern-morphology
#6
R Seyedmahmoud, Y Wang, G Thiagarajan, J P Gorski, R Reed Edwards, J D McGuire, M P Walker
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of in vitro and in vivo high-dose radiotherapy on microhardness and associated indentation pattern morphology of enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inner, middle, and outer microhardness of enamel was evaluated using three experimental groups: control (non-radiated); in vitro irradiated; in vivo irradiated. In vitro specimens were exposed to simulated radiotherapy, and in vivo specimens were extracted teeth from oral cancer patients previously treated with radiotherapy...
November 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151189/the-environmental-pollutant-bde-209-regulates-no-cgmp-signaling-through-activation-of-nmda-receptors-in-neurons
#7
Jingsi Chen, Xiuying Li, Xiaomei Li, Dunjin Chen
The common flame retardant decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) is a persistent organic pollutant. Epidemiological studies have revealed that prenatal or postnatal exposure to BDE-209 can result in delayed cognitive development, and BDE-209 has been shown to be toxic to cultured neurons with maturation interference effects. However, its neurotoxic mechanism remains unclear. Nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) signaling plays an important role in regulating neuronal maturation. We examined the influence of BDE-209 (100, 200, and 400 nM) on NO production and cGMP levels signaling in rodent neurons in vitro, with or without pretreatment N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151156/deep-rnaseq-indicates-protective-mechanisms-of-cold-tolerant-indica-rice-plants-during-early-vegetative-stage
#8
Raul Antonio Sperotto, Artur Teixeira de Araújo Junior, Janete Mariza Adamski, Denise Cargnelutti, Felipe Klein Ricachenevsky, Ben-Hur Neves de Oliveira, Renata Pereira da Cruz, Rinaldo Pires Dos Santos, Leila Picolli da Silva, Janette Palma Fett
Cold-tolerance in rice may be related to increased cellulose deposition in the cell wall, membrane fatty acids unsaturation and differential expression of several newly identified genes. Low temperature exposure during early vegetative stages limits rice plant's growth and development. Most genes previously related to cold tolerance in rice are from the japonica subspecies. To help clarify the mechanisms that regulate cold tolerance in young indica rice plants, comparative transcriptome analysis of 6 h cold-treated (10 °C) leaves from two genotypes, cold-tolerant (CT) and cold-sensitive (CS), was performed...
November 18, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151149/impact-of-xist-rna-on-chromatin-modifications-and-transcriptional-silencing-maintenance-at-different-stages-of-imprinted-x-chromosome-inactivation-in-vole-microtus-levis
#9
Alexander I Shevchenko, Elena V Grigor'eva, Sergey P Medvedev, Irina S Zakharova, Elena V Dementyeva, Eugeny A Elisaphenko, Anastasia A Malakhova, Sophia V Pavlova, Suren M Zakian
In vole Microtus levis, cells of preimplantation embryo and extraembryonic tissues undergo imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) which is triggered by a long non-coding nuclear RNA, Xist. At early stages of iXCI, chromatin of vole inactive X chromosome is enriched with the HP1 heterochromatin-specific protein, trimethylated H3K9 and H4K20 attributable to constitutive heterochromatin. In the study, using vole trophoblast stem (TS) cells as a model of iXCI, we further investigated chromatin of the inactive X chromosome of M...
November 18, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151143/salinity-reduces-2-4-d-efficacy-in-echinochloa-crusgalli-by-affecting-redox-balance-nutrient-acquisition-and-hormonal-regulation
#10
Faisal Islam, Yuan Xie, Muhammad A Farooq, Jian Wang, Chong Yang, Rafaqat A Gill, Jinwen Zhu, Weijun Zhou
Distinct salinity levels have been reported to enhance plants tolerance to different types of stresses. The aim of this research is to assess the interaction of saline stress and the use of 2,4-D as a means of controlling the growth of Echinochloa crusgalli. The resultant effect of such interaction is vital for a sustainable approach of weed management and food production. The results showed that 2,4-D alone treatment reduces the chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic capacity, enhanced MDA, electrolyte leakage, and ROS production (H2O2, O2(·-)) and inhibited the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes...
November 18, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151116/do-alpha-1-antagonist-medications-affect-the-success-of-semi-rigid-ureteroscopy-a-prospective-randomised-single-blind-multicentric-study
#11
Mustafa Aydın, Muhammet Fatih Kılınç, Abdulmecit Yavuz, Göksel Bayar
The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of adjunctive silodosin therapy in improving the success rate of semi-rigid ureteroscopy for removing ureteral stones. Prospective randomised controlled clinical trial performed between July 2016 and September 2016. All the patients underwent ureteroscopic holmium lithotripsy with a YAG laser. The patients were randomised into one of three groups: those who did not use an alpha-1 blocker (AB) (Group 1, n = 50), those who used an AB for one day (Group 2, n = 50), and those who used an AB for three days (Group 3, n = 47)...
November 18, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151106/survival-outcome-of-intermediate-grade-salivary-gland-carcinoma
#12
Gi Cheol Park, Jong-Lyel Roh, Kyung-Ja Cho, Yong Gi Jung, Hyoun Wook Lee, Tae Gyu Kim, Seung-Ho Choi, Soon Yuhl Nam, Sang Yoon Kim
OBJECTIVE: Histological grade is the most important factor for defining treatment strategies and predicting prognosis for salivary gland carcinoma (SGC). We examined factors affecting long-term recurrence and survival among intermediate-grade SGC (IGSGC) patients to define optimal treatment modalities and outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical and pathological data on 108 IGSGC patients who underwent definitive surgery with or without postoperative radiotherapy...
November 18, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151104/clinical-efficacy-and-safety-of-first-line-dasatinib-therapy-and-the-relevance-of-velocity-of-bcr-abl1-transcript-decline-for-achievement-of-molecular-responses-in-newly-diagnosed-chronic-phase-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-report-from-the-juntendo-yamanashi-cooperative
#13
Tomoiku Takaku, Noriyoshi Iriyama, Toru Mitsumori, Eriko Sato, Akihiko Gotoh, Keita Kirito, Masaaki Noguchi, Michiaki Koike, Junichi Sakamoto, Koji Oba, Norio Komatsu
OBJECTIVE: The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors led to an improvement in the prognoses of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The aims of this study were to investigate the efficacy and safety of dasatinib in Japanese patients and to explore the factors that affect the achievement of molecular responses. METHODS: The primary endpoint was a major molecular response (MMR) by 12 months. The halving time for BCR-ABL1 transcripts was calculated using transcript levels...
November 18, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151097/the-dancing-manias-psychogenic-illness-as-a-social-phenomenon
#14
Douglas J Lanska
The dancing mania erupted in the 14th century in the wake of the Black Death, and recurred for centuries in central Europe - particularly Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium - finally abating in the early 17th century. The term "dancing mania" was derived from "choreomania," a concatenation of choros (dance) and mania (madness). A variant, tarantism, was prevalent in southern Italy from the 15th to the 17th centuries, and was attributed at the time to bites from the tarantula spider. Affected individuals participated in continuous, prolonged, erratic, often frenzied and sometimes erotic, dancing...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151096/jumping-frenchmen-miryachit-and-latah-culture-specific-hyperstartle-plus-syndromes
#15
Douglas J Lanska
In the late 19th century, jumping (French Canadians in Maine, USA), miryachit (Siberia), and latah (Southeast Asia) were among a group of similar disorders described around the world, each of which manifests as an exaggerated startle response with additional late-response features that were felt by some to overlap with hysteria or tics. The later features following the exaggerated startle reaction variably include mimesis (e.g., echopraxia, echolalia) and automatic obedience. These reaction patterns tended to persist indefinitely in affected individuals...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151095/violent-behavior
#16
Sophia Sopromadze, Alexander Tsiskaridze
Violence is a significant public health problem representing one of the leading causes of death worldwide for people aged 15-44 years. Although violence and aggression are more frequent in adolescence and early adult life and decline with advancing age, these conditions can still develop for the first time in old age especially in association with organic brain disorder. Rates of violent death vary according to country income levels and are twice as higher in low- to middle-income countries than in high-income countries...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151094/glossolalia-and-aphasia-related-but-different-worlds
#17
Leila Chouiter, Jean-Marie Annoni
The word glossolalia, also referred to as "speaking in tongues," originates from the Greek "glossa" which means "language" and "Lalia" which means "speak." It simply means to talk language. On a linguistic perspective, glossolalia is characterized by almost no recognizable words or semantic content, apart from biblical words and phrases, with an overrepresentation of a small phonemes number, accelerated speech output, and modification of accents and melody. Its phonemic properties have been said to resemble those of the language(s) of the speaker...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151087/ganser-syndrome
#18
Sebastian Dieguez
Ganser's syndrome is a rare and controversial condition, whose main and most striking feature is the production of approximate answers (or near misses) to very simple questions. For instance, asked how many legs a horse has, Ganser patients will reply "5", and answers to plain arithmetic questions will likewise be wrong, but only slightly off the mark (e.g., 2 + 2 = 3). This symptom was originally described by Sigbert Ganser in 1897 in prisoners on remand and labeled Vorbeigehen ("to pass by"), although the term Vorbeireden ("to talk beside the point") is also frequently used...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151085/a-novel-mutation-in-the-critical-p-box-residue-of-steroidogenic-factor-1-presenting-with-xy-sex-reversal-and-transient-adrenal-failure
#19
Anna S Orekhova, Natalia Kalinchenko, Ivan A Morozov, Evgeny V Vasilyev, Petr M Rubtsov, Ivan I Dedov, Anatoly Tiulpakov
BACKGROUND: Although the importance of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1, NR5A1) for adrenal development is supported by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies, cases of SF1 deficiency associated with adrenal failure are exceptionally rare. The first human NR5A1 mutation was a heterozygous de novo p.G35E variant identified in a patient with disorder of sex development (DSD) 46,XY and primary adrenal insufficiency. Here we describe another association of the "classic" SF1 phenotype with a novel NR5A1 mutation affecting G35 residue...
November 17, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151078/therapeutic-effect-of-exogenous-ghrelin-in-the-healing-of-gingival-ulcers-is-mediated-by-the-release-of-endogenous-growth-hormone-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1
#20
J Cieszkowski, Z Warzecha, P Ceranowicz, D Ceranowicz, B Kusnierz-Cabala, M Pedziwiatr, M Dembinski, T Ambrozy, T Kaczmarzyk, M Pihut, M Wieckiewicz, R Olszanecki, A Dembinski
Ghrelin, an acylated 28-amino acid polypeptide, was primary isolated from the stomach, and the stomach is a main source of circulating ghrelin. Ghrelin strongly and dose-dependently stimulates release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary, as well as increases food intake and fat deposition. Previous studies showed that ghrelin exhibits protective and therapeutic effect in different parts of the gastrointestinal system, including the oral cavity. The aim of present study was to examine the role of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the healing of gingival ulcers...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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